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1.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126023, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007777

RESUMO

Biodegradation by microorganisms is a useful tool that helps alleviating hydrocarbon pollution in nature. Microbes are more efficient in degradation under aerobic than anaerobic conditions, but the majority of sediment by volume is generally anoxic. Incubation experiments were conducted to study the biodegradation potential of naphthalene-a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-and the diversity of microbial communities in presence/absence of activated carbon (AC) under aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Radio-respirometry experiments with endogenous microorganisms indicated that degradation of naphthalene was strongly stimulated (96%) by the AC addition under anaerobic conditions. In aerobic conditions, however, AC had no effects on naphthalene biodegradation. Bioaugmentation tests with cultured microbial populations grown on naphthalene showed that AC further stimulated (92%) naphthalene degradation in anoxia. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences implied that sediment amendment with AC increased microbial community diversity and changed community structure. Moreover, the relative abundance of Geobacter, Thiobacillus, Sulfuricurvum, and methanogenic archaea increased sharply after amendment with AC under anaerobic conditions. These results may be explained by the fact that AC particles promoted direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between microorganisms involved in PAH degradation pathways. We suggest that important ecosystem functions mediated by microbes-such as hydrocarbon degradation-can be induced and that AC enrichment strategies can be exploited for facilitating bioremediation of anoxic oil-contaminated sediments and soils.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2579, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787958

RESUMO

Coastal zones are important transitional areas between the land and sea, where both terrestrial and phytoplankton supplied dissolved organic matter (DOM) are respired or transformed. As climate change is expected to increase river discharge and water temperatures, DOM from both allochthonous and autochthonous sources is projected to increase. As these transformations are largely regulated by bacteria, we analyzed microbial community structure data in relation to a 6-month long time-series dataset of DOM characteristics from Roskilde Fjord and adjacent streams, Denmark. The results showed that the microbial community composition in the outer estuary (closer to the sea) was largely associated with salinity and nutrients, while the inner estuary formed two clusters linked to either nutrients plus allochthonous DOM or autochthonous DOM characteristics. In contrast, the microbial community composition in the streams was found to be mainly associated with allochthonous DOM characteristics. A general pattern across the land-to-sea interface was that Betaproteobacteria were strongly associated with humic-like DOM [operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to family Comamonadaceae], while distinct populations were instead associated with nutrients or abiotic variables such as temperature (Cyanobacteria genus Synechococcus) and salinity (Actinobacteria family Microbacteriaceae). Furthermore, there was a stark shift in the relative abundance of OTUs between stream and marine stations. This indicates that as DOM travels through the land-to-sea interface, different bacterial guilds continuously degrade it.

3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 217: 105328, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629202

RESUMO

Benthic ecosystems have come under intense pressure, due to eutrophication-driven oxygen decline and industrial metal contamination. One of the most toxic metals is Cadmium (Cd), which is lethal to many aquatic organisms already at low concentrations. Denitrification by facultative anaerobic microorganisms is an essential process to transform, but also to remove, excess nitrate in eutrophied systems. Cd has been shown to decrease denitrification and sequester free sulfide, which is available when oxygen is scarce and generally inhibits complete denitrification (i.e. N2O to N2). In polluted sediments, an interaction between oxygen and Cd may influence denitrification and this relationship has not been studied. For example, in the Baltic Sea some sediments are double exposed to both Cd and hypoxia. In this study, we examined how the double exposure of Cd and fluctuations in oxygen affects denitrification in Baltic Sea sediment. Results show that oxygen largely regulated N2O and N2 production after 21 days of exposure to Cd (ranging from 0 to 500 µg/L, 5 different treatments, measured by the isotope pairing technique (IPT)). In the high Cd treatment (500 µg/L) the variation in N2 production increased compared to the other treatments. Increases in N2 production are suggested to be an effect of 1) enhanced nitrification that increases NO3- availability thus stimulating denitrification, and 2) Cd successfully sequestrating sulfide (yielding CdS), which allows for full denitrification to N2. The in situ field sediment contained initially high Cd concentrations in the pore water (∼10 µg/L) and microbial communities might already have been adapted to metal stress, making the effect of low Cd levels negligible. Here we show that high levels of cadmium pollution might increase N2 production and influence nitrogen cycling in marine sediments.

