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2.
Neuroimage ; 34(3): 1054-9, 2007 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17141529

RESUMO

Transcranial sonography reveals an increase in echogenicity in the substantia nigra of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Marked hyperechogenicity has also been described in 9% of the healthy population and is associated with subtle clinical or functional neuroimaging findings suggestive of changes in nigrostriatal function. It has therefore been hypothesised that a hyperechogenic substantia nigra represents an early stage of nigral degeneration or a predisposition for Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we correlated sonographic findings with motor and cognitive deficits in a group of healthy, very elderly subjects. Marked and moderately increased substantia nigra echogenicity was present in 25% and 21% of our healthy, very elderly subjects, respectively, and correlated strongly with the presence of extrapyramidal symptoms in the absence of cognitive deficits. The high incidence of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity measured in our very elderly subjects compared with previous TCS studies suggests that the prevalence of this feature increases with age and is consistent with the higher prevalence of Parkinson's disease in advanced age, as well as the increased frequency of extrapyramidal symptoms. Our results indicate that this simple technique can be used to identify and quantify brain changes associated with subtle motor dysfunction in the very elderly.


Assuntos
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Substância Negra/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Negra/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Estatística como Assunto , Ultrassonografia
3.
Neuroradiology ; 48(2): 90-9, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16365740

RESUMO

A number of different methods have been employed to correct hippocampal volumes for individual variation in head size. Researchers have previously used qualitative visual inspection to gauge hippocampal atrophy. The purpose of this study was to determine the best measure(s) of hippocampal size for predicting memory functioning in 102 community-dwelling individuals over 80 years of age. Hippocampal size was estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry and qualitative visual assessment. Right and left hippocampal volumes were adjusted by three different estimates of head size: total intracranial volume (TICV), whole-brain volume including ventricles (WB+V) and a more refined measure of whole-brain volume with ventricles extracted (WB). We compared the relative efficacy of these three volumetric adjustment methods and visual ratings of hippocampal size in predicting memory performance using linear regression. All four measures of hippocampal size were significant predictors of memory performance. TICV-adjusted volumes performed most poorly in accounting for variance in memory scores. Hippocampal volumes adjusted by either measure of whole-brain volume performed equally well, although qualitative visual ratings of the hippocampus were at least as effective as the volumetric measures in predicting memory performance in community-dwelling individuals in the ninth or tenth decade of life.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Memória/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Exame Neurológico , Testes Neuropsicológicos
4.
J Neurol Sci ; 229-230: 89-93, 2005 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15760625

RESUMO

Current definitions for the preclinical phase of dementia focus predominantly on cognitive measures, with particular emphasis on memory and the prediction of Alzheimer's disease. Incorporation of non-cognitive, clinical markers into preclinical definitions may improve their predictive power. The Sydney Older Persons Study examined 6-year outcomes of 630 community-dwelling participants aged 75 or over at recruitment. At baseline, participants were defined as demented, cognitively intact or having a syndrome possibly representing the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, an extrapyramidal dementia or various combinations of the three. Those with cognitive impairment in combination with gait and motor slowing were the most likely to dement over the 6-year period (OR 5.6; 95% CI 2.5-12.6). This group was also the most likely to die (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.6-6.9). White matter indices on MRI scanning were not consistently correlated with gait abnormalities. Simple measures of gait may provide useful clinical tools, assisting in the prediction of dementia. However, the underlying nature of these deficits is not yet known.


