*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(2): e2215509119, 2023 Jan 10.*

##### RESUMO

Recently, Co-based honeycomb magnets have been proposed as promising candidate materials to host the Kitaev spin liquid (KSL) state. One of the front-runners is BaCo2(AsO4)2 (BCAO), where it was suggested that the exchange processes between Co2+ ions via the surrounding edge-sharing oxygen octahedra could give rise to bond-dependent Kitaev interactions. In this work, we present and analyze a comprehensive inelastic neutron scattering (INS) study of BCAO with fields in the honeycomb plane. Combining the constraints from the magnon excitations in the high-field polarized state and the inelastic spin structure factor measured in zero magnetic field, we examine two leading theoretical models: the Kitaev-type [Formula: see text] model and the XXZ[Formula: see text]model. We show that the existing experimental data can be consistently accounted for by the XXZ[Formula: see text]model but not by the [Formula: see text] model, and we discuss the implications of these results for the realization of a spin liquid phase in BCAO and more generally for the realization of the Kitaev model in cobaltates.

*Nat Mater ; 20(12): 1650-1656, 2021 Dec.*

##### RESUMO

Emergent relativistic quasiparticles in Weyl semimetals are the source of exotic electronic properties such as surface Fermi arcs, the anomalous Hall effect and negative magnetoresistance, all observed in real materials. Whereas these phenomena highlight the effect of Weyl fermions on the electronic transport properties, less is known about what collective phenomena they may support. Here, we report a Weyl semimetal, NdAlSi, that offers an example. Using neutron diffraction, we found a long-wavelength helical magnetic order in NdAlSi, the periodicity of which is linked to the nesting vector between two topologically non-trivial Fermi pockets, which we characterize using density functional theory and quantum oscillation measurements. We further show the chiral transverse component of the spin structure is promoted by bond-oriented Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions associated with Weyl exchange processes. Our work provides a rare example of Weyl fermions driving collective magnetism.

*Sci Adv ; 7(21)2021 May.*

##### RESUMO

The observation of quantum criticality in diverse classes of strongly correlated electron systems has been instrumental in establishing ordering principles, discovering new phases, and identifying the relevant degrees of freedom and interactions. At focus so far have been insulators and metals. Semimetals, which are of great current interest as candidate phases with nontrivial topology, are much less explored in experiments. Here, we study the Kondo semimetal CeRu4Sn6 by magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The power-law divergence of the magnetic Grünesien ratio reveals that, unexpectedly, this compound is quantum critical without tuning. The dynamical energy over temperature scaling in the neutron response throughout the Brillouin zone and the temperature dependence of the static uniform susceptibility, indicate that temperature is the only energy scale in the criticality. Such behavior, which has been associated with Kondo destruction quantum criticality in metallic systems, could be generic in the semimetal setting.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(19): 197201, 2020 Nov 06.*

##### RESUMO

NiGa_{2}S_{4} is a triangular lattice S=1 system with strong two dimensionality of the lattice, actively discussed as a candidate to host spin-nematic order brought about by strong quadrupole coupling. Using Raman scattering spectroscopy we identify a phonon of E_{g} symmetry which can modulate magnetic exchange J_{1} and produce quadrupole coupling. Additionally, our Raman scattering results demonstrate a loss of local inversion symmetry on cooling, which we associate with sulfur vacancies. This will lead to disordered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, which can prevent long-range magnetic order. Using magnetic Raman scattering response we identify 160 K as a temperature of an upturn of magnetic correlations. The temperature range below 160 K, but above 50 K where antiferromagnetic correlations start to increase, is a candidate for spin-nematic regime.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27245-27254, 2020 11 03.*

##### RESUMO

We use neutron scattering to show that ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism coexist in the low T state of the pyrochlore quantum magnet [Formula: see text] While magnetic Bragg peaks evidence long-range static ferromagnetic order, inelastic scattering shows that short-range correlated antiferromagnetism is also present. Small-angle neutron scattering provides direct evidence for mesoscale magnetic structure that we associate with metastable antiferromagnetism. Classical Monte Carlo simulations based on exchange interactions inferred from [Formula: see text]-oriented high-field spin wave measurements confirm that antiferromagnetism is metastable within the otherwise ferromagnetic ground state. The apparent lack of coherent spin wave excitations and strong sensitivity to quenched disorder characterizing [Formula: see text] is a consequence of this multiphase magnetism.