4.
mBio ; 10(4)2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409677

RESUMO

Life in water-filled bedrock fissures in the continental deep biosphere is broadly constrained by energy and nutrient availability. Although these communities are alive, robust studies comparing active populations and metabolic processes across deep aquifers are lacking. This study analyzed three oligotrophic Fennoscandian Shield groundwaters, two "modern marine" waters that are replenished with organic carbon from the Baltic Sea and are likely less than 20 years old (171.3 and 415.4 m below sea level) and an extremely oligotrophic "thoroughly mixed" water (448.8 m below sea level) of unknown age that is composed of very old saline and marine waters. Cells were captured either using a sampling device that rapidly fixed RNA under in situ conditions or by filtering flowing groundwater over an extended period before fixation. Comparison of metatranscriptomes between the methods showed statistically similar transcript profiles for the respective water types, and they were analyzed as biological replicates. Study of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA confirmed active populations from all three domains of life, with many potentially novel unclassified populations present. Statistically supported differences between communities included heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the modern marine water at 171.3 m below sea level that has a higher organic carbon content than do largely autotrophic populations in the H2- and CO2-fed thoroughly mixed water. While this modern marine water had signatures of methanogenesis, syntrophic populations were predominantly in the thoroughly mixed water. The study provides a first statistical evaluation of differences in the active microbial communities in groundwaters differentially fed by organic carbon or "geogases."IMPORTANCE Despite being separated from the photosynthesis-driven surface by both distance and time, the deep biosphere is an important driver for the earth's carbon and energy cycles. However, due to the difficulties in gaining access and low cell numbers, robust statistical omics studies have not been carried out, and this limits the conclusions that can be drawn. This study benchmarks the use of two separate sampling systems and demonstrates that they provide statistically similar RNA transcript profiles, importantly validating several previously published studies. The generated data are analyzed to identify statistically valid differences in active microbial community members and metabolic processes. The results highlight contrasting taxa and growth strategies in the modern marine waters that are influenced by recent infiltration of Baltic Sea water versus the hydrogen- and carbon dioxide-fed, extremely oligotrophic, thoroughly mixed water.

5.
Mol Ecol ; 28(16): 3813-3829, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332853

RESUMO

Coastal benthic biodiversity is under increased pressure from climate change, eutrophication, hypoxia, and changes in salinity due to increase in river runoff. The Baltic Sea is a large brackish system characterized by steep environmental gradients that experiences all of the mentioned stressors. As such it provides an ideal model system for studying the impact of on-going and future climate change on biodiversity and function of benthic ecosystems. Meiofauna (animals < 1 mm) are abundant in sediment and are still largely unexplored even though they are known to regulate organic matter degradation and nutrient cycling. In this study, benthic meiofaunal community structure was analysed along a salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea proper using high-throughput sequencing. Our results demonstrate that areas with higher salinity have a higher biodiversity, and salinity is probably the main driver influencing meiofauna diversity and community composition. Furthermore, in the more diverse and saline environments a larger amount of nematode genera classified as predators prevailed, and meiofauna-macrofauna associations were more prominent. These findings show that in the Baltic Sea, a decrease in salinity resulting from accelerated climate change will probably lead to decreased benthic biodiversity, and cause profound changes in benthic communities, with potential consequences for ecosystem stability, functions and services.

