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1.
MMWR Recomm Rep ; 68(3): 1-21, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441906

RESUMO

This report updates the 2018-19 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the United States (MMWR Recomm Rep 2018;67[No. RR-3]). Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications. A licensed, recommended, and age-appropriate vaccine should be used. Inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs), recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV), and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) are expected to be available for the 2019-20 season. Standard-dose, unadjuvanted, inactivated influenza vaccines will be available in quadrivalent formulations (IIV4s). High-dose (HD-IIV3) and adjuvanted (aIIV3) inactivated influenza vaccines will be available in trivalent formulations. Recombinant (RIV4) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) will be available in quadrivalent formulations.Updates to the recommendations described in this report reflect discussions during public meetings of ACIP held on October 25, 2018; February 27, 2019; and June 27, 2019. Primary updates in this report include the following two items. First, 2019-20 U.S. trivalent influenza vaccines will contain hemagglutinin (HA) derived from an A/Brisbane/02/2018 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus, an A/Kansas/14/2017 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (Victoria lineage). Quadrivalent influenza vaccines will contain HA derived from these three viruses, and a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (Yamagata lineage). Second, recent labeling changes for two IIV4s, Afluria Quadrivalent and Fluzone Quadrivalent, are discussed. The age indication for Afluria Quadrivalent has been expanded from ≥5 years to ≥6 months. The dose volume for Afluria Quadrivalent is 0.25 mL for children aged 6 through 35 months and 0.5 mL for all persons aged ≥36 months (≥3 years). The dose volume for Fluzone Quadrivalent for children aged 6 through 35 months, which was previously 0.25 mL, is now either 0.25 mL or 0.5 mL. The dose volume for Fluzone Quadrivalent is 0.5 mL for all persons aged ≥36 months (≥3 years).This report focuses on the recommendations for use of vaccines for the prevention and control of influenza during the 2019-20 season in the United States. A brief summary of these recommendations and a Background Document containing additional information are available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/vacc-specific/flu.html. These recommendations apply to U.S.-licensed influenza vaccines used within Food and Drug Administration-licensed indications. Updates and other information are available from CDC's influenza website (https://www.cdc.gov/flu). Vaccination and health care providers should check this site periodically for additional information.

2.
Vaccine ; 36(42): 6354-6360, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertusiss (Tdap) vaccine is recommended during each pregnancy, regardless of prior receipt. Data on reactogenicity and immunogenicity, particularly after repeated Tdap, are limited. We compared local injection-site and systemic reactions and serologic response following Tdap in (1) pregnant and nonpregnant women and (2) pregnant women by self-reported prior Tdap receipt. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant women (gestational age 20-34 weeks) and nonpregnant women receiving Tdap were enrolled in this observational study. Injection-site and systemic reactions were assessed for one week post-vaccination. Pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, fimbriae, tetanus and diphtheria specific IgG antibody titers were determined by standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at baseline and 28 days post-vaccination. Reactogenicity and serologic responses were compared by pregnancy status, and within pregnant women by self-reported prior Tdap receipt. RESULTS: 374 pregnant and 225 nonpregnant women were vaccinated. Severe local or systemic reactions or "any" fever were uncommon (≤3% for both groups). Moderate/severe injection-site pain was significantly higher in pregnant (17.9%) versus nonpregnant (11.1%) women, but did not prompt a healthcare visit. Proportions of other moderate/severe or any severe reactions were not significantly higher in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women. Moderate/severe (including pain) and severe reactions were not significantly higher in pregnant women receiving repeat versus first-time Tdap. Antibody titers increased from baseline to post-vaccination for all vaccine antigens in pregnant and nonpregnant women; post-vaccination titers against pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin were significantly higher in nonpregnant versus pregnant women (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Tdap was well-tolerated in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Pregnant women were more likely to report moderate/severe pain at the Tdap injection-site compared with nonpregnant women, but did not necessitate medical visits. Prior Tdap receipt did not increase occurrence of moderate/severe local or systemic reactions in pregnant women. Serologic responses to all vaccine antigens were robust. Clinical Trial Registration@ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT02209623. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02209623.

