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1.
Br J Anaesth ; 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949438

RESUMO

Mass casualty events are on the rise globally, as we face increasing pressures from scarcity of resources, population growth, systemic inequalities, geopolitical instabilities, and polarised discourse. Although they are rare events for an individual practitioner, they are going to happen to someone, somewhere, this week, this month, this year. And whilst they are often the last consideration for healthcare systems under constant pressures from daily routine work, individuals, departments, hospitals, and systems have to step up effectively in times of crisis. Failure to do so can lead to suboptimal outcomes for casualties, and even perceived failures can have crippling consequences on staff, families, and communities for years.

2.
Br J Anaesth ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823876

RESUMO

Uncertainty is the defining state of the first minutes and hours of a mass casualty event, yet decisions must be taken and actions must happen before the picture is complete. To move forwards in face of uncertainty, we must acknowledge that there will be insufficient information for us to be comfortable in our decisions and actions. We discuss here a range of solutions that allow us to tolerate, even flourish, in the midst of uncertainty.

3.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 5(1): e001114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796283

RESUMO

Background: Injury is a leading health burden in children yet relatively little is reported about the contemporary risks they face. Current national registry data may under-represent the true burden of injury to children. We aim to analyse contemporary patterns of paediatric trauma and identify current factors putting children at risk of injury. Methods: A 3-month prospective multicentre cohort evaluation of injured children across the London Major Trauma System was performed. All children receiving a trauma team activation; meeting National Institute for Health and Care Excellence CT head criteria; or admitted/transferred out due to trauma were included. Data were collected on demographics, mechanism and location of injury, and body region injured. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcome was safeguarding concerns. Results: 659 children were included. Young children were more likely to be injured at home (0-5 years old: 70.8%, n=167 vs adolescents: 15.6%, n=31). Adolescents were more likely to be injured in the street (42.7%, n=85). Head trauma caused over half of injuries in 0-5 years old (51.9%, n=121). Falls were common and increasingly prevalent in younger children, causing 56.6% (n=372) of injuries. In adolescents, penetrating violence caused more than one in five injuries (21.9%, n=50). Most injured children survived (99.8%, n=658), however, one in four (26.1%, n=172) had safeguarding concerns and a quarter of adolescents had police, third sector or external agency involvement (23.2%, n=53). Conclusions: This study describes modern-day paediatric trauma and highlights the variance in injury patterns in young children and adolescents. Importantly, it highlights differences in actual rates of injuries compared with those reported from current national registry data. We must understand real risks facing 21st century children to effectively safeguard future generations. The results provide an opportunity to reassess the current approach to injury prevention, child and adolescent safeguarding, and public health campaigns for child safety.

4.
Anesthesiology ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between late clinical outcomes after injury and early dynamic changes between fibrinolytic states is not fully understood. The authors hypothesized that temporal transitions in fibrinolysis states using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) would aid stratification of adverse late clinical outcomes and improve understanding of how tranexamic acid modulates the fibrinolytic response and impacts mortality. METHODS: The authors conducted a secondary analysis of previously collected data from trauma patients enrolled into an ongoing prospective cohort study (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number [ISRCTN] 12962642) at a major trauma center in the United Kingdom. ROTEM was performed on admission and at 24 h with patients retrospectively grouped into three fibrinolysis categories: tissue factor-activated ROTEM maximum lysis of less than 5% (low); tissue factor-activated ROTEM maximum lysis of 5 to 15% (normal); or tissue factor-activated ROTEM maximum lysis of more than 15% (high). Primary outcomes were multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and 28-day mortality. RESULTS: Seven-hundred thirty-one patients were included: 299 (41%) were treated with tranexamic acid and 432 (59%) were untreated. Two different cohorts with low-maximum lysis at 24 h were identified: (1) severe brain injury and (2) admission shock and hemorrhage. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome was greatest in those with low-maximum lysis on admission and at 24 h, and late mortality was four times higher than in patients who remained normal during the first 24 h (7 of 42 [17%] vs. 9 of 223 [4%]; P = 0.029). Patients that transitioned to or remained in low-maximum lysis had increased odds of organ dysfunction (5.43 [95% CI, 1.43 to 20.61] and 4.85 [95% CI, 1.83 to 12.83], respectively). Tranexamic acid abolished ROTEM hyperfibrinolysis (high) on admission, increased the frequency of persistent low-maximum lysis (67 of 195 [34%]) vs. 8 of 79 [10%]; P = 0.002), and was associated with reduced early mortality (28 of 195 [14%] vs. 23 of 79 [29%]; P = 0.015). No increase in late deaths, regardless of fibrinolysis transition patterns, was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse late outcomes are more closely related to 24-h maximum lysis, irrespective of admission levels. Tranexamic acid alters early fibrinolysis transition patterns, but late mortality in patients with low-maximum lysis at 24 h is not increased.

