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1.
Health Expect ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Showing how engagement adds value for all stakeholders can be an effective motivator for broader implementation of patient engagement. However, it is unclear what methods can best be used to evaluate patient engagement. This paper is focused on ways to evaluate patient engagement at three decision-making points in the medicines research and development process: research priority setting, clinical trial design and early dialogues with regulators and health technology assessment bodies. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to review the literature on monitoring and evaluation of patient engagement, with a focus on indicators and methods. SEARCH STRATEGY AND INCLUSION CRITERIA: We undertook a scoping literature review using a systematic search, including academic and grey literature with a focus on evaluation approaches or outcomes associated with patient engagement. No date limits were applied other than a cut-off of publications after July 2018. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted from 91 publications, coded and thematically analysed. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 18 benefits and 5 costs of patient engagement were identified, mapped with 28 possible indicators for their evaluation. Several quantitative and qualitative methods were found for the evaluation of benefits and costs of patient engagement. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Currently available indicators and methods are of some use in measuring impact but are not sufficient to understand the pathway to impact, nor whether interaction between researchers and patients leads to change. We suggest that the impacts of patient engagement can best be determined not by applying single indicators, but a coherent set of measures.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222266, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498819

RESUMO

The availability and retention of healthcare professionals in rural areas and remote areas is a challenge to the health sector worldwide. Attracting people who are most likely to be interested in rural practice can be conducive to the sustainable availability of health services in rural areas where health facilities are typically understaffed and existing professionals often underqualified. This article aims to contribute to the rural pipeline evidence, and reports on the findings of a study that investigated the career choices of midwifery and obstetric nurse students in Mali. The article enquires into the relationship between their intention to practice in rural areas and the different components of the rural pipeline. A mixed method study using a survey, semi-structured interviews, and document analysis was conducted from October to December 2017 on third-year midwifery and obstetric nurse students and school-managers. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were performed for quantitative data, and content analysis was carried out for the qualitative data. Key findings suggest that students prefer urban locations for living and for work. The intention to work in rural areas seems to be influenced by the current living situation (currently living in a rural area) or having attended secondary school or professional training in rural areas.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 449, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognized that improving the quality of maternal health care delivery is of utmost importance in many countries. In Laos, the quality of antenatal care (ANC) service remains inadequate, but it has never been assessed thoroughly. This study aims to determine the ANC quality at the urban and rural public health facilities in Laos and provides suggestions to improve health education and counseling in addition to other routine care in public ANC services. METHODS: This health-facility based, cross-sectional observation study included both health providers (n = 77) and pregnant women (n = 421) from purposively selected health facilities (n = 16). Information on the mothers' current pregnancies, previous visits and their last children was collected. The time spent for each ANC session as well as ANC services provided were recorded. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze the data. RESULTS: Overall performance of ANC services by health care providers was poor in both urban and rural areas. Insufficient provision of information on danger signs during pregnancy, nutrition, breast feeding and iron supplements was revealed. Generally the communication skills, behavior and attitude of health providers were very poor. Less than a quarter of pregnant women were treated with kindness and respect. Only 4% of the observed ANC session took privacy into consideration. Less than 10% of available information materials were used during each ANC session. None of the health providers in both rural and urban areas performed specific counseling. Overall mean (SD) time-spent for each ANC session was 16.21 (4.28) minutes. A positive correlation was identified between the length of working experience of health providers and their physical performance scores (adjusted R square = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: The overall performance of ANC services by health care providers was inadequate in both urban and rural areas. Insufficient provision of health education and poor communication skills of health care providers were revealed. Existing IEC materials were scarcely used. Taking action to improve the quality of ANC services by training and providing specific guidelines, creating dedicated rooms, and providing sufficient and effective materials for counseling are all greatly needed in public health facilities in Laos.