3.
MMWR Recomm Rep ; 67(3): 1-20, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141464

RESUMO

This report updates the 2017-18 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the United States (MMWR Recomm Rep 2017;66[No. RR-2]). Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications. A licensed, recommended, and age-appropriate vaccine should be used. Inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs), recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV), and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) are expected to be available for the 2018-19 season. Standard-dose, unadjuvanted, inactivated influenza vaccines will be available in quadrivalent (IIV4) and trivalent (IIV3) formulations. Recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) will be available in quadrivalent formulations. High-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (HD-IIV3) and adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine (aIIV3) will be available in trivalent formulations.Updates to the recommendations described in this report reflect discussions during public meetings of ACIP held on October 25, 2017; February 21, 2018; and June 20, 2018. New and updated information in this report includes the following four items. First, vaccine viruses included in the 2018-19 U.S. trivalent influenza vaccines will be an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus, an A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (Victoria lineage). Quadrivalent influenza vaccines will contain these three viruses and an additional influenza B vaccine virus, a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (Yamagata lineage). Second, recommendations for the use of LAIV4 (FluMist Quadrivalent) have been updated. Following two seasons (2016-17 and 2017-18) during which ACIP recommended that LAIV4 not be used, for the 2018-19 season, vaccination providers may choose to administer any licensed, age-appropriate influenza vaccine (IIV, RIV4, or LAIV4). LAIV4 is an option for those for whom it is appropriate. Third, persons with a history of egg allergy of any severity may receive any licensed, recommended, and age-appropriate influenza vaccine (IIV, RIV4, or LAIV4). Additional recommendations concerning vaccination of egg-allergic persons are discussed. Finally, information on recent licensures and labeling changes is discussed, including expansion of the age indication for Afluria Quadrivalent (IIV4) from ≥18 years to ≥5 years and expansion of the age indication for Fluarix Quadrivalent (IIV4), previously licensed for ≥3 years, to ≥6 months.This report focuses on the recommendations for use of vaccines for the prevention and control of influenza during the 2018-19 season in the United States. A Background Document containing further information and a brief summary of these recommendations are available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/vacc-specific/flu.html.These recommendations apply to U.S.-licensed influenza vaccines used within Food and Drug Administration-licensed indications. Updates and other information are available at CDC's influenza website (https://www.cdc.gov/flu). Vaccination and health care providers should check CDC's influenza website periodically for additional information.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos , Idoso , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 35(1): e45-e48, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282756

