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1.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 43(11): 1574-1582, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206365

RESUMO

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is considered a potential precursor of invasive breast carcinoma (IBC). Studies aiming to find markers involved in DCIS progression generally have compared characteristics of IBC lesions with those of adjacent synchronous DCIS lesions. The question remains whether synchronous DCIS and IBC comparisons are a good surrogate for primary DCIS and subsequent IBC. In this study, we compared both primary DCIS and synchronous DCIS with the associated IBC lesion, on the basis of immunohistochemical marker expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of ER, PR, HER2, p53, and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2) was performed for 143 primary DCIS and subsequent IBC lesions, including 81 IBC lesions with synchronous DCIS. Agreement between DCIS and IBC was assessed using kappa, and symmetry tests were performed to assess the pattern in marker conversion. The primary DCIS and subsequent IBC more often showed discordant marker expression than synchronous DCIS and IBC. Strikingly, 18 of 49 (36%) women with HER2-positive primary DCIS developed an HER2-negative IBC. Such a difference in HER2 expression was not observed when comparing synchronous DCIS and IBC. The frequency of discordant marker expression did not increase with longer time between primary DCIS and IBC. In conclusion, comparison of primary DCIS and subsequent IBC yields different results than a comparison of synchronous DCIS and IBC, in particular with regard to HER2 status. To gain more insight into the progression of DCIS to IBC, it is essential to focus on the relationship between primary DCIS and subsequent IBC, rather than comparing IBC with synchronous DCIS.

2.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(7): 948-960, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with macroscopic stage III melanoma is poor. Neoadjuvant treatment with ipilimumab plus nivolumab at the standard dosing schedule induced pathological responses in a high proportion of patients in two small independent early-phase trials, and no patients with a pathological response have relapsed after a median follow up of 32 months. However, toxicity of the standard ipilimumab plus nivolumab dosing schedule was high, preventing its broader clinical use. The aim of the OpACIN-neo trial was to identify a dosing schedule of ipilimumab plus nivolumab that is less toxic but equally effective. METHODS: OpACIN-neo is a multicentre, open-label, phase 2, randomised, controlled trial. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, had a WHO performance status of 0-1, had resectable stage III melanoma involving lymph nodes only, and measurable disease according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Patients were enrolled from three medical centres in Australia, Sweden, and the Netherlands, and were randomly assigned (1:1:1), stratified by site, to one of three neoadjuvant dosing schedules: group A, two cycles of ipilimumab 3 mg/kg plus nivolumab 1 mg/kg once every 3 weeks intravenously; group B, two cycles of ipilimumab 1 mg/kg plus nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 3 weeks intravenously; or group C, two cycles of ipilimumab 3 mg/kg once every 3 weeks directly followed by two cycles of nivolumab 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks intravenously. The investigators, site staff, and patients were aware of the treatment assignment during the study participation. Pathologists were masked to treatment allocation and all other data. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients with grade 3-4 immune-related toxicity within the first 12 weeks and the proportion of patients achieving a radiological objective response and pathological response at 6 weeks. Analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02977052, and is ongoing with an additional extension cohort and to complete survival analysis. FINDINGS: Between Nov 24, 2016 and June 28, 2018, 105 patients were screened for eligibility, of whom 89 (85%) eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Three patients were excluded after randomisation because they were found to be ineligible, and 86 received at least one dose of study drug; 30 patients in group A, 30 in group B, and 26 in group C (accrual to this group was closed early upon advice of the Data Safety Monitoring Board on June 4, 2018 because of severe adverse events). Within the first 12 weeks, grade 3-4 immune-related adverse events were observed in 12 (40%) of 30 patients in group A, six (20%) of 30 in group B, and 13 (50%) of 26 in group C. The difference in grade 3-4 toxicity between group B and A was -20% (95% CI -46 to 6; p=0·158) and between group C and group A was 10% (-20 to 40; p=0·591). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were elevated liver enzymes in group A (six [20%)]) and colitis in group C (five [19%]); in group B, none of the grade 3-4 adverse events were seen in more than one patient. One patient (in group A) died 9·5 months after the start of treatment due to the consequences of late-onset immune-related encephalitis, which was possibly treatment-related. 19 (63% [95% CI 44-80]) of 30 patients in group A, 17 (57% [37-75]) of 30 in group B, and nine (35% [17-56]) of 26 in group C achieved a radiological objective response, while pathological responses occurred in 24 (80% [61-92]) patients in group A, 23 (77% [58-90]) in group B, and 17 (65% [44-83]) in group C. INTERPRETATION: OpACIN-neo identified a tolerable neoadjuvant dosing schedule (group B: two cycles of ipilimumab 1 mg/kg plus nivolumab 3 mg/kg) that induces a pathological response in a high proportion of patients and might be suitable for broader clinical use. When more mature data confirm these early observations, this schedule should be tested in randomised phase 3 studies versus adjuvant therapies, which are the current standard-of-care systemic therapy for patients with stage III melanoma. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
4.
Genome Res ; 29(3): 356-366, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692147