4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 255, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The maternal mortality rate in Lao PDR (Laos) is still the highest in Southeast Asia, at 197 per 100,000 live births. Antenatal care (ANC) could contribute to maternal and child mortality reduction. The quality of ANC service remains inadequate and little information is available on the quality of health education and counseling services of health providers in Laos. This study aims to gain insight into the perceptions of stakeholders on both supply and demand sides of public ANC services in Laos and evidence for recommendations to improve the quality of ANC services. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 participants from different stakeholder groups; on the demand side, couples with a currently pregnant woman and mothers with children under one year of age and a family member; and on the supply side, health providers, managers, policy makers of the Ministry of Health, and development partners. The interviews were voice recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis by open and thematic coding, using the MAXQDA software program. RESULTS: All respondents reported that the number of pregnant women who visit ANC services has increased. However, an analysis of the supply side identified issues related to the quality of ANC that need to be improved in the areas of facilities, human resources, privacy and confidentiality, providers' behavior, attitudes, and ineffective communication skills when it comes to providing health education and counseling to pregnant women and their family members. The analysis of the demand side mainly emphasized the issues of providers' behavior, attitude, communication and unequal treatment, and the lack of privacy. Both sides also suggested solutions to the problems, such as training, effective materials, rewarding good role models, and building a feedback system. CONCLUSION: The number of public ANC services has increased, but both supply and demand sides experienced challenges with the quality of ANC. All respondents proposed possible solutions to improve quality of ANC service in public health facilities in Laos.

5.
Health Expect ; 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-tests enable the identification of (risk factors for) diseases and are carried out on the user's initiative without medical indication or advice and often unaided by a health professional. They are frequently used, and their availability and usage are expected to grow. Self-testing has both advantages and disadvantages. Making a well-informed decision about whether to self-test and which self-test to use is of major importance. OBJECTIVE: To provide insights into the experiences of self-test users, identifying reasons to self-test and perceived (dis)advantages of using self-tests and the information highlighted as relevant by self-test users to make well-informed decisions. METHODS: In a qualitative study, 28 users of a wide variety of self-tests shared their experiences in focus groups and interviews. RESULTS: Perceived disadvantages of self-testing included the following: a wide range of available self-tests, lack of insights into their reliability and content, possibility of mistakes in administering them, possibility of false-positive and false-negative results, lack of clarity about how to interpret results and consequently what action to take and fear of not being taken seriously by a general practitioner. Self-test aspects that were viewed as most important include informed decision making, user-friendliness, usefulness and reliability of results. CONCLUSION: A decision aid for future self-test users can help people make a deliberate decision on whether to use a self-test and which particular self-test to use from the wide range available. The government, health professionals, patient organizations, consumer organizations and citizens all have a role to play in the development and implementation of a decision aid.

6.
Health Expect ; 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199556

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents has risen dramatically in the last decade, disproportionally affecting adolescents from disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Adolescent boys from disadvantaged neighbourhoods are hard to reach for health promotion. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to understand perceptions of health and health-promotion strategies among adolescent boys from disadvantaged neighbourhoods in order to identify opportunities for health promotion that are better tailored to their needs. METHODS: A qualitative, participatory research approach was used. Sixty-three adolescent boys (aged 12-18) were recruited from disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Semi-structured interviews, participant observations and co-creation sessions were conducted. Data were analysed using ethnographic content analysis. RESULTS: Boys associate the consumption of large portions of unhealthy foods, especially meat, with masculinity and autonomy. Buying junk food is an important part of their social lives. According to boys, current health promotion does not fit their needs. They stress that entertaining activities, humour and short-term benefits of healthy choices must be central to health promotion. Some differing interests in health promotion appear between boys, but all boys plead for cheap, satisfying, tasty and healthy food options in their neighbourhoods. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent boys from disadvantaged neighbourhoods do see opportunities for health promotion. There is an emerging acceptance of boys taking care of their body and health, but the social norm of unhealthy consumption dominates. For health promoters, it is vital to gear health messages to who the boys are and wish to be, especially in relation to their peers.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217968, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nepal has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the South Asia region, partly due to the underutilization of maternal health services and the high number of adolescent pregnancies. This study explores married Nepali adolescent girls' healthcare-seeking behaviour throughout their pregnancies, during their delivery and postpartum. METHODS: We conducted a prospective qualitative study in Banke district, Nepal. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 married adolescent girls before and after delivery. In addition, a focus group discussion was conducted with community health works and key-informant interviews were conducted with family members of adolescent girls, representatives from the government and health care providers. We applied the Social-Ecological Model (SEM) as a framework to guide thematic content analysis and presentation of our qualitative data. RESULTS: Several factors in the SEM influenced maternal health care-seeking behaviour of adolescents. At the individual level, girls' perceptions, their lack of knowledge about maternal and reproductive health, certain traditional practices, their sole dependency on their husbands and mothers-in-laws and their low decision-making autonomy towards their own health care negatively influenced their utilization of skilled maternal health services. Mothers-in-law and other family members played a critical role in either encouraging or discouraging the use of skilled maternal health services. At the health systems level, lack of adolescent-friendly maternal health services, difficulties in accessing quality maternal health services, and the fixed operating hours of public health facilities restricted their ability to obtain services. The existence of the Safe Motherhood Programme, knowledge sharing platforms such as "women's groups" and the active role of Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) positively influenced utilization of skilled maternal health services among these girls. CONCLUSION: Influences on married adolescent girls' use of skilled maternal health services in Banke District, Nepal were multi-factoral. Ensuring easy access and availability of adolescent-friendly maternal health services are important to encourage adolescent girls to use skilled maternal health services. Moreover, interventions are needed to improve adolescent girls' knowledge of maternal health, keep them in school, involve family members (mainly mothers-in-law) in health interventions, as well as overcome negative traditional beliefs within the community that discourage care-seeking for skilled maternal health services.