RESUMO

A 2-year-old boy with influenza B infection and rapidly worsening targetoid skin lesions with mucosal involvement was diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and treated with oseltamivir and intravenous immunoglobulin, with resolution of illness. Subsequent quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was well tolerated. This case highlights the rarity of SJS in the setting of influenza B infection and addresses the safety of administering subsequent influenza vaccines to such individuals.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/complicações , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/complicações , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Influenza B , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Masculino , Pele/patologia
5.
Vaccine ; 35(50): 6941-6948, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using text messaging for vaccine safety monitoring, particularly for non-medically attended events, would be valuable for pandemic influenza and emergency vaccination program preparedness. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of text messaging to evaluate fever and wheezing post-influenza vaccination in a prospective, observational, multi-site pediatric study. METHODS: Children aged 2-11 years old, with an emphasis on children with asthma, were recruited during the 2014-2015 influenza season from three community-based clinics in New York City, and during the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 seasons from a private practice in Fall River, Massachusetts. Parents of enrolled children receiving quadrivalent live attenuated (LAIV4) or inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) replied to text messages assessing respiratory symptoms (day 3 and 7, then weekly through day 42), and temperature on the night of vaccination and the next seven nights (day 0-7). Missing data were collected via diary (day 0-7 only) and phone. Phone confirmation was obtained for both presence and absence of respiratory symptoms. Reporting rates, fever (T≥100.4 °F) frequency, proportion of wheezing and/or chest tightness reports captured via text message versus all sources (text, phone, diary, electronic health record) and parental satisfaction were assessed. RESULTS: Across both seasons, 266 children were analyzed; 49.2% with asthma. Parental text message response rates were high (>70%) across sites. Overall, fever frequency was low (day 0-2: 4.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-7.4%]; d3-7: 6.7% [95% CI 4.1-10.8%]). A third (39.2%) of parents reported a respiratory problem in their child, primarily cough. Most (88.2%) of the 52 wheezing and/or chest tightness reports were by text message. Most (88.1%) participants preferred text messaging over paper reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Text messaging can provide information about pediatric post-vaccination fever and wheezing and was viewed positively by parents. It could be a helpful tool for rapid vaccine safety monitoring during a pandemic or other emergency vaccination program. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02295007.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Sons Respiratórios , Mensagem de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Vaccine ; 35(48 Pt B): 6664-6671, 2017 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antipyretics reduce fever following childhood vaccinations; after inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) they might ameliorate fever and thereby decrease febrile seizure risk, but also possibly blunt the immune response. We assessed the effect of antipyretics on immune responses and fever following IIV in children ages 6 through 47 months. METHODS: Over the course of three seasons, one hundred forty-two children, receiving either a single or the first of 2 recommended doses of IIV, were randomized to receive either oral acetaminophen suspension (n = 59) or placebo (n = 59) (double-blinded) or ibuprofen (n = 24) (open-label) immediately following IIV and every 4-8 h thereafter for 24 h. Blood samples were obtained at enrollment and 4 weeks following the last recommended IIV dose. Responses to IIV were assessed by hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI). Seroprotection was defined as an HAI titer ≥1:40 and seroconversion as a titer ≥1:40 if baseline titer <1:10 or four-fold rise if baseline titer ≥1:10. Participants were monitored for fever and other solicited symptoms on the day of and day following IIV. RESULTS: Significant differences in seroconversion and post-vaccination seroprotection were not observed between children included in the different antipyretic groups and the placebo group for the vaccine antigens included in IIV over the course of the studies. Frequencies of solicited symptoms, including fever, were similar between treatment groups and the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Significant blunting of the immune response was not observed when antipyretics were administered to young children receiving IIV. Studies with larger sample sizes are needed to definitively establish the effect of antipyretics on IIV immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Antipiréticos/administração & dosagem , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Imunidade Ativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Acetaminofen/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antipiréticos/efeitos adversos , Antipiréticos/sangue , Antipiréticos/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Convulsões Febris/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões Febris/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos
7.
Pediatrics ; 140(5)2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29061871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postvaccination syncope can cause injury. Drinking water prephlebotomy increases peripheral vascular tone, decreasing risk of blood-donation presyncope and syncope. This study evaluated whether drinking water prevaccination reduces postvaccination presyncope, a potential syncope precursor. METHODS: We conducted a randomized trial of subjects aged 11 to 21 years receiving ≥1 intramuscular vaccine in primary care clinics. Intervention subjects were encouraged to drink 500 mL of water, with vaccination recommended 10 to 60 minutes later. Control subjects received usual care. Presyncope symptoms were assessed with a 12-item survey during the 20-minutes postvaccination. Symptoms were classified with a primary cutoff sensitive for presyncope, and a secondary, more restrictive cutoff requiring greater symptoms. Results were adjusted for clustering by recruitment center. RESULTS: There were 906 subjects randomly assigned to the control group and 901 subjects randomly assigned to the intervention group. None had syncope. Presyncope occurred in 36.2% of subjects by using the primary definition, and in 8.0% of subjects by using the restrictive definition. There were no significant differences in presyncope by intervention group for the primary (1-sided test, P = .24) or restrictive outcome (1-sided test, P = .17). Among intervention subjects vaccinated within 10 to 60 minutes after drinking all 500 mL of water (n = 519), no reduction in presyncope was observed for the primary or restrictive outcome (1-sided tests, P = .13, P = .17). In multivariable regression analysis, presyncope was associated with younger age, history of passing out or nearly passing out after a shot or blood draw, prevaccination anxiety, receiving >1 injected vaccine, and greater postvaccination pain. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking water before vaccination did not prevent postvaccination presyncope. Predictors of postvaccination presyncope suggest opportunities for presyncope and syncope prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Síncope/etiologia , Síncope/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síncope/fisiopatologia , Vacinação/tendências
8.
MMWR Recomm Rep ; 66(2): 1-20, 2017 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841201