6.
Microb Ecol ; 77(2): 288-303, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019110

RESUMO

Two annual Baltic Sea phytoplankton blooms occur in spring and summer. The bloom intensity is determined by nutrient concentrations in the water, while the period depends on weather conditions. During the course of the bloom, dead cells sink to the sediment where their degradation consumes oxygen to create hypoxic zones (< 2 mg/L dissolved oxygen). These zones prevent the establishment of benthic communities and may result in fish mortality. The aim of the study was to determine how the spring and autumn sediment chemistry and microbial community composition changed due to degradation of diatom or cyanobacterial biomass, respectively. Results from incubation of sediment cores showed some typical anaerobic microbial processes after biomass addition such as a decrease in NO2- + NO3- in the sediment surface (0-1 cm) and iron in the underlying layer (1-2 cm). In addition, an increase in NO2- + NO3- was observed in the overlying benthic water in all amended and control incubations. The combination of NO2- + NO3- diffusion plus nitrification could not account for this increase. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the addition of cyanobacterial biomass during autumn caused a large increase in ferrous iron-oxidizing archaea while diatom biomass amendment during spring caused minor changes in the microbial community. Considering that OTUs sharing lineages with acidophilic microorganisms had a high relative abundance during autumn, it was suggested that specific niches developed in sediment microenvironments. These findings highlight the importance of nitrogen cycling and early microbial community changes in the sediment due to sinking phytoplankton before potential hypoxia occurs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biomassa , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Diatomáceas/classificação , Diatomáceas/genética , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Eutrofização , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nitratos/análise , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nitritos/análise , Nitritos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Fitoplâncton/classificação , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/química , Água do Mar/microbiologia
7.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2945, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568637

RESUMO

Mining and processing of metal sulfide ores produces waters containing metals and inorganic sulfur compounds such as tetrathionate and thiosulfate. If released untreated, these sulfur compounds can be oxidized to generate highly acidic wastewaters [termed 'acid mine drainage (AMD)'] that cause severe environmental pollution. One potential method to remediate mining wastewaters is the maturing biotechnology of 'microbial fuel cells' that offers the sustainable removal of acid generating inorganic sulfur compounds alongside producing an electrical current. Microbial fuel cells exploit the ability of bacterial cells to transfer electrons to a mineral as the terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration by replacing the mineral with a solid anode. In consequence, by substituting natural minerals with electrodes, microbial fuel cells also provide an excellent platform to understand environmental microbe-mineral interactions that are fundamental to element cycling. Previously, tetrathionate degradation coupled to the generation of an electrical current has been demonstrated and here we report a metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of the microbial community. Reconstruction of inorganic sulfur compound metabolism suggested the substrate tetrathionate was metabolized by the Ferroplasma-like and Acidithiobacillus-like populations via multiple pathways. Characterized Ferroplasma species do not utilize inorganic sulfur compounds, suggesting a novel Ferroplasma-like population had been selected. Oxidation of intermediate sulfide, sulfur, thiosulfate, and adenylyl-sulfate released electrons and the extracellular electron transfer to the anode was suggested to be dominated by candidate soluble electron shuttles produced by the Ferroplasma-like population. However, as the soluble electron shuttle compounds also have alternative functions within the cell, it cannot be ruled out that acidophiles use novel, uncharacterized mechanisms to mediate extracellular electron transfer. Several populations within the community were suggested to metabolize intermediate inorganic sulfur compounds by multiple pathways, which highlights the potential for mutualistic or symbiotic relationships. This study provided the genetic base for acidophilic microbial fuel cells utilized for the remediation of inorganic sulfur compounds from AMD.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2308, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323799