8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 279, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Malawi, as in many low-and middle-income countries, health facility committees (HFCs) are involved in the governance of health services. Little is known about the approaches they use and the challenges they face. This study explores how HFCs monitor the quality of health services and how they demand accountability of health workers for their performance. METHODS: Documentary analysis and key informant interviews (7) were complemented by interviews with purposefully selected HFC members (22) and health workers (40) regarding their experiences with HFCs. Data analysis was guided by a coding scheme informed by social accountability concepts complemented by inductive analysis to identify participants' perceptions and meanings of processes of social accountability facilitated by HFCs. RESULTS: The results suggest that HFCs address poor health worker performance (such as absenteeism, poor treatments and informal payments), and report severe misconduct to health authorities. The informal and constructive approach that most HFCs use is shaped by formal definitions and common expectations of the role of HFCs in service delivery as well as resource constraints. The primary function of social accountability through HFCs appears to be co-production: the management of social relations around the health facility and the promotion of a minimum level of access and quality of services. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers and HFC support programs should take into account the broad task description of HFCs and integrate social accountability approaches in existing quality of care programs. The study also underscores the need to clarify accountability arrangements and linkages with upward accountability approaches in the system.


Assuntos
Comitês Consultivos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Administração de Instituições de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Responsabilidade Social , Países em Desenvolvimento , Recursos em Saúde , Administração de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malaui , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração
9.
J Spec Pediatr Nurs ; 24(3): e12247, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025826

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Last decennia remarkable advances have been made in decreasing the mortality rate of children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), resulting in a relatively growing patient group with long-term complications and complex care needs. These consequences have a huge impact on the quality of life of both children and their families. To provide practical recommendations for improving the quality of care for this patient group, the present study sought to obtain insights into the experiences and needs of parents with a child with CDH. DESIGN AND METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted on the experiences and needs of parents with a child with CDH living in the Netherlands. Data was obtained by means of a discourse analyses of 17 weblogs written by parents and three online focus groups with 8-12 parents per group (n = 29). The data was analysed thematically and structured by using the model of Lawoko (2007) on parental satisfaction with care. RESULTS: Although parents were generally satisfied with the delivered care, they frequently encountered challenges in managing insecurities throughout the care process. Besides the unpredictable disease progress, insecurities were exacerbated by: (a) limited specialized knowledge of long-term consequences, (b) logistical problems, and (c) nontransparent communication. Providing security through, for instance, a clear care plan and by engaging parents in the decision-making process helped them feel more in control. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This study showed that parents' main challenge was to manage insecurities. Creating securities by providing a care plan and involving parents in the decision-making process helped parents to feel more in control. To improve quality of care for children with CDH, future measures should, therefore, focus on reducing insecurities by managing expectations, improving transparency and stimulating engagement.