5.
Br J Anaesth ; 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports published directly after terrorist mass casualty incidents frequently fail to capture difficulties that may have been encountered. An anonymised consensus-based platform may enable discussion and collaboration on the challenges faced. Our aim was to identify where to focus improvement for future responses. METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study by email of clinicians' experiences of leading during terrorist mass casualty incidents. An initial survey identified features that worked well, or failed to, during terrorist mass casualty incidents plus ongoing challenges and changes that were implemented as a result. A follow-up, quantitative survey measured agreement between responses within each of the themes using a Likert scale. RESULTS: Thirty-three participants responded from 22 hospitals that had received casualties from a terrorist incident, representing 17 cities in low-middle, middle and high income countries. The first survey identified themes of sufficient (sometimes abundant) human resource, although coordination of staff was a challenge. Difficulties highlighted were communication, security, and management of blast injuries. The most frequently implemented changes were education on specific injuries, revising future plans and preparatory exercises. Persisting challenges were lack of time allocated to training and psychological well-being. The follow-up survey recorded highest agreement amongst correspondents on the need for re-triage at hospital (90% agreement), coordination roles (85% agreement), flexibility (100% agreement), and large-scale exercises (95% agreement). CONCLUSION: This survey collates international experience gained from clinicians managing terrorist mass casualty incidents. The organisation of human response, rather than consumption of physical supplies, emerged as the main finding. NHSH Clinical Effectiveness Unit project registration number: 2020/21-036.

6.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3478-3491, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505883

RESUMO

Trauma-induced organ failure is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its cleaving enzyme, ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs, member 13) in the occurrence of endothelial permeability and organ failure in trauma. In an observational study in a level-1 trauma center, 169 adult trauma patients with clinical signs of shock and/or severe injuries were included. Trauma was associated with low ADAMTS13 and high VWF antigen levels, thus generating an imbalance of ADAMTS13 to VWF. Patients who developed organ failure (23%) had greater ADAMTS13-to-VWF imbalances, persistently lower platelet counts, and elevated levels of high-molecular-weight VWF multimers compared with those without organ failure, suggesting microthrombi formation. To investigate the effect of replenishing low ADAMTS13 levels on endothelial permeability and organ failure using either recombinant human ADAMTS13 (rhADAMTS13) or plasma transfusion, a rat model of trauma-induced shock and transfusion was used. Rats in traumatic hemorrhagic shock were randomized to receive crystalloids, crystalloids supplemented with rhADAMTS13, or plasma transfusion. A 70-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran was injected to determine endothelial leakage. Additionally, organs were histologically assessed. Both plasma transfusion and rhADAMTS13 were associated with a reduction in pulmonary endothelial permeability and organ injury when compared with resuscitation with crystalloids, but only rhADAMTS13 resulted in significant improvement of a trauma-induced decline in ADAMTS13 levels. We conclude that rhADAMTS13 and plasma transfusion can reduce organ failure following trauma. These findings implicate the ADAMTS13-VWF axis in the pathogenesis of organ failure.