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of RNAs that is under increasing scrutiny, although their functional roles are debated. We analyzed RNA-seq data of 348 primary breast cancers and developed a method to identify circRNAs that does not rely on unmapped reads or known splice junctions. We identified 95,843 circRNAs, of which 20,441 were found recurrently. Of the circRNAs that match exon boundaries of the same gene, 668 showed a poor or even negative (R < 0.2) correlation with the expression level of the linear gene. In silico analysis showed only a minority (8.5%) of circRNAs could be explained by known splicing events. Both these observations suggest that specific regulatory processes for circRNAs exist. We confirmed the presence of circRNAs of CNOT2, CREBBP, and RERE in an independent pool of primary breast cancers. We identified circRNA profiles associated with subgroups of breast cancers and with biological and clinical features, such as amount of tumor lymphocytic infiltrate and proliferation index. siRNA-mediated knockdown of circCNOT2 was shown to significantly reduce viability of the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and BT-474, further underlining the biological relevance of circRNAs. Furthermore, we found that circular, and not linear, CNOT2 levels are predictive for progression-free survival time to aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy in advanced breast cancer patients, and found that circCNOT2 is detectable in cell-free RNA from plasma. We showed that circRNAs are abundantly present, show characteristics of being specifically regulated, are associated with clinical and biological properties, and thus are relevant in breast cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , RNA/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Células MCF-7 , RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
6.
Head Neck ; 41(2): 463-478, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is a highly immunogenic tumor and differences in tumor microenvironment might contribute to the improved survival of HPV-positive OPSCC patient. METHODS: A comprehensive multivariate analysis with clinical and immune variables (human leukocyte antigen [HLA] I/II, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), programmed death receptor 1 (PD1), T cells, and macrophages) was performed in 142 OPSCC patients. RESULTS: We found an inverse correlation between the expression of HLA class II molecules on tumor cells and CD68+ CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). High HLA-DP/DQ/DR expression and low number of TAMs were associated with longer disease-specific survival and disease-free survival (DFS). Furthermore, a new population of CD8+ FoxP3+ T cells was correlated with shorter DFS in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: \We identified new prognostic markers for patients with oropharyngeal cancer, which can be used for selecting patients that can benefit from immunotherapy.

7.
Blood ; 133(10): 1130-1139, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573632

RESUMO

Female Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated with chest radiotherapy (RT) have a very high risk of breast cancer. The contribution of genetic factors to this risk is unclear. We therefore examined 211 155 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for gene-radiation interaction on breast cancer risk in a case-only analysis including 327 breast cancer patients after chest RT for HL and 4671 first primary breast cancer patients. Nine SNPs showed statistically significant interaction with RT on breast cancer risk (false discovery rate, <20%), of which 1 SNP in the PVT1 oncogene attained the Bonferroni threshold for statistical significance. A polygenic risk score (PRS) composed of these SNPs (RT-interaction-PRS) and a previously published breast cancer PRS (BC-PRS) derived in the general population were evaluated in a case-control analysis comprising the 327 chest-irradiated HL patients with breast cancer and 491 chest-irradiated HL patients without breast cancer. Patients in the highest tertile of the RT-interaction-PRS had a 1.6-fold higher breast cancer risk than those in the lowest tertile. Remarkably, we observed a fourfold increased RT-induced breast cancer risk in the highest compared with the lowest decile of the BC-PRS. On a continuous scale, breast cancer risk increased 1.4-fold per standard deviation of the BC-PRS, similar to the effect size found in the general population. This study demonstrates that genetic factors influence breast cancer risk after chest RT for HL. Given the high absolute breast cancer risk in radiation-exposed women, these results can have important implications for the management of current HL survivors and future patients.