10.
Midwifery ; 74: 76-83, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Client- or woman-centred care has become a major focus in improving Western maternity care systems. In measures to increase client-centredness, the perspectives of maternity care professionals and policymakers often predominate. However, to put women at the centre of maternity care, insights into their perspectives are important. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the perspectives of women on maternity care and to provide recommendations on how to achieve client-centred care. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted comprising six focus groups (N = 43) and 20 semi-structured interviews with women who had given birth less than one year ago in the North-West Netherlands region. For data analysis, a framework based on existing woman-centred care models and the patient-centred care model of Maassen et al. (2017) was applied. FINDINGS: The issues women addressed, underlined the importance of all four dimensions of the framework (client, interaction, professional and organization). Although women were in general positive about the maternity care services, there were differences regarding client-centredness between community-based primary care and secondary/tertiary hospital care. The latter was evaluated more negatively than primary care with regard to taking women's background into account, communicating openly, showing a caring attitude and providing continuous care by a cohesive team. Although primary care appeared to be better able than secondary/tertiairy care to adapt to clients' preferences, the women described various cases throughout the care process where they did not feel heard. Besides a lack of flexibility to override existing protocols, activities and roles and tokenism regarding the use of satisfaction questionnaires and the birthplan were mentioned. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study demonstrated that from women's perspective, client-centred maternity care means being responsive to their wishes and needs across all four (client, interaction, professional and organization) dimensions. Current measures often focus on the organizational dimension, integrating different divisions of care. To achieve client-centred care, future measures should foster responsiveness on all four dimensions. This entails empowering maternity care professionals to have a reflective interaction with (especially less educated) women, by acquiring conversational and reflexive skills, within a flexible care system adjusting to specific wishes and needs.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos , Países Baixos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(3): 193-200, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ukraine has one of the largest HIV epidemics in Europe, with high prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). We aimed to identify factors associated with HIV testing and receipt of the test result in the last 12 months, HIV prevalence and self-reported positive status among FSWs in Ukraine. METHODS: We used data from an Integrated Bio-Behavioural Survey among FSWs conducted in 2013-2014. The survey methodology combined three sampling strategies: time and location sampling, respondent-driven sampling and key informant recruitment. We used multivariable regression to identify factors associated with self-reported HIV testing in the last 12 months, HIV prevalence and self-reported positive status among FSWs living with HIV. Explored factors included: age, age at first sex, age at entry into sex work, education, marital status, employment status beside sex work, condom use with last paying or non-paying sexual partner, drug or alcohol consumption and sex work venue. RESULTS: Recent HIV testing was low overall with only 63.2% of FSWs reported having tested and received their test result in the last 12 months prior to the survey. HIV prevalence was 7.1% overall, but only 45.0% of FSWs living with HIV were aware of their HIV status. Testing in the last 12 months with receipt of test result was less common among FSWs who used drugs ever in life (adjusted OR (AOR) 0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.9), women soliciting clients indoors (AOR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 0.9) and those not using a condom with last paying sexual partner (AOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.5). HIV positivity was associated with history of ever using drugs (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.6) and soliciting clients outdoors (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0). Women working indoors were less aware of their positive status (AOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.9). CONCLUSION: HIV prevalence is high among FSWs in Ukraine, and testing and knowledge of one's status remain insufficient. HIV testing programmes need to expand with strategies to reach specific subgroups of FSWs.

12.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 23, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are an estimated 80,100 female sex workers (FSWs) in Ukraine, of whom 7% are living with HIV. Early HIV diagnosis continues to be a public health priority in Ukraine as only approximately 54% of people living with HIV are diagnosed nationwide. This study aims to analyse the content, context and discourse of HIV testing policies among female sex workers in Ukraine and how these policies are understood and implemented in practice. METHODS: To analyse past and current national policies, we searched the database of the Ukrainian Parliament and the Ministry of Health for relevant policy documents (e.g. legislation and orders). To analyse the day-to-day practice of those involved in the implementation of these HIV programmes, we conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. All data were coded using deductive thematic analysis initially guided by the Policy Triangle, a framework which addresses policy content, the process of policy-making, the health policy context, actors involved in policy formulation and implementation. RESULTS: HIV testing policies are formed and implemented in the post-Soviet context through a vertical system of AIDS clinics, resulting in the separation of key affected populations from the rest of the health system. Successive testing policies have been strongly influenced by international donors and non-governmental organisations. Furthermore, a lack of government funding for HIV prevention created a gap that international donors and local non-governmental organisations covered to ensure the implementation of testing policies. Their role, however, had limited influence on the Ukrainian government to increase funding for prevention, including testing of FSWs. Since the early 1990s, when stigmatising and discriminatory forced/mandatory HIV testing was applied, these approaches were slowly replaced with voluntary testing, self-testing and assisted HIV testing, yet stigma was found to be a barrier among FSWs to access testing. CONCLUSION: Poor governance and the fragmentation of the health system, ongoing health sector reforms, shrinking international funding, and persisting stigma towards people living with HIV and sex workers might impede the continuity and sustainability of HIV testing programmes. Local civil society may now have the opportunity to contribute to the development and further implementation of HIV testing policies in Ukraine.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Financiamento Governamental , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Política de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento , Profissionais do Sexo , Estigma Social , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Portador Sadio/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Feminino , Governo , HIV , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Política de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Organizações , Discriminação Social , Participação dos Interessados , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ucrânia
13.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 28(2): e12989, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675743

