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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11623, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406173

RESUMO

Telomere shortening has been associated with multiple age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. In order to gain insight into the metabolic processes driving the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with age-related diseases, we investigated the association between LTL and serum metabolite levels in 7,853 individuals from seven independent cohorts. LTL was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the levels of 131 serum metabolites were measured with mass spectrometry in biological samples from the same blood draw. With partial correlation analysis, we identified six metabolites that were significantly associated with LTL after adjustment for multiple testing: lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C17:0 (lysoPC a C17:0, p-value = 7.1 × 10-6), methionine (p-value = 9.2 × 10-5), tyrosine (p-value = 2.1 × 10-4), phosphatidylcholine diacyl C32:1 (PC aa C32:1, p-value = 2.4 × 10-4), hydroxypropionylcarnitine (C3-OH, p-value = 2.6 × 10-4), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C38:4 (PC ae C38:4, p-value = 9.0 × 10-4). Pathway analysis showed that the three phosphatidylcholines and methionine are involved in homocysteine metabolism and we found supporting evidence for an association of lipid metabolism with LTL. In conclusion, we found longer LTL associated with higher levels of lysoPC a C17:0 and PC ae C38:4, and with lower levels of methionine, tyrosine, PC aa C32:1, and C3-OH. These metabolites have been implicated in inflammation, oxidative stress, homocysteine metabolism, and in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, two major drivers of morbidity and mortality.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 15-28, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178129

RESUMO

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10-7). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r2 > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10-4) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 276-287, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721968

RESUMO

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 452-469, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778226

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Homeostase/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(3): 453-475, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535086

RESUMO

Background: Even before the onset of age-related diseases, obesity might be a contributing factor to the cumulative burden of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation throughout the life course. Obesity may therefore contribute to accelerated shortening of telomeres. Consequently, obese persons are more likely to have shorter telomeres, but the association between body mass index (BMI) and leukocyte telomere length (TL) might differ across the life span and between ethnicities and sexes. Objective: A collaborative cross-sectional meta-analysis of observational studies was conducted to investigate the associations between BMI and TL across the life span. Design: Eighty-seven distinct study samples were included in the meta-analysis capturing data from 146,114 individuals. Study-specific age- and sex-adjusted regression coefficients were combined by using a random-effects model in which absolute [base pairs (bp)] and relative telomere to single-copy gene ratio (T/S ratio) TLs were regressed against BMI. Stratified analysis was performed by 3 age categories ("young": 18-60 y; "middle": 61-75 y; and "old": >75 y), sex, and ethnicity. Results: Each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -3.99 bp (95% CI: -5.17, -2.81 bp) difference in TL in the total pooled sample; among young adults, each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -7.67 bp (95% CI: -10.03, -5.31 bp) difference. Each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -1.58 × 10(-3) unit T/S ratio (0.16% decrease; 95% CI: -2.14 × 10(-3), -1.01 × 10(-3)) difference in age- and sex-adjusted relative TL in the total pooled sample; among young adults, each unit increase in BMI corresponded to a -2.58 × 10(-3) unit T/S ratio (0.26% decrease; 95% CI: -3.92 × 10(-3), -1.25 × 10(-3)). The associations were predominantly for the white pooled population. No sex differences were observed. Conclusions: A higher BMI is associated with shorter telomeres, especially in younger individuals. The presently observed difference is not negligible. Meta-analyses of longitudinal studies evaluating change in body weight alongside change in TL are warranted.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Encurtamento do Telômero/fisiologia , Telômero/ultraestrutura , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Leucócitos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Fatores Sexuais
7.
PLoS Genet ; 14(12): e1007813, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566500

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology. Affected women frequently have metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. PCOS is diagnosed with two different sets of diagnostic criteria, resulting in a phenotypic spectrum of PCOS cases. The genetic similarities between cases diagnosed based on the two criteria have been largely unknown. Previous studies in Chinese and European subjects have identified 16 loci associated with risk of PCOS. We report a fixed-effect, inverse-weighted-variance meta-analysis from 10,074 PCOS cases and 103,164 controls of European ancestry and characterisation of PCOS related traits. We identified 3 novel loci (near PLGRKT, ZBTB16 and MAPRE1), and provide replication of 11 previously reported loci. Only one locus differed significantly in its association by diagnostic criteria; otherwise the genetic architecture was similar between PCOS diagnosed by self-report and PCOS diagnosed by NIH or non-NIH Rotterdam criteria across common variants at 13 loci. Identified variants were associated with hyperandrogenism, gonadotropin regulation and testosterone levels in affected women. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analysis revealed genetic correlations with obesity, fasting insulin, type 2 diabetes, lipid levels and coronary artery disease, indicating shared genetic architecture between metabolic traits and PCOS. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested variants associated with body mass index, fasting insulin, menopause timing, depression and male-pattern balding play a causal role in PCOS. The data thus demonstrate 3 novel loci associated with PCOS and similar genetic architecture for all diagnostic criteria. The data also provide the first genetic evidence for a male phenotype for PCOS and a causal link to depression, a previously hypothesized comorbid disease. Thus, the genetics provide a comprehensive view of PCOS that encompasses multiple diagnostic criteria, gender, reproductive potential and mental health.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo
8.
Eur J Cancer ; 103: 227-237, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273888