8.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(12): e1509820, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524905

RESUMO

To better understand the expression pattern of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in different breast cancer types, we characterized PD-L1 expression in tumor and tumor-infiltrating immune cells, in relation to mutation rate, BRCA1-like status and survival. We analyzed 410 primary treatment-naive breast tumors comprising 162 estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and HER2-, 101 HER2+ and 147 triple-negative (TN) cancers. Pathologists quantified tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PD-L1 expression in tumor cells and TILs using whole slides and tissue microarray. Mutation rate was assessed by DNA sequencing, BRCA1-like status using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and immune landscape by multiplex image analyses of CD4, CD68, CD8, FOXP3, cytokeratin, and PD-L1. Half of PD-L1 scores evaluated by tissue microarray were false negatives compared to whole slide evaluations. We observed at least 1% of PD-L1-positive (PD-L1+) cells in 53.1% of ER+HER2-, 73.3% of HER2+, and 84.4% of TN tumors. PD-L1 expression was higher in ductal compared to lobular carcinomas, also within ER+HER2- tumors (p = 0.04). High PD-L1+ TILs score (> 50%) was independently associated with better outcome in TN tumors (HR = 0.27; 95%CI = 0.10-0.69). Within TN tumors, PD-L1 and TIL scores showed a modest but significant positive association with the number of silent mutations, but no association with BRCA1-like status. Multiplex image analyses indicated that PD-L1 is expressed on multiple immune cells (CD68+ macrophages, CD4+, FOXP3+, and CD8+ T cells) in the breast tumor microenvironment, independent of the PD-L1 status of the tumor cells. We found no evidence that levels of PD-L1+ TILs in TN breast cancer are driven by high mutation rate or BRCA1-like status.

9.
J Urol ; 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321552

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this prospective study we evaluated safety and efficacy of concurrent radiotherapy and panitumumab following neoadjuvant/induction chemotherapy (ICT) and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) as a bladder preserving therapy for invasive bladder cancer (BC). MATERIALS & METHODS: Patients with cT1-4N0-2M0 bladder cancer were treated with PLND and 4 cycles of platinum-based ICT, followed by a six-and-half-week schedule of weekly panitumumab (2.5 mg/kg) and concurrent radiotherapy to the bladder (33x2 Gy)(RT/P). As primary objective, RT/P toxicity was compared to a historical control toxicity rate for concurrent cisplatin/radiotherapy (<35% of patients with Grade 3-5 toxicity). A sample size of 31 patients was estimated. Secondary end-points included complete remission (CR) at 3 months follow-up, bladder preservation rate, EGFR expression and RAS mutational status. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients were initially included, of whom 34 were staged cN0. After PLND, 7 (21%) patients were upstaged to pN+. Thirty-one out of 38 patients started RT/P. During RT/P, 5 patients (16%, 95% Confidence Interval, 95%CI 0-31%) experienced systemic or local grade 3-4 toxicity. Four patients did not complete treatment due to adverse events. CR was achieved in 29/31 patients (94%, 95%CI 83-100%). With a median follow-up of 34 months, 4 patients had a local recurrence for which 3 patients (10%) underwent salvage cystectomy. Two tumors had an EGFR- or RAS-mutation while 84% had positive EGFR expression. CONCLUSIONS: RT/P following ICT and PLND has a non-inferior safety profile to the historical profile of concurrent cisplatin/radiotherapy. The high CR and bladder preservation rates are promising and warrant further study.

10.
Nat Med ; 24(11): 1655-1661, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297911

RESUMO

Adjuvant ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) and nivolumab (anti-PD-1) both improve relapse-free survival of stage III melanoma patients1,2. In stage IV disease, the combination of ipilimumab + nivolumab is superior to ipilimumab alone and also appears to be more effective than nivolumab monotherapy3. Preclinical work suggests that neoadjuvant application of checkpoint inhibitors may be superior to adjuvant therapy4. To address this question and to test feasibility, 20 patients with palpable stage III melanoma were 1:1 randomized to receive ipilimumab 3 mg kg-1 and nivolumab 1 mg kg-1, as either four courses after surgery (adjuvant arm) or two courses before surgery and two courses postsurgery (neoadjuvant arm). Neoadjuvant therapy was feasible, with all patients undergoing surgery at the preplanned time point. However in both arms, 9/10 patients experienced one or more grade 3/4 adverse events. Pathological responses were achieved in 7/9 (78%) patients treated in the neoadjuvant arm. None of these patients have relapsed so far (median follow-up, 25.6 months). We found that neoadjuvant ipilimumab + nivolumab expand more tumor-resident T cell clones than adjuvant application. While neoadjuvant therapy appears promising, with the current regimen it induced high toxicity rates; therefore, it needs further investigation to preserve efficacy but reduce toxicity.