RESUMO

This report updates the 2016-17 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines (MMWR Recomm Rep 2016;65[No. RR-5]). Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications. A licensed, recommended, and age-appropriate vaccine should be used.For the 2017-18 season, quadrivalent and trivalent influenza vaccines will be available. Inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) will be available in trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent (IIV4) formulations. Recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV) will be available in trivalent (RIV3) and quadrivalent (RIV4) formulations. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) is not recommended for use during the 2017-18 season due to concerns about its effectiveness against (H1N1)pdm09 viruses during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 seasons. Recommendations for different vaccine types and specific populations are discussed. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended product is available.Updates to the recommendations described in this report reflect discussions during public meetings of ACIP held on October 20, 2016; February 22, 2017; and June 21, 2017. New and updated information in this report includes the following:•Vaccine viruses included in the 2017-18 U.S. trivalent influenza vaccines will be an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus, an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (Victoria lineage). Quadrivalent influenza vaccines will contain these three viruses and an additional influenza B vaccine virus, a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (Yamagata lineage).• Information on recent licensures and labelling changes is discussed, including licensure of Afluria Quadrivalent (IIV4; Seqirus, Parkville, Victoria, Australia); Flublok Quadrivalent (RIV4; Protein Sciences, Meriden, Connecticut); and expansion of the age indication for FluLaval Quadrivalent (IIV4; ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada), previously licensed for ≥3 years, to ≥6 months.• Pregnant women may receive any licensed, recommended, age-appropriate influenza vaccine.• Afluria (IIV3; Seqirus, Parkville, Victoria, Australia) may be used for persons aged ≥5 years, consistent with Food and Drug Administration-approved labeling.• FluMist Quadrivalent (LAIV4; MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland) should not be used during the 2017-18 season due to concerns about its effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in the United States during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 influenza seasons.This report focuses on the recommendations for use of vaccines for the prevention and control of influenza during the 2017-18 season in the United States. A Background Document containing further information and a summary of these recommendations are available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/vacc-specific/flu.html. These recommendations apply to licensed influenza vaccines used within Food and Drug Administration-licensed indications, including those licensed after the publication date of this report. Updates and other information are available at CDC's influenza website (https://www.cdc.gov/flu). Vaccination and health care providers should check CDC's influenza website periodically for additional information.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos , Idoso , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Prev Med ; 53(3): 282-289, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28495223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The feasibility and accuracy of text messaging to monitor events after influenza vaccination throughout pregnancy and the neonatal period has not been studied, but may be important for seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines and future maternal vaccines. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted during 2013-2014 and analyzed in 2015-2016. Enrolled pregnant women receiving inactivated influenza vaccination at a gestational age <20 weeks were sent text messages intermittently through participant-reported pregnancy end to request fever, health events, and neonatal outcomes. Text message response rates, Day 0-2 fever (≥100.4°F), health events, and birth/neonatal outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Most (80.2%, n=166) eligible women enrolled. Median gestational age was 8.9 (SD=3.9) weeks at vaccination. Response rates remained high (80.0%-95.2%). Only one Day 0-2 fever was reported. Women reported via text both pregnancy- and non-pregnancy-specific health events, not all associated with medical visits. Most pregnancy-specific events in the electronic medical record (EMR) were reported via text message. Of all enrollees, 84.9% completed the study (131 reported live birth, ten reported pregnancy loss). Two losses reported via text were not medically attended; there was one additional EMR-identified loss. Gestational age and weight at birth were similar between text message-reported and EMR-abstracted data and 95% CIs were overlapping for proportions of prematurity, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and major birth defects, as identified by text message-reported versus EMR-abstracted plus text message-reported versus EMR-abstracted data only. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the feasibility of text messaging for influenza vaccine safety surveillance sustained throughout pregnancy. In these women receiving inactivated influenza vaccination during pregnancy, post-vaccination fever was infrequent and a typical pattern of maternal and neonatal health outcomes was observed.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Mensagem de Texto , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 16(4): 391-400, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276305