Assuntos
Trombose , Fator de von Willebrand , Proteína ADAMTS13 , Animais , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Humanos , Plasma , Ratos
7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(6): 1018-1024, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trial outcomes should be relevant to all stakeholders and allow assessment of interventions' efficacy and safety at appropriate timeframes. There is no consensus regarding outcome measures in the growing field of prehospital trauma transfusion research. Harmonization of future clinical outcome reporting is key to facilitate interstudy comparisons and generate cohesive, robust evidence to guide practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate outcome measures reported in prehospital trauma transfusion trials. METHODS: Data Sources, Eligibility Criteria, Participants, and InterventionsWe conducted a scoping systematic review to identify the type, number, and definitions of outcomes reported in randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective observational cohort studies investigating prehospital blood component transfusion in adult and pediatric patients with traumatic hemorrhage. Electronic database searching of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, OVID, clinical trials.gov, and the Transfusion Evidence Library was completed in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Meta-analyses guidelines.Study Appraisal and Synthesis MethodsTwo review authors independently extracted outcome data. Unique lists of salutogenic (patient-reported health and wellbeing outcomes) and nonsalutogenic focused outcomes were established. RESULTS: A total of 3,471 records were identified. Thirty-four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 4 military (n = 1,566 patients) and 30 civilian (n = 14,398 patients), all between 2000 and 2020. Two hundred twelve individual non-patient-reported outcomes were identified, which collapsed into 20 outcome domains with varied definitions and timings. All primary outcomes measured effectiveness, rather than safety or complications. Sixty-nine percent reported mortality, with 11 different definitions. No salutogenic outcomes were reported. CONCLUSION: There is heterogeneity in outcome reporting and definitions, an absence of patient-reported outcome, and an emphasis on clinical effectiveness rather than safety or adverse events in prehospital trauma transfusion trials. We recommend stakeholder consultation and a Delphi process to develop a clearly defined minimum core outcome set for prehospital trauma transfusion trials. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Scoping systematic review, level III.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132821

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The burden of major trauma within the UK is ever increasing. There is a need to establish research priorities within the field. Delphi methodology can be used to develop consensus opinion amongst a group of stakeholders. This can be used to prioritise clinically relevant, patient-centred research questions to guide future funding allocations. The aim of our study was to identify key future research priorities pertaining to the management of major trauma in the UK. METHODS: A three-phased modified Delphi process was undertaken. Phase 1 involved the submission of research questions by members of the trauma community using an online survey (Phase 1). Phases 2 and 3 involved two consecutive rounds of prioritisation after questions were subdivided into 6 subcategories: Brain Injury, Rehabilitation, Trauma in Older People, Pre-hospital, Interventional, and Miscellaneous (Phases 2 and 3). Cut-off points were agreed by consensus amongst the steering subcommittees. This established a final prioritised list of research questions. RESULTS: In phase 1, 201 questions were submitted by 65 stakeholders. After analysis and with consensus achieved, 186 questions were taken forward for prioritisation in phase 2 with 114 included in phase 3. 56 prioritised major trauma research questions across the 6 categories were identified with a clear focus on long-term patient outcomes. Research priorities across the patient pathway from roadside to rehabilitation were deemed of importance. CONCLUSIONS: Consensus within the major trauma community has identified 56 key research questions across 6 categories. Dissemination of these questions to funding bodies to allow for the development of high-quality research is now required. There is a clear indication for targeted multi-centre multi-disciplinary research in major trauma.

9.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(4): 537-543, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074885

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Major trauma remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide with traumatic brain injury and uncontrolled traumatic bleeding as the main determinants of fatal outcome. Interestingly, the therapeutic approach to trauma-associated bleeding and coagulopathy shows differences between geographic regions, that are reflected in different guidelines and protocols. RECENT FINDINGS: This article summarizes main principles in coagulation diagnostics and compares different strategies for treatment of massive hemorrhage after trauma in different regions of the world. How would a bleeding trauma patient be managed if they got hit by the bus in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Denmark, Australia, or in Japan? SUMMARY: There are multiple coexistent treatment standards for trauma-induced coagulopathy in different countries and different trauma centers. Most of them initially follow a protocol-based approach and subsequently focus on predefined clinical and laboratory targets.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Ferimentos e Lesões , Austrália , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/terapia , Alemanha , Objetivos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Japão , Reino Unido
10.
Shock ; 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033617

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage, and particularly noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) remains a leading cause of potentially preventable prehospital death from trauma in the United States and globally. A subset of severely-injured patients either die in the field or develop irreversible hemorrhagic shock before they can receive hospital definitive care, resulting in poor outcomes. The focus of this opinion paper is to delineate (a) the need for existing trauma systems to adapt so that potentially life-saving advanced resuscitation and truncal hemorrhage control interventions can be delivered closer to the point-of-injury in select patients, and (b) a possible mechanism through which some trauma systems can train and incorporate select prehospital advanced resuscitative care teams to deliver those interventions.