12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(6): 1814-1822, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232439

RESUMO

Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.11, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.22, P = 0.03). We observed no association for ER-negative cases (HR = 1.00, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% CI 0.89-1.13, P = 0.95). Conclusions: Our findings suggest a causal effect of increased BMI on reduced breast cancer survival for ER-positive breast cancer. There is no evidence of a causal effect of higher BMI on survival for ER-negative breast cancer cases.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Causalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metanálise como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Oncotarget ; 8(61): 102769-102782, 2017 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262523

RESUMO

Most non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families have no identified genetic cause. We used linkage and haplotype analyses in familial and sporadic breast cancer cases to identify a susceptibility locus on chromosome 6q. Two independent genome-wide linkage analysis studies suggested a 3 Mb locus on chromosome 6q and two unrelated Swedish families with a LOD >2 together seemed to share a haplotype in 6q14.1. We hypothesized that this region harbored a rare high-risk founder allele contributing to breast cancer in these two families. Sequencing of DNA and RNA from the two families did not detect any pathogenic mutations. Finally, 29 SNPs in the region were analyzed in 44,214 cases and 43,532 controls from BCAC, and the original haplotypes in the two families were suggested as low-risk alleles for European and Swedish women specifically. There was also some support for one additional independent moderate-risk allele in Swedish familial samples. The results were consistent with our previous findings in familial breast cancer and supported a breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q14.1 around the PHIP gene.

14.
BMJ Open ; 7(11): e017842, 2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Currently used tools for breast cancer prognostication and prediction may not adequately reflect a young patient's prognosis or likely treatment benefit because they were not adequately validated in young patients. Since breast cancers diagnosed at a young age are considered prognostically unfavourable, many treatment guidelines recommend adjuvant systemic treatment for all young patients. Patients cured by locoregional treatment alone are, therefore, overtreated. Lack of prognosticators for young breast cancer patients represents an unmet medical need and has led to the initiation of the PAtients with bReAst cancer DIaGnosed preMenopausally (PARADIGM) initiative. Our aim is to reduce overtreatment of women diagnosed with breast cancer aged ≤40 years. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: All young, adjuvant systemic treatment naive breast cancer patients, who had no prior malignancy and were diagnosed between 1989 and 2000, were identified using the population based Netherlands Cancer Registry (n=3525). Archival tumour tissues were retrieved through linkage with the Dutch nationwide pathology registry. Tissue slides will be digitalised and placed on an online image database platform for clinicopathological revision by an international team of breast pathologists. Immunohistochemical subtype will be assessed using tissue microarrays. Tumour RNA will be isolated and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Differences in gene expression found between patients with a favourable and those with a less favourable prognosis will be used to establish a prognostic classifier, using the triple negative patients as proof of principle. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Observational data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and left over archival patient material are used. Therefore, the Dutch law on Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) is not applicable. The PARADIGM study received a 'non-WMO' declaration from the Medical Ethics Committee of the Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek hospital, waiving individual patient consent. All data and material used are stored in a coded way. Study results will be presented at international (breast cancer) conferences and published in peer-reviewed, open-access journals.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Gut ; 2017 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29158237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Resection can potentially cure resectable pancreatic cancer (PaC) and significantly prolong survival in some patients. This large-scale international study aimed to investigate variations in resection for PaC in Europe and USA and determinants for its utilisation. DESIGN: Data from six European population-based cancer registries and the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database during 2003-2016 were analysed. Age-standardised resection rates for overall and stage I-II PaCs were computed. Associations between resection and demographic and clinical parameters were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 153 698 records were analysed. In population-based registries in 2012-2014, resection rates ranged from 13.2% (Estonia) to 21.2% (Slovenia) overall and from 34.8% (Norway) to 68.7% (Denmark) for stage I-II tumours, with great international variations. During 2003-2014, resection rates only increased in USA, the Netherlands and Denmark. Resection was significantly less frequently performed with more advanced tumour stage (ORs for stage III and IV versus stage I-II tumours: 0.05-0.18 and 0.01-0.06 across countries) and increasing age (ORs for patients 70-79 and ≥80 versus those <60 years: 0.37-0.63 and 0.03-0.16 across countries). Patients with advanced-stage tumours (stage III-IV: 63.8%-81.2%) and at older ages (≥70 years: 52.6%-59.5%) receiving less frequently resection comprised the majority of diagnosed cases. Patient performance status, tumour location and size were also associated with resection application. CONCLUSION: Rates of PaC resection remain low in Europe and USA with great international variations. Further studies are warranted to explore reasons for these variations.