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Varicella vaccines are highly effective at preventing disease, but varicella may occur among vaccinated persons (termed breakthrough varicella). Breakthrough varicella is generally mild, but severe cases have been reported. The objective of this review is to describe severe breakthrough varicella. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic review of articles published during 1974-2016. A total of 34 articles were included in our review: 21 described breakthrough varicella with disseminated varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection with other organ involvement in addition to skin (none among two-dose vaccinees); 9 described hospitalized breakthrough varicella without mention of other organ involvement in addition to skin (of which 2 reported 4 two-dose vaccinees); and 4 described both. A total of 52-60 unique breakthrough varicella cases with disseminated VZV infection with other organ involvement in addition to skin reported with the following complications, not mutually exclusive: pneumonia (n = 8-9 cases), neurologic (n = 18-24 cases), hematologic (n = 10-11 cases), ocular (n = 5 cases), renal (n = 2 cases), hepatic (n = 3 cases), secondary infection with bacteremia or sepsis (n = 8 cases), and other complication (n = 4 cases). There were 6 cases of fatal breakthrough varicella. Expert commentary: With >31 million doses distributed annually worldwide since 2007, severe breakthrough varicella can occur but they appear to be uncommon.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Varicela/imunologia , Varicela/imunologia , Varicela/prevenção & controle , Herpesvirus Humano 3/imunologia , Humanos
11.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 6(3): e7-e14, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27302328

RESUMO

Background: Some studies have found a higher frequency of fever with trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) than with inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), but quadrivalent LAIV has not been assessed. Understanding fever is important for safety reviews and for parents and providers. In addition, there have been only a limited number of studies in which text messaging was used for vaccine adverse-event (AE) surveillance. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study in 3 community clinics in New York City to assess post-influenza vaccination fever in 24- to 59-month-olds during the 2013-2014 season. Enrolled families of children who received quadrivalent LAIV (LAIV4) or IIV (trivalent IIV3 or quadrivalent IIV4) replied to text messages that assessed their temperature on vaccination night and the next 10 nights (days 0 to 10); missing data were collected via telephone and a diary. We compared frequencies of fever (temperature ≥ 100.4°F) according to vaccine group on days 0 to 2 and 3 to 10 by using χ2 and multivariate log-binomial regression adjusted for age, previous influenza vaccination, and vaccine coadministration. We also assessed outcomes using all sources versus only text messages. Results: Most (84.1% [n = 540]) eligible parents enrolled. Fever frequencies on days 0 to 2 did not differ between LAIV4 and any IIV (3.8% vs 5.7%, respectively; adjusted relative risk [aRR] [95% confidence interval], 0.60 [0.25-1.46]), between LAIV4 and IIV4 (4.2% vs 7.1%, respectively; aRR, 0.58 [0.19-1.72]), or between IIV4 and IIV3 (7.1% vs 6.0%, respectively; aRR, 1.02 [0.30-3.46]). The findings were similar when all data sources versus text-message data alone were used. There were no significant differences on days 3 to 10. Conclusions: Postvaccination fever frequencies were low overall and did not differ according to influenza vaccine type during the 2013-2014 influenza season. The similarity of results when data were limited to text messages lends support to its use for surveillance of vaccine adverse events.