Assuntos
Demência Vascular/fisiopatologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/patologia , Demência Vascular/epidemiologia , Demência Vascular/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
5.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 53(12): 2184-9, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16398907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between accumulated health-related problems (deficits), which define a frailty index in older adults, and mortality in population-based and clinical/institutional-based samples. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and cohort studies. SETTING: Seven population-based and four clinical/institutional surveys in four developed countries. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six thousand four hundred twenty-four people (58.5% women) aged 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS: A frailty index was constructed as a proportion of all potential deficits (symptoms, signs, laboratory abnormalities, disabilities) expressed in a given individual. Relative frailty is defined as a proportion of deficits greater than average for age. Measures of deficits differed across the countries but included common elements. RESULTS: In each country, community-dwelling elderly people accumulated deficits at about 3% per year. By contrast, people from clinical/institutional samples showed no relationship between frailty and age. Relative fitness/frailty in both sexes was highly correlated (correlation coefficient >0.95, P<.001) with mortality, although women, at any given age, were frailer and had lower mortality. On average, each unit increase in deficits increased by 4% the hazard rate for mortality (95% confidence interval=0.02-0.06). CONCLUSION: Relative fitness and frailty can be defined in relation to deficit accumulation. In population studies from developed countries, deficit accumulation is robustly associated with mortality and with age. In samples (e.g., clinical/institutional) in which most people are frail, there is no relationship with age, suggesting that there are maximal values of deficit accumulation beyond which survival is unlikely.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação Geriátrica , Nível de Saúde , Mortalidade , Aptidão Física , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Distribuição por Sexo
6.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 75(12): 1743-5, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15548495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether there are early clinical features that can distinguish between patients with familial and non-familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical features of FTD cases who have tau gene mutations with those of cases with a family history of FTD but no tau gene mutation, and with sporadic cases with neither feature. METHODS AND RESULTS: Comparisons of the behavioural, cognitive, and motor features in 32 FTD patients (five positive for tau gene mutations, nine familial but tau negative, and 18 tau negative sporadic) showed that age of onset and duration to diagnosis did not differ between the groups. Apathy was not observed in tau mutation positive cases, and dysexecutive signs were more frequent in familial tau mutation negative cases. Memory deficits and behavioural changes were common in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison with other neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, neither tau gene mutations nor strong familial associations confer earlier disease susceptibility.


Assuntos
Demência/genética , Demência/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas tau/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/etiologia , Linhagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 75(4): 548-54, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15026494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of normal brain ageing, with the specific objective of investigating whether the size of the hippocampus is selectively correlated with age related memory performance in non-demented individuals in their ninth and tenth decades of life. METHODS: Hippocampal size was estimated using MRI based volumetry and qualitative visual assessment in 102 community dwelling individuals aged between 81 and 94 years. Participants were evaluated on a variety of clinical and experimental instruments, including a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. All participants underwent neurological examination, an extensive medical history was obtained, and an informant confirmed details of each participant's functional ability. RESULTS: Both visual and volumetric hippocampal measures were identified as robust predictors of memory performance, even when the influence of age related illnesses and sociodemographic variables was accounted for. When the sample was reduced to include the most cognitively healthy participants who were rated by an informant as showing no evidence of cognitive decline, the left hippocampal measures remained significant predictors of delayed retention of verbal material. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that hippocampal volumes are selectively correlated with memory functioning in both normal and successful ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Memória/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Ventrículos Cerebrais/patologia , Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , New South Wales , Psicometria , Valores de Referência
8.
J Neuroimmunol ; 148(1-2): 178-82, 2004 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14975599

RESUMO

HLA genotype and anti-inflammatory drug use have independently been associated with a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently reported a negative association between aspirin use and AD. To investigate this further, we performed a cross-sectional study to investigate cognitive performance in 151 non-demented individuals in relation to HLA-DRB1 genotype and aspirin use. Aspirin and HLA-DRB1*01 were positive predictors of performance on logical memory (aspirin, p=0.04) and verbal fluency tests (HLA-DRB1*01, p=0.018), respectively. HLA-DRB1*05 had a negative impact on the Boston naming test (p=0.002). Our results suggest that aspirin use and inflammatory genotype may influence cognition in non-demented subjects.