RESUMO

AIMS: Survival after cancer diagnosed during childhood or adolescence continues to improve with new treatments and supportive therapies. Optimal long-term care requires that risks to vulnerable organs are clearly defined and translated into guidelines that are implemented into practice. PanCareLIFE is a pan-European consortium that addresses survivorship issues comprising fertility, hearing impairment and quality of life. This article describes the scientific basis of PanCareLIFE's studies. METHODS: PanCareLIFE involves 17 partner institutions from eight European countries, with additional 11 data providers from five other countries. Study designs and methods include molecular genetic, cohort and case-control studies, a longitudinal study and an intervention study. Ethics and data protection issues have been taken into account from the beginning. RESULTS: PanCareLIFE will investigate the way that treatment impairs female fertility, by evaluating anti-Müllerian hormone levels and the underlying genetic susceptibility to loss of fertility. For our fertility studies, more than 6000 survivors have completed questionnaires, more than 1500 provided serum samples and more than 400 case-control triads have been identified. Fertility preservation guidelines for boys and girls will be developed. More than 2000 survivors have contributed audiograms for the ototoxicity study. Almost 1000 samples were sent for genetic analysis related to ototoxicity and gonadal reserve. The SF-36 questionnaire will measure quality of life in more than 10,000 survivors. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of subjects enrolled in PanCareLIFE and the detailed information accumulated will allow in-depth evaluation of important outcomes. Fertility preservation guidelines will help patients and their families make informed decisions and contribute to their long-term well-being.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 930, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved risk stratification, more effective therapy and better supportive care have resulted in survival rates after childhood cancer of around 80% in developed countries. Treatment however can be harsh, and three in every four childhood cancer survivors (CCS) develop at least one late effect, such as gonadal impairment. Gonadal impairment can cause involuntary childlessness, with serious consequences for the well-being of CCS. In addition, early menopause increases the risk of comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Inter-individual variability in susceptibility to therapy related gonadal impairment suggests a role for genetic variation. Currently, only one candidate gene study investigated genetic determinants in relation to gonadal impairment in female CCS; it yielded one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that was previously linked with the predicted age at menopause in the general population of women, now associated with gonadal impairment in CCS. Additionally, one genome wide association study (GWAS) evaluated an association with premature menopause, but no GWAS has been performed using endocrine measurements for gonadal impairment  as the primary outcome in CCS. METHODS: As part of the PanCareLIFE study, the genetic variability of chemotherapy induced gonadal impairment among CCS will be addressed. Gonadal impairment will be determined by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels or alternatively by fertility and reproductive medical history retrieved by questionnaire. Clinical and genetic data from 837 non-brain or non-bilateral gonadal irradiated long-term CCS will result in the largest clinical European cohort assembled for this late-effect study to date. A candidate gene study will examine SNPs that have already been associated with age at natural menopause and DNA maintenance in the general population. In addition, a GWAS will be performed to identify novel allelic variants. The results will be validated in an independent CCS cohort. DISCUSSION: This international collaboration aims to enhance knowledge of genetic variation which may be included in risk prediction models for gonadal impairment in CCS.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 88-102, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304378

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by DXA is used to evaluate bone health. In children, total body (TB) measurements are commonly used; in older individuals, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. To date, genetic variants in more than 60 loci have been identified as associated with BMD. To investigate the genetic determinants of TB-BMD variation along the life course and test for age-specific effects, we performed a meta-analysis of 30 genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of TB-BMD including 66,628 individuals overall and divided across five age strata, each spanning 15 years. We identified variants associated with TB-BMD at 80 loci, of which 36 have not been previously identified; overall, they explain approximately 10% of the TB-BMD variance when combining all age groups and influence the risk of fracture. Pathway and enrichment analysis of the association signals showed clustering within gene sets implicated in the regulation of cell growth and SMAD proteins, overexpressed in the musculoskeletal system, and enriched in enhancer and promoter regions. These findings reveal TB-BMD as a relevant trait for genetic studies of osteoporosis, enabling the identification of variants and pathways influencing different bone compartments. Only variants in ESR1 and close proximity to RANKL showed a clear effect dependency on age. This most likely indicates that the majority of genetic variants identified influence BMD early in life and that their effect can be captured throughout the life course.