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The experiential knowledge of patients can provide research communities with complementary perspectives on disease. The aim of this study was to identify and prioritise everyday problems and research needs of haematological cancer patients and people who have undergone a stem cell transplantation. METHODS: A mixed-method participatory research approach (the Dialogue Model) was applied, including interviews (n = 19), four focus group discussions (n = 27), a questionnaire (n = 146) and a stakeholder dialogue meeting (n = 30) with patients in the Netherlands. RESULTS: Patients' physical discomfort, psychosocial issues, problems with the healthcare system and policy issues were highlighted. Respondents prioritise research aimed at factors potentially influencing survival, such as lifestyle, and research aimed at improving patients' quality of life, for example improving memory and concentration problems. Topics also focused on physical discomfort, causal mechanisms, and healthcare organisation and policies. Research of a social scientific character is underrepresented, and as such, patients' everyday problems are not all directly reflected in the research agenda. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that patients, besides emphasising the importance of improving survival, have a clear desire to increase control over their lives.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Neoplasias Hematológicas/psicologia , Pesquisa , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/etiologia , Atitude Frente a Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relações Familiares , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Relações Interprofissionais , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Conforto do Paciente , Participação do Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209675, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650100

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Adolescent pregnancy in Lao PDR is the highest in Southeast Asia. It leads to negative health and social consequences in young people. It is anticipated that this problem is partly caused by limited sexual and reproductive health literacy (SRHL), leading to poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) decisions. Based on the concept of health literacy, SRHL goes beyond knowledge and behavior and is the self-perceived ability of an individual to access the needed information, understand the information, appraise and apply the information into informed decision making for a good way to contribute to sexual and reproductive health. It is not only knowing (knowledge) and doing (behavior), but it is the process of individual's thought on an SRH problem before taking an action. The aim of this study was to measure SRHL among school-going adolescents aged 15-19 and to determine factors associated with SRHL. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural and urban areas of Lao PDR in 2017. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire with five parts: socio-demographic, personal health, SRH knowledge and behavior, SRHL, and functional literacy. We calculated the SRHL score based on the HL-EU index and used descriptive statistics to determine the score and levels. Then we used bivariate statistics and multiple linear regression to identify factors associated with SRHL in these adolescents. RESULT: Among 461 respondents, 65.5% had inadequate SRHL. Scores were positively and significantly associated with several factors, including: school location (ß: 3.218; p<0.001), knowledge on SRH and attending SR class in school (p:0.010-p<0.001), and functional literacy on condoms, which reflected how respondents understood the use of condoms (ß: 0.871; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Because most school adolescents had inadequate SRHL, comprehensive sexual education and enabling information as well as service access for adolescents are essential to ensure that adolescents can access, understand, appraise and apply good SRH knowledge in decision-making to benefit their own health.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Saúde Sexual/educação , Adolescente , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Saúde Reprodutiva/tendências , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sexual/ética , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 408, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been few studies about the basis on which women in developing regions evaluate and choose traditional rather than western maternal care. This qualitative study explores the socio-cultural perceptions of complications associated with pregnancy and childbirth and how these perceptions influence maternal health and care-seeking behaviours in Kenya. METHODS: Kalenjin women (n = 42) aged 18-45 years, who were pregnant or had given birth within the last 12 months, were interviewed. A semi-structured interview guide was used for data collection. A further nine key informant interviews with Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) who were also herbalists (n = 6), community health workers (CHWs) (n = 3) and a Maternal and Child Health (MCH) nursing officer (n = 1) were conducted. The data were analysed using MAXQDA12 software and categorised, thematised and analysed based on the symbolic dimensions of Helman's (2000) ill-health causation aetiologies model. RESULTS: Pregnancy complications are perceived as the consequence of pregnant women not observing culturally restricted and recommended behaviour during pregnancy, including diet; physical activities; evil social relations and spirits of the dead. These complications are considered to be preventable by following a restricted and recommended diet, and avoiding heavy duties, funerals, killing of animals and eating meat of animal carcasses, as well as restricting geographical mobility, and use of herbal remedies to counter evil and prevent complications. CONCLUSION: Delay in deciding to seek maternal care is a result of women's failure to recognise symptoms and maternal health problems as potential hospital cases, and this failure stems from culturally informed perceptions of symptoms of maternal morbidity and pregnancy complications that differ significantly from biomedical interpretations. Some of the cultural maternal care and remedies adopted to prevent pregnancy complications, such as restriction of diet and social mobility, may pose risks to the pregnant woman's health and access to health facilities whereas other remedies such as restricting consumption of meat from animal carcasses and heavy duties, as well as maintaining good social relations, are cultural adaptive mechanisms that indirectly control the transmission of disease and improve maternal health, and thus should not be considered to be exclusively folk or primitive.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0202895, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281594