Assuntos
Febre/induzido quimicamente , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Tempo de Reação , Mensagem de Texto , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem
12.
MMWR Recomm Rep ; 65(5): 1-54, 2016 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27560619

RESUMO

This report updates the 2015-16 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines (Grohskopf LA, Sokolow LZ, Olsen SJ, Bresee JS, Broder KR, Karron RA. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2015-16 influenza season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64:818-25). Routine annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months who do not have contraindications. For the 2016-17 influenza season, inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) will be available in both trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent (IIV4) formulations. Recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV) will be available in a trivalent formulation (RIV3). In light of concerns regarding low effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the United States during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 seasons, for the 2016-17 season, ACIP makes the interim recommendation that live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) should not be used. Vaccine virus strains included in the 2016-17 U.S. trivalent influenza vaccines will be an A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)-like virus, an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (Victoria lineage). Quadrivalent vaccines will include an additional influenza B virus strain, a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (Yamagata lineage).Recommendations for use of different vaccine types and specific populations are discussed. A licensed, age-appropriate vaccine should be used. No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one licensed, recommended product is otherwise appropriate. This information is intended for vaccination providers, immunization program personnel, and public health personnel. Information in this report reflects discussions during public meetings of ACIP held on October 21, 2015; February 24, 2016; and June 22, 2016. These recommendations apply to all licensed influenza vaccines used within Food and Drug Administration-licensed indications, including those licensed after the publication date of this report. Updates and other information are available at CDC's influenza website (http://www.cdc.gov/flu). Vaccination and health care providers should check CDC's influenza website periodically for additional information.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Vírus da Influenza B , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos , Idoso , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Contraindicações , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 11(12): 2872-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26378718

RESUMO

In 2010, in response to a widespread pertussis outbreak and neonatal deaths, California became the first state to recommend routine administration of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. In 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) followed with a similar recommendation for Tdap vaccination during pregnancy for previously unvaccinated women. In 2012, this recommendation was expanded to include Tdap vaccination of every pregnant woman during each pregnancy. These recommendations were based on urgent public health needs and available evidence on the safety of other inactivated vaccines during pregnancy. However, there were limited data on the safety of Tdap during pregnancy. In response to the new ACIP recommendations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) implemented ongoing collaborative studies to evaluate whether vaccination with Tdap during pregnancy adversely affects the health of mothers and their offspring and provide the committee with regular updates. The current commentary describes the public health actions taken by CDC to respond to the ACIP recommendation to study and monitor the safety of Tdap vaccines in pregnant women and describes the current state of knowledge on the safety of Tdap vaccines in pregnant women. Data from the various monitoring activities support the safety of Tdap use during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/imunologia , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Esquemas de Imunização , Saúde Pública , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Vacinação
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 64(30): 818-25, 2015 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26247435