11.
Menopause ; 25(4): 451-457, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better understand the relationship between cardiovascular disease risk and age-at-natural menopause using genetic data. METHODS: Early menopause is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. We constructed a genetic risk score comprising 56 age-at-natural menopause decreasing alleles in men and women from the Framingham Heart Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, and the Rotterdam Study. If the genetic predisposition to earlier age-at-natural menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, it is reasonable to ask whether the risk is shared by men carrying the alleles, despite not experiencing menopause. We estimated the hazard ratio for the score for time to first cardiovascular event. To investigate the possible genetic pleiotropy between age-at-natural menopause and cardiovascular disease, we performed cross-trait linkage disequilibrium score regressions between age-at-natural menopause and cardiovascular disease and risk factors using genome-wide association studies. RESULTS: Twenty-two thousand five hundred and sixty-eight cardiovascular disease-free participants at baseline were analyzed (9,808 men, 12,760 women). Each additional unit of the genetic propensity to earlier age-at-natural menopause increased the hazard of both cardiovascular disease and cardiac death in women (cardiovascular disease: hazard ratio 1.10 [1.04-1.16], P = 9.7 × 10; cardiac death: 1.12 [1.02-1.24], P = 0.03), whereas no effect was observed for either outcome in men (hazard ratio 0.99 [0.95-1.04], P = 0.71; 1.05 [0.94-1.16], P = 0.34). We found significant negative genetic correlations in women, but not men, between age-at-natural menopause and cardiovascular disease and risk factors. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants associated with earlier age-at-natural menopause are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in women, but not men, suggesting sex-specific genetic effects on cardiovascular disease risk.

13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14467, 2017 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089580

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with substantial morbidity, costs, and decreased life expectancy, and continues to rise worldwide. While etiological understanding is needed for prevention, epidemiological studies indicated that colonization with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may affect body mass index (BMI), but with inconsistent results. Here, we examine the relationship between H. pylori colonization and BMI/obesity. Cross-sectional analyses were performed in two independent population-based cohorts of elderly from the Netherlands and Germany (n = 13,044). Genetic risk scores were conducted based on genetic loci associated with either H. pylori colonization or BMI/obesity. We performed a bi-directional Mendelian randomization. Meta-analysis of cross-sectional data revealed no association between anti-H. pylori IgG titer and BMI, nor of H. pylori positivity and BMI. Anti-H. pylori IgG titer was negatively associated with obesity (OR 0.99972; 95% CI 0.99946-0.99997, p = 0.03) and with obesity classes (Beta -6.91 •10-5; 95% CI -1.38•10-4, -5.49•10-7, p = 0.048), but the magnitude of these effects was limited. Mendelian randomization showed no causal relation between H. pylori genetic risk score and BMI/obesity, nor between BMI or obesity genetic risk scores and H. pylori positivity. This study provides no evidence for a clinically relevant association between H. pylori and BMI/obesity.

14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 76(12): 2046-2053, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of disability in the elderly. Of all the joints, genetic predisposition is strongest for OA of the hand; however, only few genetic risk loci for hand OA have been identified. Our aim was to identify novel genes associated with hand OA and examine the underlying mechanism. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study of a quantitative measure of hand OA in 12 784 individuals (discovery: 8743, replication: 4011). Genome-wide significant signals were followed up by analysing gene and allele-specific expression in a RNA sequencing dataset (n=96) of human articular cartilage. RESULTS: We found two significantly associated loci in the discovery set: at chr12 (p=3.5 × 10-10) near the matrix Gla protein (MGP) gene and at chr12 (p=6.1×10-9) near the CCDC91 gene. The DNA variant near the MGP gene was validated in three additional studies, which resulted in a highly significant association between the MGP variant and hand OA (rs4764133, Betameta=0.83, Pmeta=1.8*10-15). This variant is high linkage disequilibrium with a coding variant in MGP, a vitamin K-dependent inhibitor of cartilage calcification. Using RNA sequencing data from human primary cartilage tissue (n=96), we observed that the MGP RNA expression of the hand OA risk allele was significantly lowercompared with the MGP RNA expression of the reference allele (40.7%, p<5*10-16). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the association between the MGP variant and increased risk for hand OA is caused by a lower expression of MGP, which may increase the burden of hand OA by decreased inhibition of cartilage calcification.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Articulação da Mão/patologia , Osteoartrite/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Calcinose/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(2): 227-238, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757204