*Phys Rev B ; 101(14)2020.*

##### RESUMO

We use inelastic neutron scattering to study the effect of a magnetic field on the neutron spin resonance (E r = 3.6 meV) of superconducting FeSe (T c = 9 K). While a field aligned along the in-plane direction broadens and suppresses the resonance, a c-axis aligned field does so much more efficiently, consistent with the anisotropic field-induced suppression of the superfluid density from the heat capacity measurements. These results suggest that the resonance in FeSe is associated with the superconducting electrons arising from orbital selective quasiparticle excitations between the hole and electron Fermi surfaces.

*Nat Mater ; 18(7): 709-716, 2019 07.*

##### RESUMO

Superconductivity in FeSe emerges from a nematic phase that breaks four-fold rotational symmetry in the iron plane. This phase may arise from orbital ordering, spin fluctuations or hidden magnetic quadrupolar order. Here we use inelastic neutron scattering on a mosaic of single crystals of FeSe, detwinned by mounting on a BaFe2As2 substrate to demonstrate that spin excitations are most intense at the antiferromagnetic wave vectors QAF = (±1, 0) at low energies E = 6-11 meV in the normal state. This two-fold (C2) anisotropy is reduced at lower energies, 3-5 meV, indicating a gapped four-fold (C4) mode. In the superconducting state, however, the strong nematic anisotropy is again reflected in the spin resonance (E = 3.6 meV) at QAF with incommensurate scattering around 5-6 meV. Our results highlight the extreme electronic anisotropy of the nematic phase of FeSe and are consistent with a highly anisotropic superconducting gap driven by spin fluctuations.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 120(9): 097201, 2018 Mar 02.*

##### RESUMO

We report the discovery of a field driven transition from a single-q to multi-q spin density wave (SDW) in the tetragonal heavy fermion compound CeAuSb_{2}. Polarized along c, the sinusoidal SDW amplitude is 1.8(2)µ_{B}/Ce for TâªT_{N}=6.25(10) K with a wave vector q_{1}=(Î·,Î·,1/2) [Î·=0.136(2)]. For Hâ¥c, harmonics appearing at 2q_{1} evidence a striped magnetic texture below µ_{∘}H_{1}=2.78(1) T. Above H_{1}, these are replaced by coupled harmonics at q_{1}+q_{2}=(2Î·,0,0)+c^{*} until µ_{∘}H_{2}=5.42(5) T, where satellites vanish and magnetization nonlinearly approaches saturation at 1.64(2)µ_{B}/Ce for µ_{∘}H≈7 T.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 115(12): 127202, 2015 Sep 18.*

##### RESUMO

The temporal magnetic correlations of the triangular-lattice antiferromagnet NiGa_{2}S_{4} are examined through 13 decades (10^{-13}-1 sec) using ultrahigh-resolution inelastic neutron scattering, muon spin relaxation, and ac and nonlinear susceptibility measurements. Unlike the short-ranged spatial correlations, the temperature dependence of the temporal correlations show distinct anomalies. The spin fluctuation rate decreases precipitously upon cooling towards T^{*}=8.5 K, but fluctuations on the microsecond time scale then persist in an anomalous dynamical regime for 4 K

*Nature ; 492(7429): 406-10, 2012 Dec 20.*

##### RESUMO

The experimental realization of quantum spin liquids is a long-sought goal in physics, as they represent new states of matter. Quantum spin liquids cannot be described by the broken symmetries associated with conventional ground states. In fact, the interacting magnetic moments in these systems do not order, but are highly entangled with one another over long ranges. Spin liquids have a prominent role in theories describing high-transition-temperature superconductors, and the topological properties of these states may have applications in quantum information. A key feature of spin liquids is that they support exotic spin excitations carrying fractional quantum numbers. However, detailed measurements of these 'fractionalized excitations' have been lacking. Here we report neutron scattering measurements on single-crystal samples of the spin-1/2 kagome-lattice antiferromagnet ZnCu(3)(OD)(6)Cl(2) (also called herbertsmithite), which provide striking evidence for this characteristic feature of spin liquids. At low temperatures, we find that the spin excitations form a continuum, in contrast to the conventional spin waves expected in ordered antiferromagnets. The observation of such a continuum is noteworthy because, so far, this signature of fractional spin excitations has been observed only in one-dimensional systems. The results also serve as a hallmark of the quantum spin-liquid state in herbertsmithite.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 106(3): 037201, 2011 Jan 21.*