11.
Ann Surg ; 273(3): 395-401, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To address the clinical and regulatory challenges of optimal primary endpoints for bleeding patients by developing consensus-based recommendations for primary clinical outcomes for pivotal trials in patients within 6 categories of significant bleeding, (1) traumatic injury, (2) intracranial hemorrhage, (3) cardiac surgery, (4) gastrointestinal hemorrhage, (5) inherited bleeding disorders, and (6) hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. BACKGROUND: A standardized primary outcome in clinical trials evaluating hemostatic products and strategies for the treatment of clinically significant bleeding will facilitate the conduct, interpretation, and translation into clinical practice of hemostasis research and support alignment among funders, investigators, clinicians, and regulators. METHODS: An international panel of experts was convened by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the United States Department of Defense on September 23 and 24, 2019. For patients suffering hemorrhagic shock, the 26 trauma working-group members met for almost a year, utilizing biweekly phone conferences and then an in-person meeting, evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of previous high quality studies. The selection of the recommended primary outcome was guided by goals of patient-centeredness, expected or demonstrated sensitivity to beneficial treatment effects, biologic plausibility, clinical and logistical feasibility, and broad applicability. CONCLUSIONS: For patients suffering hemorrhagic shock, and especially from truncal hemorrhage, the recommended primary outcome was 3 to 6-hour all-cause mortality, chosen to coincide with the physiology of hemorrhagic death and to avoid bias from competing risks. Particular attention was recommended to injury and treatment time, as well as robust assessments of multiple safety related outcomes.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Hemostasia Cirúrgica/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/prevenção & controle , Consenso , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Hemostáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade
12.
Ann Surg ; 274(6): e1119-e1128, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk prediction tool for trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC), to support early therapeutic decision-making. BACKGROUND: TIC exacerbates hemorrhage and is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Early and aggressive treatment of TIC improves outcome. However, injured patients that develop TIC can be difficult to identify, which may compromise effective treatment. METHODS: A Bayesian Network (BN) prediction model was developed using domain knowledge of the causal mechanisms of TIC, and trained using data from 600 patients recruited into the Activation of Coagulation and Inflammation in Trauma (ACIT) study. Performance (discrimination, calibration, and accuracy) was tested using 10-fold cross-validation and externally validated on data from new patients recruited at 3 trauma centers. RESULTS: Rates of TIC in the derivation and validation cohorts were 11.8% and 11.0%, respectively. Patients who developed TIC were significantly more likely to die (54.0% vs 5.5%, P < 0.0001), require a massive blood transfusion (43.5% vs 1.1%, P < 0.0001), or require damage control surgery (55.8% vs 3.4%, P < 0.0001), than those with normal coagulation. In the development dataset, the 14-predictor BN accurately predicted this high-risk patient group: area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.93, calibration slope (CS) 0.96, brier score (BS) 0.06, and brier skill score (BSS) 0.40. The model maintained excellent performance in the validation population: AUROC 0.95, CS 1.22, BS 0.05, and BSS 0.46. CONCLUSIONS: A BN (http://www.traumamodels.com) can accurately predict the risk of TIC in an individual patient from standard admission clinical variables. This information may support early, accurate, and efficient activation of hemostatic resuscitation protocols.