RESUMO

Vitamin D insufficiency is common, correctable, and influenced by genetic factors, and it has been associated with risk of several diseases. We sought to identify low-frequency genetic variants that strongly increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and tested their effect on risk of multiple sclerosis, a disease influenced by low vitamin D concentrations. We used whole-genome sequencing data from 2,619 individuals through the UK10K program and deep-imputation data from 39,655 individuals genotyped genome-wide. Meta-analysis of the summary statistics from 19 cohorts identified in CYP2R1 the low-frequency (minor allele frequency = 2.5%) synonymous coding variant g.14900931G>A (p.Asp120Asp) (rs117913124[A]), which conferred a large effect on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (-0.43 SD of standardized natural log-transformed 25OHD per A allele; p value = 1.5 × 10-88). The effect on 25OHD was four times larger and independent of the effect of a previously described common variant near CYP2R1. By analyzing 8,711 individuals, we showed that heterozygote carriers of this low-frequency variant have an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78-2.78, p = 1.26 × 10-12). Individuals carrying one copy of this variant also had increased odds of multiple sclerosis (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.19-1.64, p = 2.63 × 10-5) in a sample of 5,927 case and 5,599 control subjects. In conclusion, we describe a low-frequency CYP2R1 coding variant that exerts the largest effect upon 25OHD levels identified to date in the general European population and implicates vitamin D in the etiology of multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Frequência do Gene , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/etiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
16.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 80, 2017 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724990

RESUMO

Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p < 5 × 10-8) or suggestively genome wide (p < 2.3 × 10-6). Replication in 63,475 (47,227 of European ancestry) individuals from 33 cohorts for whole body lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass and for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near VCAN, ADAMTSL3, and IRS1 for appendicular lean body mass. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of lean body mass.Lean body mass is a highly heritable trait and is associated with various health conditions. Here, Kiel and colleagues perform a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for whole body lean body mass and find five novel genetic loci to be significantly associated.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Magreza/genética , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Composição Corporal , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição , Versicanas/genética
17.
Hum Mutat ; 38(8): 1025-1032, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28493391

RESUMO

Recently, the Haplotype Reference Consortium (HRC) released a large imputation panel that allows more accurate imputation of genetic variants. In this study, we compared a set of directly assayed common and rare variants from an exome array to imputed genotypes, that is, 1000 genomes project (1000GP) and HRC. We showed that imputation using the HRC panel improved the concordance between assayed and imputed genotypes at common, and especially, low-frequency variants. Furthermore, we performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis of vertical cup-disc ratio, a highly heritable endophenotype of glaucoma, in four cohorts using 1000GP and HRC imputations. We compared the results of the meta-analysis using 1000GP to the meta-analysis results using HRC. Overall, we found that using HRC imputation significantly improved P values (P = 3.07 × 10-61 ), particularly for suggestive variants. Both meta-analyses were performed in the same sample size, yet we found eight genome-wide significant loci in the HRC-based meta-analysis versus seven genome-wide significant loci in the 1000GP-based meta-analysis. This study provides supporting evidence of the new avenues for gene discovery and fine mapping that the HRC imputation panel offers.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
18.
Ophthalmology ; 124(4): 547-553, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28038983

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sequence variations in the myocilin (MYOC) gene account for approximately 2% to 4% of glaucoma cases. One particular MYOC mutation, Gln368Stop (dbSNP accession number: rs74315329), is the most common genetic mutation causing glaucoma by increasing intraocular pressure (IOP). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of this MYOC mutation on IOP using data from large-scale European population panels (directly sequenced and imputation based). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: For this study, the penetrance of the variant rs74315329 was estimated in 2 population-based cohorts, the TwinsUK (N = 6092) and the Rotterdam Study (RS) (N =11 189). METHODS: Carriers of the risk allele for rs74315329 were identified using whole-genome sequencing and imputation data (based on 1000 Genomes Project and Haplotype Reference Consortium panels). The penetrance of this variant was evaluated using IOP measurements and data on visual field testing/a diagnosis of glaucoma (if available). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The penetrance of the variant rs74315329 was estimated from the percentage of the carriers of the risk allele of the variant who had high IOP (ocular hypertension) or glaucoma. RESULTS: In our study, the observed penetrance of the variant rs74315329 in relation to increased IOP was 12.5% and 19.4% in the TwinsUK and the RS, respectively. Thus, our study suggests a much lower penetrance for rs74315329 for ocular hypertension (and thus glaucoma), in comparison with that reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: The significance of this finding is that higher numbers of healthy individuals in the population are expected to be carriers of this mutation, which in turn reduces the utility of identifying carriers of this mutation as a screening tool for glaucoma.


