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J Clin Pathol ; 73(1): 1-6, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308255


Traditionally, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used by pathologists to localise specific proteins or peptides in tissue slides. In the era of personalised medicine, however, molecular tissue analysis becomes indispensable for correct diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decision, not only on the DNA or mRNA level but also on the protein level. Combining molecular information with imaging presents many advantages. Therefore, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) is a promising technique to be added to the armamentarium of the pathologist. Here, we focus on the workflow, advantages and drawbacks of both MALDI IMS and IHC. We also briefly discuss a few other protein imaging modalities and give examples of applications.

Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Imuno-Histoquímica , Serviço Hospitalar de Patologia , Patologia Clínica/métodos , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fluxo de Trabalho
J Mol Diagn ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881332


In this study, the clinical performance of the Idylla MSI test (investigational use only) was evaluated in 330 colorectal carcinoma samples (all stages). This test is fully automated, from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded slide to result, and gives a result in <2.5 hours. Compared with the Promega MSI Analysis System version 1.2, an overall agreement, sensitivity, and specificity of 99.7%, 98.7%, and 100%, respectively, was reached. Whereas seven samples were invalid with the Promega MSI Analysis System, only two were invalid with the Idylla MSI test. Compared with the historical immunohistochemistry (IHC) data, overall agreement, sensitivity, and specificity of 98.7%, 94.4%, and 100%, respectively, were observed. Tumor mutation burden analysis of the discordant IHC cases was in favor of the Idylla MSI test result in three of the four samples. Furthermore, for those cases where the IHC data were invalid or hard to interpret because sole loss of one DNA mismatch repair deficiency marker was observed, Idylla MSI test results were always valid and accurate. Herein, the Idylla MSI test has been shown to be an accurate, fast screening assay for the detection of microsatellite status in colorectal cancer patients, with a low number of invalid results.

Cancers (Basel) ; 11(8)2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434357


Gasdermin E (GSDME), also known as deafness autosomal dominant 5 (DFNA5) and previously identified to be an inducer of regulated cell death, is frequently epigenetically inactivated in different cancer types, suggesting that GSDME is a tumor suppressor gene. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the tumor-suppressive effects of GSDME in two intestinal cancer mouse models. To mimic the silencing of GSDME by methylation as observed in human cancers, a Gsdme knockout (KO) mouse was developed. The effect of GSDME on tumorigenesis was studied both in a chemically induced and in a genetic intestinal cancer mouse model, as strong evidence shows that GSDME plays a role in human colorectal cancer and representative mouse models for intestinal cancer are available. Azoxymethane (AOM) was used to induce colorectal tumors in the chemically induced intestinal cancer model (n = 100). For the genetic intestinal cancer model, Apc1638N/+ mice were used (n = 37). In both experiments, the number of mice bearing microscopic proliferative lesions, the number and type of lesions per mouse and the histopathological features of the adenocarcinomas were compared between Gsdme KO and wild type (WT) mice. Unfortunately, we found no major differences between Gsdme KO and WT mice, neither for the number of affected mice nor for the multiplicity of proliferative lesions in the mice. However, recent breakthroughs on gasdermin function indicate that GSDME is an executioner of necrotic cell death. Therefore, it is possible that GSDME may be important for creating an inflammatory microenvironment around the tumor. This is in line with the trend towards more severe inflammation in WT compared to Gsdme KO mice, that we observed in our study. We conclude that the effect of GSDME in tumor biology is probably more subtle than previously thought.

Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 7(5): 537-542, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450291


Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a very rare malignancy of the peritoneum and has a poor prognosis. Of all mesotheliomas, pleural mesothelioma is more common than MPM. In comparison to pleural mesothelioma, the link with asbestos exposure is weaker (33-50% vs. >80%), but it is still the best-defined risk factor. MPM spreads predominantly expansive rather than infiltrative and symptoms are related to tumor spread within the abdominal cavity. Often, MPM is encountered incidentally by diagnostic imaging or by surgery. Computed tomography scan is widely accepted as a first line modality in diagnostic imaging. In diagnostic histopathology, MPM presents some challenges. Firstly, adequate clinical information is of utmost importance to consider the possibility of the diagnosis of MPM. Furthermore, a few morphological subtypes and variants exist. The most sensitive immunohistochemical markers are calretinin (100%), WT1 (94%) and CK5/6 (89%). The malignant character of immunohistochemically demonstrated mesothelial cells is not always obvious. This paradigm somewhat changed with the advent of immunohistochemical demonstration of BAP1 (BRCA-1 associated protein 1). Loss of BAP1 expression supports a diagnosis of malignancy. The gold standard in treatment remains cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Targetable molecular pathways in MPM are being identified. An exciting finding was the demonstration of ALK rearrangements in a small subset of patients with MPM and it is hoped for that at least this small subgroup of patients could benefit from treatment with ALK inhibitors. First-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) did not show any significant activity in MPM. In contrast, nintedanib, an angiokinase inhibitor, improved progression-free survival and bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF antibody increased overall survival in patients with MPM, when administered in combination with cisplatin and pemetrexed. Ongoing immunotherapy trials will offer a possible new treatment.