13.
Platelets ; 32(3): 295-304, 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986948

RESUMO

Platelets are damage sentinels of the intravascular compartment, initiating and coordinating the primary response to tissue injury. Severe trauma and hemorrhage induce profound alterations in platelet behavior. During the acute post-injury phase, platelets develop a state of impaired ex vivo agonist responsiveness independent of platelet count, associated with systemic coagulopathy and mortality risk. In patients surviving the initial insult, platelets become hyper-responsive, associated with increased risk of thrombotic events. Beyond coagulation, platelets constitute part of a sterile inflammatory response to injury: both directly through release of immunomodulatory molecules, and indirectly through modifying behavior of innate leukocytes. Both procoagulant and proinflammatory aspects have implications for secondary organ injury and multiple-organ dysfunction syndromes. This review details our current understanding of adaptive and maladaptive alterations in platelet biology induced by severe trauma, mechanisms underlying these alterations, potential platelet-focused therapies, and existing knowledge gaps and their research implications.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/patologia , Contagem de Plaquetas/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Ann Surg ; 273(5): 1012-1021, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential changes in the plasma levels of resolvin D1 (RvD1) in patients with trauma and hemorrhage. Having found that trauma results in a profound reduction in plasma RvD1 in patients, we have then investigated the effects of RvD1 on the organ injury and dysfunction associated with hemorrhagic shock (HS) in the rat. BACKGROUND: HS is a common cause of death in trauma due to excessive systemic inflammation and multiple organ failure. RvD1 is a member of the resolvin family of pro-resolution mediators. METHODS: Blood samples were drawn from critically injured patients (n = 27, ACITII-prospective observational cohort study) within 2 hours of injury for targeted liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. HS rats (removal of blood to reduce arterial pressure to 30 ±â€Š2 mm Hg, 90 minutes, followed by resuscitation) were treated with RvD1 (0.3 or 1 µg/kg intravenous (i.v.)) or vehicle (n = 7). Parameters of organ injury and dysfunction were determined. RESULTS: Plasma levels of RvD1 (mg/dL) were reduced in patients with trauma+HS (0.17 ±â€Š0.08) when compared with healthy volunteers (0.76 ±â€Š0.25) and trauma patients (0.62 ±â€Š0.20). In rats with HS, RvD1 attenuated the kidney dysfunction, liver injury, and tissue ischemia. RvD1 also reduced activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway and reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, and interleukin-6. CONCLUSION: Plasma RvD1 is reduced in patients with trauma-HS. In rats with HS, administration of synthetic RvD1 on resuscitation attenuated the multiple organ failure associated with HS by a mechanism that involves inhibition of the activation of NF-κB.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/tratamento farmacológico , Choque Hemorrágico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/sangue , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Choque Hemorrágico/sangue , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações
15.
Ann Surg ; 273(6): 1215-1220, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the effects of recent innovations in trauma major hemorrhage management on outcome and transfusion practice, and to determine the contemporary timings and patterns of death. BACKGROUND: The last 10 years have seen a research-led change in hemorrhage management to damage control resuscitation (DCR), focused on the prevention and treatment of trauma-induced coagulopathy. METHODS: A 10-year retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of trauma patients who activated the Major Trauma Centre's major hemorrhage protocol (MHP) and received at least 1 unit of red blood cell transfusions (RBC). RESULTS: A total of 1169 trauma patients activated the MHP and received at least 1 unit of RBC, with similar injury and admission physiology characteristics over the decade. Overall mortality declined from 45% in 2008 to 27% in 2017, whereas median RBC transfusion rates dropped from 12 to 4 units (massive transfusion rates from 68% to 24%). The proportion of deaths within 24 hours halved (33%-16%), principally with a fall in mortality between 3 and 24 hours (30%-6%). Survivors are now more likely to be discharged to their own home (57%-73%). Exsanguination is still the principal cause of early deaths, and the mortality associated with massive transfusion remains high (48%). Late deaths are now split between those due to traumatic brain injury (52%) and multiple organ dysfunction (45%). CONCLUSIONS: There have been remarkable reductions in mortality after major trauma hemorrhage in recent years. Mortality rates continue to be high and there remain important opportunities for further improvements in these patients.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ressuscitação/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sobreviventes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e035562, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and quantify the effect of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) in pregnancy on maternal and offspring outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational data searched from inception until 1 July 2018. Searching was from June to August 2018 in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Latin-American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information, Scientific Electronic Library Online, TRANSPORT, International Road Research Documentation, European Conference of Ministers of Transportation Databases, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register. PARTICIPANTS: Studies were selected if they focused on the effects of exposure MVC during pregnancy versus non-exposure, with follow-up to verify outcomes in various settings, including secondary care, collision and emergency, and inpatient care. DATA SYNTHESIS: For incidence data, we calculated a pooled estimate per 1000 women. For comparison of outcomes between women involved and those not involved in MVC, we calculated ORs with 95% CIs. Where possible, we statistically pooled the data using the random-effects model. The quality of studies used in the comparative analysis was assessed with Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: We included 19 studies (3 222 066 women) of which the majority was carried out in high-income countries (18/19). In population-level studies of women involved in MVC, maternal death occurred in 3.6 per 1000 (95% CI 0.25-10.42; 3 studies, 12 000 women; Tau=1.77), and fetal death or stillbirth in 6.6 per 1000 (95% CI 3.81-10.12; 8 studies, 47 992 women; I2=92.6%). Pooled incidence of complications per 1000 women involved in MVC was labour induction (276.43), preterm delivery (191.90) and caesarean section (166.65). Compared with women not involved in MVC, those involved had increased odds of placental abruption (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.27-1.63; 3 studies, 1 500 825 women) and maternal death (OR 202.27; 95% CI 110.60-369.95; 1 study, 1 094 559 women). CONCLUSION: Pregnant women involved in MVC were at higher risk of maternal death and complications than those not involved. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018100788.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Acidentes de Trânsito , Região do Caribe , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Veículos Automotores , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
18.
Blood Adv ; 4(12): 2623-2630, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556282