Assuntos
Aspirina/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos HLA/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Estudos Transversais , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA/fisiologia , Antígenos HLA-DR/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1 , Humanos , Masculino , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Escalas de Wechsler
9.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 16(4): 181-6, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14512711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatial function has been suggested to be disproportionately worse in people with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than other dementia groups, and poor performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination pentagon copying (PC) task has been proposed as adequate for assessing this. We aimed to establish the prevalence of poor PC in the non-demented elderly; determine the validity of the use of PC as a spatial function test, and determine if poor PC is more common in DLB than non-DLB dementias. METHODS: In a population-based sample of 299 participants, 126 were rated as being cognitively normal (clinical rating scale [CDR] = 0), 95 mildly cognitively impaired (CDR = 0.5), and 78 met criteria for dementia, 19 of whom met criteria for probable DLB (pDLB) and 25 with none of the core features of DLB (non-DLB). The accuracy of PC performance was determined across CDR groups, and the relationship of PC to performance on a broad range of cognitive tests was evaluated. The dementia groups were compared cross-sectionally to determine differences in PC and other cognitive test performance, as well as 3 and 6 years earlier to determine cognitive differences at initial stages of cognitive decline. RESULTS: Poor PC was common in the non-demented elderly (39% CDR = 0; 43% CDR = 0.5). In this non-demented group, PC was selectively related to tests of spatial function. Poor PC was not significantly different in the pDLB and non-DLB groups at any assessment time, however it became more prevalent as dementia severity increased. Memory function and verbal fluency were more impaired in the pDLB group in the early stages of the disorder. COMMENT: PC appears to be a good measure of spatial function in the elderly. However, in contrast to other findings of poor spatial skills in DLB when dementia is in the mild to moderate stages, poor PC performance has not been shown to be a good early marker of DLB and its clinical correlates are yet to be determined.


Assuntos
Cognição , Demência/diagnóstico , Comportamento Espacial , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/diagnóstico , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
10.
Brain ; 125(Pt 4): 789-800, 2002 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11912112

RESUMO

Regional brain volumes were measured in 21 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 17 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 controls using 3D MRI-based volumetry. Cortical, subcortical and ventricular volume measures were correlated with global indices of motor disability and cognitive disturbance. All MRI measures, including hippocampal volume, were preserved in Parkinson's disease. Patients with PSP could be distinguished from both Parkinson's disease and controls by whole brain volume loss, ventricular dilatation and disproportionate atrophy of the frontal cortex. Caudate nucleus volume loss additionally differentiated PSP from controls, but was modest in severity and proportionate to whole brain volume loss. The present study identifies disease-specific differences in the topography of brain atrophy between PSP and Parkinson's disease, and has potential implications for the in vivo radiological differentiation of these two disorders. In PSP, the variance in frontal grey matter volume related to measures of behavioural disturbance, confirming the use of behavioural tests for ante-mortem case differentiation and suggesting that intrinsic cortical deficits contribute to these clinical disturbances.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/patologia , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrofia/patologia , Atrofia/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Caudado/patologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Ventrículos Laterais/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Paralisia Supranuclear Progressiva/fisiopatologia
11.
Brain ; 125(Pt 2): 391-403, 2002 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11844739