##### RESUMO

Magnetism in the orthorhombic metal CaFe(4)As(3) was examined through neutron diffraction for powder and single crystalline samples. Incommensurate [q(m) ≈ (0.37-0.39) × b*] and predominantly longitudinally (|| b) modulated order develops through a 2nd order phase transition at TN = 89.63(6) K with a 3D Heisenberg-like critical exponent ß = 0.365(6). A 1st order transition at T2 = 25.6(9) K is associated with the development of a transverse component, locking q(m) to 0.375(2)b*, and increasing the moments from 2.1(1) to 2.2(3) µ B for Fe2+ and from 1.3(3) to 2.4(4) µB for Fe+. The ab initio Fermi surface is consistent with a nesting instability in cross-linked FeAs strips.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 103(6): 067008, 2009 Aug 07.*

##### RESUMO

Neutron scattering is used to probe magnetic excitations in FeSe_{0.4}Te_{0.6} (T_{c} = 14 K). Low energy spin fluctuations are found with a characteristic wave vector (1/21/2L) that corresponds to Fermi surface nesting and differs from Q_{m} = (delta01/2) for magnetic ordering in Fe_{1+y}Te. A spin resonance with variant Planck's over 2piOmega_{0} = 6.51(4) meV approximately 5.3k_{B}T_{c} and variant Planck's over 2piGamma = 1.25(5) meV develops in the superconducting state from a normal state continuum. We show that the resonance is consistent with a bound state associated with s_{+/-} superconductivity and imperfect quasi-2D Fermi surface nesting.

*Nature ; 440(7081): 187-90, 2006 Mar 09.*

##### RESUMO

Much of modern condensed matter physics is understood in terms of elementary excitations, or quasiparticles--fundamental quanta of energy and momentum. Various strongly interacting atomic systems are successfully treated as a collection of quasiparticles with weak or no interactions. However, there are interesting limitations to this description: in some systems the very existence of quasiparticles cannot be taken for granted. Like unstable elementary particles, quasiparticles cannot survive beyond a threshold where certain decay channels become allowed by conservation laws; their spectrum terminates at this threshold. Such quasiparticle breakdown was first predicted for an exotic state of matter--super-fluid 4He at temperatures close to absolute zero, a quantum Bose liquid where zero-point atomic motion precludes crystallization. Here we show, using neutron scattering, that quasiparticle breakdown can also occur in a quantum magnet and, by implication, in other systems with Bose quasiparticles. We have measured spin excitations in a two-dimensional quantum magnet, piperazinium hexachlorodicuprate (PHCC), in which spin-1/2 copper ions form a non-magnetic quantum spin liquid, and find remarkable similarities with excitations in superfluid 4He. We observe a threshold momentum beyond which the quasiparticle peak merges with the two-quasiparticle continuum. It then acquires a finite energy width and becomes indistinguishable from a leading-edge singularity, so that excited states are no longer quasiparticles but occupy a wide band of energy. Our findings have important ramifications for understanding excitations with gapped spectra in many condensed matter systems, ranging from band insulators to high-transition-temperature superconductors.

*Science ; 309(5741): 1697-700, 2005 Sep 09.*

##### RESUMO

As liquids crystallize into solids on cooling, spins in magnets generally form periodic order. However, three decades ago, it was theoretically proposed that spins on a triangular lattice form a liquidlike disordered state at low temperatures. Whether or not a spin liquid is stabilized by geometrical frustration has remained an active point of inquiry ever since. Our thermodynamic and neutron measurements on NiGa2S4, a rare example of a two-dimensional triangular lattice antiferromagnet, demonstrate that geometrical frustration stabilizes a low-temperature spin-disordered state with coherence beyond the two-spin correlation length. Spin liquid formation may be an origin of such behavior.