RESUMO

Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is a complex, multifactorial failure of hemostasis that occurs in 25% of severely injured patients and results in a fourfold higher mortality. However, the role of platelets in this state remains poorly understood. We set out to identify molecular changes that may underpin platelet dysfunction after major injury and to determine how they relate to coagulopathy and outcome. We performed a range of hemostatic and platelet-specific studies in blood samples obtained from critically injured patients within 2 hours of injury and collected prospective data on patient characteristics and clinical outcomes. We observed that, although platelet counts were preserved above critical levels, circulating platelets sampled from trauma patients exhibited a profoundly reduced response to both collagen and the selective glycoprotein VI (GPVI) agonist collagen-related peptide, compared with those from healthy volunteers. These responses correlated closely with overall clot strength and mortality. Surface expression of the collagen receptors GPIbα and GPVI was reduced on circulating platelets in trauma patients, with increased levels of the shed ectodomain fragment of GPVI detectable in plasma. Levels of shed GPVI were highest in patients with more severe injuries and TIC. Collectively, these observations demonstrate that platelets experience a loss of GPVI and GPIbα after severe injury and translate into a reduction in the responsiveness of platelets during active hemorrhage. In turn, they are associated with reduced hemostatic competence and increased mortality. Targeting proteolytic shedding of platelet receptors is a potential therapeutic strategy for maintaining hemostatic competence in bleeding and improving the efficacy of platelet transfusions.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemostasia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 46(1): 73-82, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563126

RESUMO

A severely injured patient presents several unique challenges to an admitting trauma team. Not only must the extent of the patient's injuries, particularly those that are life-threatening, be determined within minutes of hospital arrival, but also the trauma team needs to be able to assess whether the patient is bleeding and/or has an attendant coagulopathy. Early management of trauma patients is dictated by the presence (or absence) of significant bleeding. Standard definitive surgical procedures can be conducted in hemodynamically stable patients, but those in hemorrhagic shock should be treated according to damage control resuscitation (DCR) principles. DCR is a practice that has evolved over the last two to three decades, combining limited surgical techniques, which provide early hemorrhage control, and balanced transfusion resuscitation strategies, which mitigate (and ideally) treat trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC). This review describes the contemporary perioperative management of trauma patients who have significant bleeding and/or TIC and sets out the evidence around the current approach for hemostatic resuscitation in these patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Humanos
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