RESUMO

Consensus opinion characterizes dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) as a progressive dementing illness, with significant fluctuations in cognition, visual hallucinations and/or parkinsonism. When parkinsonism is an early dominant feature, consensus opinion recommends that dementia within the first year is necessary for a diagnosis of DLB. If dementia occurs later, a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) is recommended. While many previous studies have correlated the neuropathology in DLB with dementia and parkinsonism, few have analysed the relationship between fluctuating cognition and/or well-formed visual hallucinations and the underlying neuropathology in DLB and PDD. The aim of the present study was to determine any relationship between these less-studied core clinical features of DLB, and the distribution and density of cortical Lewy bodies (LB). The brains of 63 cases with LB were obtained over 6 years following population-based studies of dementia and parkinsonian syndromes. Annual, internationally standardized, clinical assessment batteries were reviewed to determine the presence and onset of the core clinical features of DLB. The maximal density of LB, plaques and tangles in the amygdala, parahippocampal, anterior cingulate, superior frontal, inferior temporal, inferior parietal and visual cortices were determined. Current clinicopathological diagnostic criteria were used to classify cases into DLB (n = 29), PDD (n = 18) or parkinsonism without dementia (n = 16) groups. Predictive statistics were used to ascertain whether fluctuating cognition or visual hallucinations predicted the clinicopathological group. Analysis of variance and regressions were used to identify any significant relationship(s) between the presence and severity of neuropathological and clinical features. Cognitive fluctuations and/or visual hallucinations were not good predictors of DLB in pathologically proven patients, although the absence of these features early in the disease course was highly predictive of PDD. Cases with DLB had higher LB densities in the inferior temporal cortex than cases with PDD. There was no association across groups between any neuropathological variable and the presence or absence of fluctuating cognition. However, there was a striking association between the distribution of temporal lobe LB and well-formed visual hallucinations. Cases with well-formed visual hallucinations had high densities of LB in the amygdala and parahippocampus, with early hallucinations relating to higher densities in parahippocampal and inferior temporal cortices. These temporal regions have previously been associated with visual hallucinations in other disorders. Thus, our results suggest that the distribution of temporal lobe LB is more related to the presence and duration of visual hallucinations in cases with LB than to the presence, severity or duration of dementia.


Assuntos
Alucinações/fisiopatologia , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/patologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Alucinações/patologia , Histocitoquímica , Humanos , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto
12.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 71(3): 296-302, 2001 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11511700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify if preclinical syndromes for Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and Parkinson's disease and related dementias exist. Identification of dementia at early or even preclinical stages has important implications for treatment. METHODS: A community dwelling sample of 647 subjects aged 75 and over at recruitment were followed up for a mean period of 3.19 years (range 2.61 to 4.51 years). Each subject was asked to participate in a medical assessment which included a standardised medical history examining both past and current health and medication usage; a neuropsychological battery (mini mental state examination, Reid memory test, verbal fluency, subsets of the Boston naming test and similarities, clock drawing and copied drawings) and physical examination. Preclinical syndromes for the three predominant dementias (Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease, and related dementias) and their combinations were defined using cognitive, motor, and vascular features. Their longitudinal outcome as defined by death and dementia incidence was examined. RESULTS: Preclinical syndromes affected 55.7% (n=299) of subjects. Preclinical syndromes showed a trend for an increased odds of death (odds ratio 1.72, p=0.056) and a significantly increased odds of developing dementia (odds ratio 4.81, p<0.001). Preclinical syndromes were highly sensitive, detecting 52 of 58 (89.7%) incident dementias. Two hundred and sixteen of 268 (80.6%) preclinical subjects did not show dementia over the 3 year period (positive predictive value 19.4%). Subjects defined as having a combination of cognitive, extrapyramidal, and vascular features were at greatest risk of progressing to dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Preclinical syndromes were sensitive and significant predictors of dementia. In view of their poor positive predictive value, the preclinical syndromes as defined in this study remain a research tool needing both definitional refinement and greater periods of observation. Multiple coexistent preclinical disorders resulted in a greater incidence of dementia, providing evidence for an additive role between multiple disorders.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/complicações , Doenças dos Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Demência Vascular/epidemiologia , Demência Vascular/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Anamnese/normas , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada/normas , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 16(7): 680-9, 2001 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11466746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Limited Australian dementia incidence data are available. This study aimed to identify the incidence of dementia and its subtypes in an Australian community dwelling population. METHOD: A community dwelling sample of 647 subjects aged > or =75 years at recruitment were followed for a mean period of 3.2 years (range 2.6-4.5 years). The incidence of dementia (measured in person years at risk) was identified for different levels of severity of dementia, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. RESULTS: Incidence figures were slightly higher than those previously reported. The incidence of dementia and of Alzheimer's disease increased with age but was not affected by gender. The incidence of vascular dementia was not affected by age. CONCLUSION: This study provides the largest body of data on the incidence of dementia in Australia, indicating a slightly higher incidence of dementia than previous reports. Further Australian data are required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Demência Vascular/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Ann Neurol ; 49(1): 125-9, 2001 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11198283