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to explore how Kalenjin women in rural Uasing Gishu County in Kenya perceive antenatal care and how their perceptions impede or motivate earlier access and continuous use of antenatal care services. METHODS: A study was conducted among 188 pregnant and post-natal mothers seeking care in 23 rural public health facilities. Gestational age at the initial antenatal care booking was established from their medical cards. Further researcher-administered questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions was used. Key informant interviews with traditional birth attendants (n = 6) and maternal and child health nursing officers (n = 6) were also conducted for triangulation. Descriptive statistics were applied using SPSS programme. The interviews of women who gave consent to be audio recorded (n = 52) were transcribed and thematically analysed using MAXQDA program, based on Andersen and Newman's (1973) behavioural model of health services utilization. RESULTS: The mean gestational age at booking initial biomedical care was 23.36 weeks. Only 18 patients (10%) booked before 13 weeks and 45% made four or more visits. The main reasons given for early booking were: illness in index pregnancy (42%) checking the foetus position and monitoring foetus progress (7%). The main reasons given for late booking were: no reason (31%), was not feeling sick (16%), fear or shame due to unexpected pregnancy (13%). Almost half of the respondents (44%) used both biomedical and traditional antenatal care services. Main reasons for visiting traditional care were to: check foetus position and reposition it (63%), collect medicinal herbs (31%), relief discomforts through massage (18%). CONCLUSION: Early antenatal care booking is meant for women with unpleasant physical signs and symptoms. Later ANC is meant to check foetus position and reposition it to cephalic presentation and monitor its progress and this is only possible if the foetus is large.

17.
Life Sci Soc Policy ; 14(1): 21, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198056

RESUMO

The emerging field of synthetic biology, the (re-)designing and construction of biological parts, devices and systems for useful purposes, may simultaneously resolve some issues and raise others. In order to develop applications robustly and in the public interest, it is important to organize reflexive strategies of assessment and engagement in early stages of development. Against this backdrop, initiatives related to the concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) have also appeared. This paper describes such an initiative: the construction of future scenarios to explore the plausibility and desirability of potential synthetic biology innovations. We guided teams of synthetic biology students who participated in the large international Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) competition, in constructing scenarios aimed at exploring the plausibility and desirability of potential synthetic biology innovations. In this paper we aim to examine to what extent, and how, constructing such future scenarios contributes to RRI. In order to do so, we conducted observations and interviews to understand what kind of learning and reflection was promoted by constructing the scenarios in terms of four dimensions, which are discussed prominently in the literature on RRI: anticipation, inclusion, reflexivity and responsiveness. While we focus on how constructing future scenarios can contribute to strengthening RRI at a project (and individual) level, we also consider how far our experiment may foster RRI in the iGEM competition in general, and perhaps even inspire constructive collaboration between 'social scientists' and 'natural scientists' in the context of larger scientific research programmes.