Assuntos
Códon de Terminação/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Mutação/genética , Penetrância , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertensão Ocular/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Ocular/genética
19.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 18(1): 88.e1-88.e15, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27889507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants modify benzodiazepine-related fall risk. DESIGN: Three prospective studies; the Rotterdam Study, B-PROOF, and LASA. SETTING: Community-dwelling individuals living in or near five Dutch cities. PARTICIPANTS: There were 11,485 participants aged ≥55 years. MEASUREMENTS: Fall incidents were recorded prospectively. Benzodiazepine use was determined using pharmacy dispensing records or interviews. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age and sex were applied to determine the association between benzodiazepine use and fall risk stratified for CYP2C9 genotype and comparing benzodiazepine users to nonusers. The results of the three studies were combined applying meta-analysis. Within benzodiazepine users, the association between genotypes and fall risk was also assessed. RESULTS: Three thousand seven hundred five participants (32%) encountered a fall during 91,996 follow-up years, and 4% to 15% (depending on the study population) used benzodiazepines. CYP2C9 variants had frequencies of 13% for the *2 allele and 6% for the *3 allele. Compared to nonusers, current benzodiazepine use was associated with an 18% to 36% increased fall risk across studies with a combined hazard ratio (HR) = 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13; 1.40). CYP2C9*2 or *3 allele variants modified benzodiazepine-related fall risk. Compared to nonusers, those carrying a CYP2C9*2 or *3 allele and using benzodiazepines had a 45% increased fall risk (HR, 1.45 95% CI, 1.21; 1.73), whereas CYP2C9*1 homozygotes using benzodiazepines had no increased fall risk (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.90; 1.45). Within benzodiazepine users, having a CYP2C9*2 or *3 allele was associated with an increased fall risk (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.06; 1.72). Additionally, we observed an allele dose effect; heterozygous allele carriers had a fall risk of (HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05; 1.61), and homozygous allele carriers of (HR = 1.91 95% CI, 1.23; 2.96). CONCLUSIONS: CYP2C9*2 and *3 allele variants modify benzodiazepine-related fall risk. Those using benzodiazepines and having reduced CYP2C9 enzyme activity based on their genotype are at increased fall risk. In clinical practice, genotyping might be considered for elderly patients with an indication for benzodiazepine use. However, because the exact role of CYP2C9 in benzodiazepine metabolism is still unclear, additional research is warranted.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Genótipo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Farmacogenética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Neuroendocrinology ; 105(2): 131-140, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27513761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The common exon 3 deletion polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor (d3-GHR) is associated with disease severity in acromegaly patients. The GHR antagonist pegvisomant (PEGV) is highly effective in treating severe acromegaly. Response to PEGV treatment seems to be influenced by d3-GHR and appears to be more responsive to PEGV, although available results remain conflicting. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of d3-GHR on the responsiveness of acromegaly patients to PEGV by compiling the evidence derived from the largest available studies. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature identified three published studies and one conference abstract. Acromegaly patients (n = 324, 49.7% d3-GHR carriers) were treated with either PEGV monotherapy or PEGV combined with long-acting somatostatin analogues and/or cabergoline. A meta-analysis of raw data from these studies was performed. RESULTS: No significant effect of the d3-GHR was observed while bringing insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels below the upper limit of normal with PEGV, which was defined as the lowest IGF-I level during PEGV treatment (mean difference: -2.3%; 95% CI: -6.5 to 1.8, p = 0.270). The PEGV dose required to achieve the lowest IGF-I levels was also not significantly influenced by individuals carrying d3-GHR (mean difference: 4.1 mg weekly; 95% CI: -5.1 to 13.2, p = 0.385). For both outcomes, separate analysis of PEGV monotherapy and combination treatment gave similar results. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the d3-GHR polymorphism has no effect on biochemical disease control in acromegaly, as it is not of added value for either the prediction of PEGV responsiveness or the determination of the required PEGV dose.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Acromegalia/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análogos & derivados , Receptores da Somatotropina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores da Somatotropina/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Acromegalia/metabolismo , Éxons , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos
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