RESUMO

Thiocyanate is a toxic compound produced by the mining and metallurgy industries that needs to be remediated prior to its release into the environment. If the industry is situated at high altitudes or near the poles, economic factors require a low temperature treatment process. Microbial fuel cells are a developing technology that have the benefits of both removing such toxic compounds while recovering electrical energy. In this study, simultaneous thiocyanate degradation and electrical current generation was demonstrated and it was suggested that extracellular electron transfer to the anode occurred. Investigation of the microbial community by 16S rRNA metatranscriptome reads supported that the anode attached and planktonic anolyte consortia were dominated by a Thiobacillus-like population. Metatranscriptomic sequencing also suggested thiocyanate degradation primarily occurred via the 'cyanate' degradation pathway. The generated sulfide was metabolized via sulfite and ultimately to sulfate mediated by reverse dissimilatory sulfite reductase, APS reductase, and sulfate adenylyltransferase and the released electrons were potentially transferred to the anode via soluble electron shuttles. Finally, the ammonium from thiocyanate degradation was assimilated to glutamate as nitrogen source and carbon dioxide was fixed as carbon source. This study is one of the first to demonstrate a low temperature inorganic sulfur utilizing microbial fuel cell and the first to provide evidence for pathways of thiocyanate degradation coupled to electron transfer.

9.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 94(8)2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931252

RESUMO

The deep biosphere is the largest 'bioreactor' on earth, and microbes inhabiting this biome profoundly influence global nutrient and energy cycles. An important question for deep biosphere microbiology is whether or not specific populations are viable. To address this, we used quantitative PCR and high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of total and viable cells (i.e. with an intact cellular membrane) from three groundwaters with different ages and chemical constituents. There were no statistically significant differences in 16S rRNA gene abundances and microbial diversity between total and viable communities. This suggests that populations were adapted to prevailing oligotrophic conditions and that non-viable cells are rapidly degraded and recycled into new biomass. With higher concentrations of organic carbon, the modern marine and undefined mixed waters hosted a community with a larger range of predicted growth strategies than the ultra-oligotrophic old saline water. These strategies included fermentative and potentially symbiotic lifestyles by candidate phyla that typically have streamlined genomes. In contrast, the old saline waters had more 16S rRNA gene sequences in previously cultured lineages able to oxidize hydrogen and fix carbon dioxide. This matches the paradigm of a hydrogen and carbon dioxide-fed chemolithoautotrophic deep biosphere.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Crescimento Quimioautotrófico/fisiologia , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reciclagem
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 284(1864)2017 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978732