16.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 99(4): 843-853, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young women treated with chest radiation therapy (RT) for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience a strongly increased risk of breast cancer (BC). It is unknown whether endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect RT-associated BC risk. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study among female 5-year HL survivors treated before age 41. Hormone exposure and HL treatment data were collected through medical records and questionnaires for 174 BC case patients and 466 control patients. Radiation dose to breast tumor location was estimated based on RT charts, simulation films, and mammography reports. RESULTS: We observed a linear radiation dose-response curve with an adjusted excess odds ratio (EOR) of 6.1%/Gy (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1%-15.4%). Women with menopause <30 years (caused by high-dose procarbazine or pelvic RT) had a lower BC risk (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03-0.51) than did women with menopause ≥50 years. BC risk increased by 6.4% per additional year of post-RT intact ovarian function (P<.001). Among women with early menopause (<45 years), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use for ≥2 years did not increase BC risk (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.32-2.32), whereas this risk was nonsignificantly increased among women without early menopause (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 0.97-14.0; P for interaction: .06). Stratification by duration of post-RT intact ovarian function or HRT use did not statistically significantly modify the radiation dose-response curve. CONCLUSIONS: BC risk in female HL survivors increases linearly with radiation dose. HRT does not appear to increase BC risk for HL survivors with therapy-induced early menopause. There are no indications that endogenous and exogenous gonadal hormones affect the radiation dose-response relationship.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Mama/efeitos da radiação , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/farmacologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Menopausa Precoce , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Ovário/fisiologia , Procarbazina/efeitos adversos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Fatores de Risco , Sobreviventes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nature ; 549(7670): 106-110, 2017 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813410

RESUMO

The clinical benefit for patients with diverse types of metastatic cancers that has been observed upon blockade of the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 has highlighted the importance of this inhibitory axis in the suppression of tumour-specific T-cell responses. Notwithstanding the key role of PD-L1 expression by cells within the tumour micro-environment, our understanding of the regulation of the PD-L1 protein is limited. Here we identify, using a haploid genetic screen, CMTM6, a type-3 transmembrane protein of previously unknown function, as a regulator of the PD-L1 protein. Interference with CMTM6 expression results in impaired PD-L1 protein expression in all human tumour cell types tested and in primary human dendritic cells. Furthermore, through both a haploid genetic modifier screen in CMTM6-deficient cells and genetic complementation experiments, we demonstrate that this function is shared by its closest family member, CMTM4, but not by any of the other CMTM members tested. Notably, CMTM6 increases the PD-L1 protein pool without affecting PD-L1 (also known as CD274) transcription levels. Rather, we demonstrate that CMTM6 is present at the cell surface, associates with the PD-L1 protein, reduces its ubiquitination and increases PD-L1 protein half-life. Consistent with its role in PD-L1 protein regulation, CMTM6 enhances the ability of PD-L1-expressing tumour cells to inhibit T cells. Collectively, our data reveal that PD-L1 relies on CMTM6/4 to efficiently carry out its inhibitory function, and suggest potential new avenues to block this pathway.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio MARVEL/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Antígeno B7-H1/química , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Teste de Complementação Genética , Haploidia , Humanos , Proteínas com Domínio MARVEL/genética , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Ubiquitinação
18.
Int J Cancer ; 141(9): 1830-1840, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670784