RESUMO

A variant form of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which spastic paraparesis (SP) precedes dementia, is characterised by large, noncored, weakly neuritic Abeta-amyloid plaques resembling cotton wool balls and is caused by genomic deletion of presenilin 1 exon 9. A pedigree with a 5.9 kb exon 9 deletion shows a phenotypic spectrum including subjects with typical AD or with SP and numerous cotton wool plaques. In SP subjects, dementia onset is delayed and modified. This phenotypic variation suggests that modifying factors are associated with exon 9 deletions.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Paraparesia Espástica/genética , Adulto , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraparesia Espástica/complicações , Linhagem , Fenótipo
15.
Arch Neurol ; 57(11): 1586-91, 2000 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11074790

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Anti-inflammatory medications have an inverse association with Alzheimer disease (AD). OBJECTIVES: To examine at what doses this anti-inflammatory drug effect occurs and whether other medications and/or International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnoses affect the association. DESIGN: Subjects 75 years and older from a random population sample were classified by consensus using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnoses. Drug associations with different types of dementia with and without the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnoses as well as dosage data were analyzed. SETTING: The Centre for Education and Research on Aging, Concord Hospital, Concord, Australia. PATIENTS: The Sydney Older Persons Study recruited 647 subjects (average age, 81 years). A total of 163 patients were given diagnoses placing them in different dementia categories and were compared with 373 control subjects. Of the patients with dementia, 78 had AD without vascular dementia, 45 had vascular dementia (permissive of other dementia diagnoses), and 40 had other dementia diagnoses (without AD or vascular dementia). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fifty drugs or drug groups were subjected to a 2 (drug used vs drug not used) x 4 (dementia and control groups) chi(2) analysis. Drugs with inverse associations were identified and potential confounders (logistic regression) and dosage data (exact small sample 1-tailed tests) analyzed. RESULTS: As expected, there was an inverse association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin (and unexpectedly angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) and AD. This association was not observed with vascular dementia or any other diagnoses. Analysis showed no evidence for a dosage effect, ie, responses were equivalent for low and high doses. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not support a high-dose anti-inflammatory action of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin in AD. Potential mechanisms for the beneficial effects of these medications are discussed.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino
16.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 15(10): 897-903, 2000 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11044871

RESUMO

Epidemiological and neuropathological series have identified three predominant dementing processes; Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and dementia associated with Lewy bodies (termed Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) in this paper). While each has its own distinguishing features and by definition all impact upon day to day functioning, no random community derived sample has examined clinical features as defined by gait and balance abnormalities and compared disability ratings of the three dementias simultaneously. Six hundred and forty-seven community dwelling subjects participated in the Sydney Older Persons Study and of these 537 participated in a medical assessment. Of these 537,482 informants rated disability. Gait and balance abnormalities of the three major dementias were identified and the association of the dementias with disability examined. The three major dementias showed evidence of both slowing and ataxia in gait and balance tests. This was maximal in those with PDD. Similarly, all showed evidence of disability that was maximal in those with PDD. In conclusion, this study has identified that gait abnormalities are present in all three dementias to a varying degree. It is hypothesised that the varying levels of disability observed are a consequence of the varying levels of motor impairment, resulting in greater levels of disability in those with PDD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/complicações , Atividade Motora , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Atividades Cotidianas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/diagnóstico , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipocinesia/etiologia , Masculino , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Prevalência
17.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 55(5): P273-82, 2000 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10985292