RESUMO

An important characteristic of marine sediments is the oxygen concentration that affects many central metabolic processes. There has been a widespread increase in hypoxia in coastal systems (referred to as 'dead zones') mainly caused by eutrophication. Hence, it is central to understand the metabolism and ecology of eukaryotic life in sediments during changing oxygen conditions. Therefore, we sampled coastal 'dead zone' Baltic Sea sediment during autumn and spring, and analysed the eukaryotic metatranscriptome from field samples and after incubation in the dark under oxic or anoxic conditions. Bacillariophyta (diatoms) dominated the eukaryotic metatranscriptome in spring and were also abundant during autumn. A large fraction of the diatom RNA reads was associated with the photosystems suggesting a constitutive expression in darkness. Microscope observation showed intact diatom cells and these would, if hatched, represent a significant part of the pelagic phytoplankton biomass. Oxygenation did not significantly change the relative proportion of diatoms nor resulted in any major shifts in metabolic 'signatures'. By contrast, diatoms rapidly responded when exposed to light suggesting that light is limiting diatom development in hypoxic sediments. Hence, it is suggested that diatoms in hypoxic sediments are on 'standby' to exploit the environment if they reach suitable habitats.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/genética , Eutrofização , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Metagenoma , Água do Mar/análise , Biomassa , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Fitoplâncton/genética , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , RNA/análise , Estações do Ano
11.
Microbiome ; 5(1): 96, 2017 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A key characteristic of eutrophication in coastal seas is the expansion of hypoxic bottom waters, often referred to as 'dead zones'. One proposed remediation strategy for coastal dead zones in the Baltic Sea is to mix the water column using pump stations, circulating oxygenated water to the sea bottom. Although microbial metabolism in the sediment surface is recognized as key in regulating bulk chemical fluxes, it remains unknown how the microbial community and its metabolic processes are influenced by shifts in oxygen availability. Here, coastal Baltic Sea sediments sampled from oxic and anoxic sites, plus an intermediate area subjected to episodic oxygenation, were experimentally exposed to oxygen shifts. Chemical, 16S rRNA gene, metagenomic, and metatranscriptomic analyses were conducted to investigate changes in chemistry fluxes, microbial community structure, and metabolic functions in the sediment surface. RESULTS: Compared to anoxic controls, oxygenation of anoxic sediment resulted in a proliferation of bacterial populations in the facultative anaerobic genus Sulfurovum that are capable of oxidizing toxic sulfide. Furthermore, the oxygenated sediment had higher amounts of RNA transcripts annotated as sqr, fccB, and dsrA involved in sulfide oxidation. In addition, the importance of cryptic sulfur cycling was highlighted by the oxidative genes listed above as well as dsvA, ttrB, dmsA, and ddhAB that encode reductive processes being identified in anoxic and intermediate sediments turned oxic. In particular, the intermediate site sediments responded differently upon oxygenation compared to the anoxic and oxic site sediments. This included a microbial community composition with more habitat generalists, lower amounts of RNA transcripts attributed to methane oxidation, and a reduced rate of organic matter degradation. CONCLUSIONS: These novel data emphasize that genetic expression analyses has the power to identify key molecular mechanisms that regulate microbial community responses upon oxygenation of dead zones. Moreover, these results highlight that microbial responses, and therefore ultimately remediation efforts, depend largely on the oxygenation history of sites. Furthermore, it was shown that re-oxygenation efforts to remediate dead zones could ultimately be facilitated by in situ microbial molecular mechanisms involved in removal of toxic H2S and the potent greenhouse gas methane.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Consórcios Microbianos/genética , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/genética , Países Bálticos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metagenômica , Metano/metabolismo , Consórcios Microbianos/fisiologia , Oceanos e Mares , Oxirredução , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
Biodegradation ; 28(4): 287-301, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577026

RESUMO

Wastewaters generated during mining and processing of metal sulfide ores are often acidic (pH < 3) and can contain significant concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium from nitrogen based explosives. In addition, wastewaters from sulfide ore treatment plants and tailings ponds typically contain large amounts of inorganic sulfur compounds, such as thiosulfate and tetrathionate. Release of these wastewaters can lead to environmental acidification as well as an increase in nutrients (eutrophication) and compounds that are potentially toxic to humans and animals. Waters from cyanidation plants for gold extraction will often conjointly include toxic, sulfur containing thiocyanate. More stringent regulatory limits on the release of mining wastes containing compounds such as inorganic sulfur compounds, nitrate, and thiocyanate, along the need to increase production from sulfide mineral mining calls for low cost techniques to remove these pollutants under ambient temperatures (approximately 8 °C). In this study, we used both aerobic and anaerobic continuous cultures to successfully couple inorganic sulfur compound (i.e. thiosulfate and thiocyanate) oxidation for the removal of nitrogenous compounds under neutral to acidic pH at the low temperatures typical for boreal climates. Furthermore, the development of the respective microbial communities was identified over time by DNA sequencing, and found to contain a consortium including populations aligning within Flavobacterium, Thiobacillus, and Comamonadaceae lineages. This is the first study to remediate mining waste waters by coupling autotrophic thiocyanate oxidation to nitrate reduction at low temperatures and acidic pH by means of an identified microbial community.