RESUMO

This report updates the 2014 recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines. Updated information for the 2015-16 season includes 1) antigenic composition of U.S. seasonal influenza vaccines; 2) information on influenza vaccine products expected to be available for the 2015-16 season; 3) an updated algorithm for determining the appropriate number of doses for children aged 6 months through 8 years; and 4) recommendations for the use of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) when either is available, including removal of the 2014-15 preferential recommendation for LAIV for healthy children aged 2 through 8 years. Information regarding topics related to influenza vaccination that are not addressed in this report is available in the 2013 ACIP seasonal influenza recommendations.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Comitês Consultivos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem
17.
Vaccine ; 33(27): 3110-3, 2015 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25976546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In October 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended a dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) during each pregnancy, irrespective of the woman's prior history of receiving Tdap. A retrospective cohort study to assess the safety of Tdap vaccination in pregnant women in two Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) sites during 2010-2012 found a small but statistically significant increased risk of chorioamnionitis. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a review of the VAERS database to describe reports of chorioamnionitis following receipt of any vaccines. METHODS: We searched the VAERS database for reports of chorioamnionitis after any vaccine in the United States during the period from July 1, 1990 through February 2, 2014. RESULTS: VAERS received 31 reports of chorioamnionitis out of 3389 pregnancy reports in 24 years. The three most common vaccines in these reports were 2009 H1N1 inactivated influenza, quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4), and Tdap vaccines in 32%, 29% and 26% of reports, respectively. Fifty-eight percent of reports had at least one reported risk factor for chorioamnionitis. Chorioamnionitis was identified in 3 reports of spontaneous abortions and 6 stillbirths, 6 reports of preterm birth (two of whom died) and 16 reports of term birth; maternal outcomes included two reports of postpartum hemorrhage and one report of maternal admission to the intensive care unit. No maternal deaths were reported. CONCLUSION: Chorioamnionitis was found to be uncommonly reported, representing 1% of pregnancy reports to VAERS. A majority of reports had at least one risk factor for chorioamnionitis.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Corioamnionite/induzido quimicamente , Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 63(32): 691-7, 2014 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25121712

RESUMO

This report updates the 2013 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding use of seasonal influenza vaccines. Updated information for the 2014-15 influenza season includes 1) antigenic composition of U.S. seasonal influenza vaccines; 2) vaccine dose considerations for children aged 6 months through 8 years; and 3) a preference for the use, when immediately available, of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for healthy children aged 2 through 8 years, to be implemented as feasible for the 2014-15 season but not later than the 2015-16 season. Information regarding issues related to influenza vaccination not addressed in this report is available in the 2013 ACIP seasonal influenza recommendations.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Comitês Consultivos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Vírus da Influenza B , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinas Atenuadas
19.
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med ; 19(3): 161-9, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24355683

RESUMO

Vaccination during pregnancy with certain vaccines can prevent morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their infants. However, previous recommendations often focused on the potential risks of vaccines to the fetus when used during pregnancy. In recent years, additional data have become available on the absence of increased risks for adverse events associated with vaccines when administered during pregnancy and on their benefits to mothers and infants. Currently two vaccines - (i) inactivated influenza, and (ii) tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) - are recommended for use by all pregnant women by the United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Here we review the history of vaccination during pregnancy, the current status of recommendations for vaccination during pregnancy in the USA, and the potential for future advances in this area, including key barriers that must be overcome to accommodate these advances.


Assuntos
Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Vacinação/tendências
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 177(2): 131-41, 2013 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23292957

RESUMO

To address gaps in traditional postlicensure vaccine safety surveillance and to promote rapid signal identification, new prospective monitoring systems using large health-care database cohorts have been developed. We newly adapted clinical trial group sequential methods to this observational setting in an original safety study of a combination diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed (DTaP), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib) among children within the Vaccine Safety Datalink population. For each prespecified outcome, we conducted 11 sequential Poisson-based likelihood ratio tests during September 2008-January 2011 to compare DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccinees with historical recipients of other DTaP-containing vaccines. No increased risk was detected among 149,337 DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccinees versus historical comparators for any outcome, including medically attended fever, seizure, meningitis/encephalitis/myelitis, nonanaphylactic serious allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or invasive Hib disease. In end-of-study prespecified subgroup analyses, risk of medically attended fever was elevated among 1- to 2-year-olds who received DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccine versus historical comparators (relative risk = 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.34, 2.50) but not among infants under 1 year old (relative risk = 0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.73, 0.94). Findings were similar in analyses with concurrent comparators who received other DTaP-containing vaccines during the study period. Although lack of a controlled experiment presents numerous challenges, implementation of group sequential monitoring methods in observational safety surveillance studies is promising and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus/efeitos adversos , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado/efeitos adversos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada , Razão de Chances , Distribuição de Poisson , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Estados Unidos , Vacinas Conjugadas/efeitos adversos
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