RESUMO

Investigating the most likely causal variants identified by fine-mapping analyses may improve the power to detect gene-environment interactions. We assessed the interplay between 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified by genetic fine-scale mapping of susceptibility loci and 11 epidemiological breast cancer risk factors in relation to breast cancer. Analyses were conducted on up to 58,573 subjects (26,968 cases and 31,605 controls) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, in one of the largest studies of its kind. Analyses were carried out separately for estrogen receptor (ER) positive (ER+) and ER negative (ER-) disease. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP) was computed to assess the noteworthiness of the results. Four potential gene-environment interactions were identified as noteworthy (BFDP < 0.80) when assuming a true prior interaction probability of 0.01. The strongest interaction result in relation to overall breast cancer risk was found between CFLAR-rs7558475 and current smoking (ORint = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.88, pint = 1.8 × 10-4 ). The interaction with the strongest statistical evidence was found between 5q14-rs7707921 and alcohol consumption (ORint =1.36, 95% CI: 1.16-1.59, pint = 1.9 × 10-5 ) in relation to ER- disease risk. The remaining two gene-environment interactions were also identified in relation to ER- breast cancer risk and were found between 3p21-rs6796502 and age at menarche (ORint = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.12-1.43, pint =1.8 × 10-4 ) and between 8q23-rs13267382 and age at first full-term pregnancy (ORint = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.95, pint = 5.2 × 10-4 ). While these results do not suggest any strong gene-environment interactions, our results may still be useful to inform experimental studies. These may in turn, shed light on the potential interactions observed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
19.
Cancer Res ; 77(11): 2789-2799, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283652

RESUMO

Breast cancer risks conferred by many germline missense variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, often referred to as variants of uncertain significance (VUS), have not been established. In this study, associations between 19 BRCA1 and 33 BRCA2 missense substitution variants and breast cancer risk were investigated through a breast cancer case-control study using genotyping data from 38 studies of predominantly European ancestry (41,890 cases and 41,607 controls) and nine studies of Asian ancestry (6,269 cases and 6,624 controls). The BRCA2 c.9104A>C, p.Tyr3035Ser (OR = 2.52; P = 0.04), and BRCA1 c.5096G>A, p.Arg1699Gln (OR = 4.29; P = 0.009) variant were associated with moderately increased risks of breast cancer among Europeans, whereas BRCA2 c.7522G>A, p.Gly2508Ser (OR = 2.68; P = 0.004), and c.8187G>T, p.Lys2729Asn (OR = 1.4; P = 0.004) were associated with moderate and low risks of breast cancer among Asians. Functional characterization of the BRCA2 variants using four quantitative assays showed reduced BRCA2 activity for p.Tyr3035Ser compared with wild-type. Overall, our results show how BRCA2 missense variants that influence protein function can confer clinically relevant, moderately increased risks of breast cancer, with potential implications for risk management guidelines in women with these specific variants. Cancer Res; 77(11); 2789-99. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Idoso , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Risco
20.
Cancer Cytopathol ; 125(3): 197-204, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28199067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An accurate diagnosis of cancer of Müllerian origin is required before the initiation of treatment. An overlap in clinical presentation and cytological, histological, or imaging studies with other nongynecological tumors does occur. Therefore, immunocytochemistry markers are used to determine tumor origin. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is overexpressed in tissue of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). It has shown to be a sensitive and specific serum marker for EOC and to be of value for the differentiation between EOC and ovarian metastases of gastrointestinal origin. The objective of the current study was to evaluate HE4 immunocytochemistry in malignant ascites for differentiation between cancer of Müllerian origin, including EOC, and adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. METHODS: Cytological specimens of 115 different adenocarcinomas (45 EOCs, 46 cases of gastric cancer, and 24 cases of colorectal cancer) were stained for HE4, paired box 8 (PAX8), and other specific markers. RESULTS: 91% of the ascites samples from patients with EOC stained for both HE4 and PAX8. The 4 samples without HE4 staining were a clear cell carcinoma, a low-grade serous adenocarcinoma, an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma, and a neuroendocrine carcinoma. All high-grade serous adenocarcinomas (n = 37, 100%) stained with HE4, compared with 94% that stained positively for PAX8. In cases of gastric or colorectal cancer, 25% and 21% of cases, respectively, stained positive for HE4. No PAX8 staining was observed in colorectal or gastric adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: HE4 staining in ascites is feasible and appears to have a high sensitivity for high-grade serous ovarian cancer. HE4 is a useful addition to the current panel of immunocytochemistry markers for the diagnosis of EOC and for differentiation with gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:197-204. © 2016 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/química , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/patologia , Proteínas/análise , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/química , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/secundário , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Intestinais/química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/química
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