Assuntos
Processos Autotróficos , Temperatura Baixa , Desnitrificação , Elétrons , Tiocianatos/farmacologia , Tiossulfatos/farmacologia , Aerobiose , Anaerobiose , Processos Autotróficos/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Desnitrificação/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Filogenia
13.
Front Microbiol ; 8: 2453, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29312168

RESUMO

The Baltic Sea has undergone severe eutrophication during the last century, resulting in increased algal blooms and the development of hypoxic bottom waters. In this study, we sampled oxygen deficient sediment cores from a Baltic Sea coastal bay and exposed the bottom water including the sediment surface to oxygen shifts via artificial addition of air during laboratory incubation. Surface sediment (top 1 cm) from the replicate cores were sliced in the field as well as throughout the laboratory incubations and chemical parameters were analyzed along with high throughput sequencing of community DNA and RNA. After oxygenation, dissolved iron decreased in the water overlying the sediment while inorganic sulfur compounds (thiosulfate and tetrathionate) increased when the water was kept anoxic. Oxygenation of the sediment also maintained RNA transcripts attributed to sulfide and sulfur oxidation as well as nitrogen fixation in the sediment surface. Based on 16S rRNA gene and metatranscriptomic analyses it was found that oxygenation of the sediment surface caused a bloom of the Epsilonproteobacteria genus Arcobacter. In addition, the formation of a thick white film was observed that was likely filamentous zero-valent sulfur produced by the Arcobacter spp. Based on these results, sulfur cycling and nitrogen fixation that were evident in the field samples were ongoing during re-oxygenation of the sediment. These processes potentially added organic nitrogen to the system and facilitated the re-establishment of micro- and macroorganism communities in the benthic zone.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(23): 12808-12815, 2016 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27934286

RESUMO

After the first commercial applications of a new biological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from low pressure biogas, the need arose to broaden the operating window to also enable the removal of organosulfur compounds from high pressure sour gases. In this study we have selected microorganisms from a full-scale biodesulfurization system that are capable of withstanding the presence of thiols. This full-scale unit has been in stable operation for more than 10 years. We investigated the microbial community by using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons which showed that methanethiol gave a competitive advantage to bacteria belonging to the genera Thioalkalibacter (Halothiobacillaceae family) and Alkalilimnicola (Ectothiorhosdospiraceae family). The sulfide-oxidizing potential of the acclimatized population was investigated under elevated thiol loading rates (4.5-9.1 mM d-1), consisting of a mix of methanethiol, ethanethiol, and propanethiol. With this biomass, it was possible to achieve a stable bioreactor operation at which 80% of the supplied H2S (61 mM d-1) was biologically oxidized to elemental sulfur. The remainder was chemically produced thiosulfate. Moreover, we found that a conventionally applied method for controlling the oxygen supply to the bioreactor, that is, by maintaining a redox potential set-point value, appeared to be ineffective in the presence of thiols.


Assuntos
RNA Ribossômico 16S , Sulfetos , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 282(1817): 20152025, 2015 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26468249

RESUMO

Many coastal marine systems have extensive areas with anoxic sediments and it is not well known how these conditions affect the benthic-pelagic coupling. Zooplankton lay their eggs in the pelagic zone, and some sink and lie dormant in the sediment, before hatched zooplankton return to the water column. In this study, we investigated how oxygenation of long-term anoxic sediments affects the hatching frequency of dormant zooplankton eggs. Anoxic sediments from the brackish Baltic Sea were sampled and incubated for 26 days with constant aeration whereby, the sediment surface and the overlying water were turned oxic. Newly hatched rotifers and copepod nauplii (juveniles) were observed after 5 and 8 days, respectively. Approximately 1.5 × 10(5) nauplii m(-2) emerged from sediment turned oxic compared with 0.02 × 10(5) m(-2) from controls maintained anoxic. This study demonstrated that re-oxygenation of anoxic sediments activated a large pool of buried zooplankton eggs, strengthening the benthic-pelagic coupling of the system. Modelling of the studied anoxic zone suggested that a substantial part of the pelagic copepod population can derive from hatching of dormant eggs. We suggest that this process should be included in future studies to understand population dynamics and carbon flows in marine pelagic systems.


Assuntos
Copépodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rotíferos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Águas Salinas/química , Anaerobiose , Animais , Oceanos e Mares , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zooplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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