RESUMO

The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is frequently used in studies of elderly individuals. One controversy regarding its use turns on the issue of whether the effect of physical disorder on the CES-D total score reflects genuine effects on depression or item-level artifacts. The present article addresses this issue using medical examination data from 506 community-dwelling individuals aged 75 or older. A form of structural equation modeling, the MIMIC model, is used, enabling the effect of a physical disorder on CES-D total score to be partitioned into bias and genuine depression components. The results show substantial physical disorder-related artifacts with the CES-D total score. Caution is required in the use of CES-D (and possibly other) depression scales in groups in which physical disorders are present, such as in elderly individuals.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Pessoas com Deficiência , Nível de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Viés , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos
18.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 24(3): 323-6, 2000 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10937413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and pattern of alcohol use among community-living elderly Australians. METHODS: A survey was conducted of randomly selected non-institutionalised people aged 75 years and older living in the inner western suburbs of Sydney. Personal interviews by trained interviewers covered background demographic information and self-reported alcohol use. RESULTS: 72% of men and 54% of women drank alcohol. The median usual daily volume of ethanol consumed by drinkers was 10 grams for men and 1.3 grams for women. However 11% of male drinkers and 6% of female drinkers consumed at defined hazardous or harmful levels. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Although a sizeable majority of these older people were either non-drinkers or very light drinkers, a small but important proportion drank in the hazardous to harmful range. Despite increasing evidence of the health benefits of alcohol consumption it remains important to be alert for potentially harmful alcohol use among older people.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Prevalência
19.
Arch Neurol ; 57(6): 831-6, 2000 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10867780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been no analysis of brain tissue from longitudinally observed, cognitively tested patients to validate whether anti-inflammatory medications protect against the pathological changes of Alzheimer disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of anti-inflammatory medications in alleviating the pathological features of Alzheimer disease. DESIGN AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A 5-year postmortem tissue collection was performed after a case-control study of Alzheimer disease (approximately 90 [30%] of patients died during follow-up, of whom consent for autopsy was obtained in 44 [50%]). Cases were selected on the basis of (1) adequate clinical histories of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug usage, (2) no neuropathological findings other than Alzheimer disease, and (3) no generalized sepsis at death. Variables analyzed included neuropsychological test scores and amount of tissue inflammation and Alzheimer-type pathological changes. Two-way analysis of variance was used to determine whether drug usage significantly affected these variables. SETTING: The Centre for Education and Research on Ageing and the Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Sydney, Australia. PATIENTS: Twelve patients with Alzheimer disease (5 taking anti-inflammatory drugs) and 10 nondemented controls (3 taking anti-inflammatory drugs) were selected (50% of available sample). RESULTS: Of the patients with Alzheimer disease, anti-inflammatory drug users performed better on neuropsychological test scores than did nonusers. However, there were no significant differences in the amount of inflammatory glia, plaques, or tangles in either diagnostic group. CONCLUSION: Long-term anti-inflammatory medications in patients with Alzheimer disease enhanced cognitive performance but did not alleviate the progression of the pathological changes. Arch Neurol. 2000.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Austrália , Autopsia , Encéfalo/patologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Emaranhados Neurofibrilares/patologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Placa Amiloide/patologia
20.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 24(1): 7-10, 2000 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10777971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of long-term benzodiazepine use in an elderly community sample, and factors associated with such use. METHOD: Data came from the Sydney Older Persons Study, a longitudinal study of people aged 75 or over. There were 337 subjects who were interviewed in 1991-93, and subsequently followed up after three and 4.5 years. At the first interview, subjects were assessed for socio-demographic characteristics, physical and mental health, and use of health services. At the first and subsequent interviews, subjects were asked about use of medications, including benzodiazepines. RESULTS: There were 16.6% who were using benzodiazepines at the time of all three interviews, while a further 19.6% were using them at one or two interviews. In a multivariate ordered logit regression model, long-term benzodiazepine use was associated with treatment for nervous conditions, restless sleep, being female, being divorced and greater contact with medical services. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of benzodiazepine use in the elderly is high and much of this use is long term. The high prevalence of benzodiazepine use stands in contrast to the findings from national surveys that the elderly living in the community tend to have better mental health than younger age groups. IMPLICATIONS: Efforts are needed to reduce the number of elderly people becoming long-term users. The use of benzodiazepines in this age group is of particular concern, because they may be a risk factor for falls and for cognitive impairment in the elderly.


Assuntos
Idoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso/psicologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Benzodiazepinas , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
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