18.
Int J Equity Health ; 17(1): 131, 2018 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper aims to provide insights into the role of traditional authorities in two maternal health programmes in Northern Malawi. Among strategies to improve maternal health, these authorities issue by-laws: local rules to increase the uptake of antenatal and delivery care. The study uses a framework of gendered institutions to critically assess the by-law content, process and effects and to understand how responsibilities and accountabilities are constructed, negotiated and reversed. METHODS: Findings are based on a qualitative study in five health centre catchment areas in Northern Malawi. Data were collected using meeting observations and document search, 36 semi-structured individual interviews and 19 focus group discussions with female maternal health service users, male community members, health workers, traditional leaders, local officials and health committee members. A gender and power sensitive thematic analysis was performed focusing on the formulation, interpretation and implementation process of the by-laws as well as its effects on women and men. RESULTS: In the study district, traditional leaders introduced three by-laws that oblige pregnant women to attend antenatal care; bring their husbands along and; and to give birth in a health centre. If women fail to comply with these rules, they risk being fined or denied access to maternal health services. The findings show that responsibilities and accountabilities are negotiated and that by-laws are not uniformly applied. Whereas local officials support the by-laws, lower level health cadres' and some community members contest them, in particular, the principles of individual responsibility and universality. CONCLUSIONS: The study adds new evidence on the understudied phenomenon of by-laws. From a gender perspective, the by-laws are problematic as they individualise the responsibility for maternal health care and discriminate against women in the definition and application of sanctions. Through the by-laws, supported by national policies and international institutions, women bear the full responsibility for failures in maternal health care, suggesting a form of 'reversed accountability' of women towards global maternal health goals. This can negatively impact on women's reproductive health rights and obstruct ambitions to achieve gender inequality and health equity. Contextualised gender and power analysis in health policymaking and programming as well as in accountability reforms could help to identify these challenges and potential unintended effects.

19.
Nanoethics ; 12(2): 155-172, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100947

RESUMO

Synthetic biology is an emerging technology that asks for inclusive reflection on how people frame the field. To unravel how we can facilitate such reflection, this study evaluates the Frame Reflection Lab (FRL). Building upon playfulness design principles, the FRL comprises a workshop with video-narratives and co-creative group exercises. We studied how the FRL facilitated frame reflection by organizing workshops with various student groups. Analysis of 12 group conversations and 158 mini-exit surveys yielded patterns in first-order reflection (problem analysis and solution finding in reflection on the development of synthetic biology as a field) as well as patterns in second-order reflection (reflection on values and assumptions underlying the first-order reflection). Also patterns in participants' (re)framing of synthetic biology could be induced; participants' viewpoints converged to some extent, yet with openness to individual viewpoint differences. Although the FRL method fortified the reflection processes of participants, the narratives and the workshop's flexible format could inhibit the reflection too. Therefore, we advise designers of future frame reflection methods to apply stronger conversational facilitation and narratives of slightly mysterious yet identifiable narrators, in case e.g. video-narratives are created and used to scaffold the reflection process. Nevertheless, we argue that the use of a playful frame reflection method like the FRL could function well as (1) a step to precede more application-specific deliberation or decision-making on synthetic biology and as (2) a method for the collection of contemporary citizen viewpoints plus rationales underlying these, for the further (societally) responsible development of the emerging field.

20.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 899, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initiating and maintaining a healthy lifestyle -including healthy eating and sufficient physical activity- is key for cardiometabolic health. A health-promoting environment can facilitate a healthy lifestyle, and may be especially helpful to reach individuals with a lower socio-economic status (SES). In the Supreme Nudge project, we will study the effects of pricing and nudging strategies in the supermarket - one of the most important point-of-choice settings for food choices - and of a context-specific mobile physical activity promotion app. This paper describes the stepwise and theory-based design of Supreme Nudge, which aims to develop, implement and evaluate environmental changes for a sustained impact on lifestyle behaviours and cardiometabolic health in low SES adults. METHODS: Supreme Nudge uses a multi-disciplinary and mixed methods approach, integrating participatory action research, qualitative interviews, experimental pilot studies, and a randomized controlled trial in a real-life (supermarket) setting. First, we will identify the needs, characteristics and preferences of the target group as well as of the participating supermarket chain. Second, we will conduct a series of pilot studies to test novel, promising and feasible intervention components. Third, a final selection of intervention components will be implemented in a full-scale randomised controlled supermarket trial. Approximately 1000 low SES adults will be recruited across 8-12 supermarkets and randomised at supermarket level to receive 1) no intervention (control); 2) environmental nudges such as food product placement or promotion; 3) nudges and a tailored physical activity app that provides time- and context specific feedback; 4) pricing interventions, nudges, and the physical activity app. The effects on dietary behaviours and physical activity will be evaluated at 3, 6 and 12 months, and on cardiometabolic health at 6 and 12 months. Finally, we will evaluate the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) of the intervention, and we will use insights from System Innovation and Transition Management theories to define the best strategies for implementation and upscaling beyond the study period. DISCUSSION: The Supreme Nudge project is likely to generate thorough evidence relevant for policy and practice on the effects of a mixed method and multi-disciplinary intervention targeting dietary behaviours and physical activity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The real-life trial has been registered on 30 May 2018, NTR7302 .

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