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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2206: 223-232, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754821

RESUMO

Exiting developments in tissue engineering and new insights in stem cell biology have led to new possible strategies for the regeneration of damaged tissues in the oral cavity. The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex regeneration in particular, has drawn the attention of many researchers because of the high clinical needs. While it is still important to perform in vitro research using a wide variety of cells, scaffolds and growth factors, it is also critical to have a reliable animal model for preclinical trials. In this chapter, we describe a mouse model in which a scaffold resembling a tooth containing dental pulp cells is implanted subcutaneously. We also describe which histological stainings could be used to examine blood vessel formation and the regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12220, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699285

RESUMO

Growing evidence supports the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the development of diabetic vascular complications and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We have shown that high-molecular-weight AGEs (HMW-AGEs), present in our Western diet, impair cardiac function. Whether HMW-AGEs affect vascular function remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of chronic HMW-AGEs exposure on vascular function and structure. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were daily injected with HMW-AGEs or control solution for 6 weeks. HMW-AGEs animals showed intracardiac pressure overload, characterized by increased systolic and mean pressures. The contraction response to PE was increased in aortic rings from the HMW-AGEs group. Relaxation in response to ACh, but not SNP, was impaired by HMW-AGEs. This was associated with reduced plasma cyclic GMP levels. SOD restored ACh-induced relaxation of HMW-AGEs animals to control levels, accompanied by a reduced half-maximal effective dose (EC50). Finally, collagen deposition and intima-media thickness of the aortic vessel wall were increased with HMW-AGEs. Our data demonstrate that chronic HMW-AGEs exposure causes adverse vascular remodelling. This is characterised by disturbed vasomotor function due to increased oxidative stress and structural changes in the aorta, suggesting an important contribution of HMW-AGEs in the development of CVDs.

3.
Cells ; 9(4)2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326610

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative and inflammatory joint disorder with cartilage loss. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can undergo chondrogenic differentiation and secrete growth factors associated with tissue repair and immunomodulation. Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) emerges in regenerative medicine because of its growth factor content and fibrin matrix. This study evaluates the therapeutic application of DPSCs and L-PRF in OA via immunomodulation and cartilage regeneration. Chondrogenic differentiation of DPSCs, with or without L-PRF exudate (ex) and conditioned medium (CM), and of bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells was compared. These cells showed differential chondrogenesis. L-PRF was unable to increase cartilage-associated components. Immature murine articular chondrocytes (iMACs) were cultured with L-PRF ex, L-PRF CM, or DPSC CM. L-PRF CM had pro-survival and proliferative effects on unstimulated and cytokine-stimulated iMACs. L-PRF CM stimulated the release of IL-6 and PGE2, and increased MMP-13, TIMP-1 and IL-6 mRNA levels in cytokine-stimulated iMACs. DPSC CM increased the survival and proliferation of unstimulated iMACs. In cytokine-stimulated iMACs, DPSC CM increased TIMP-1 gene expression, whereas it inhibited nitrite release in 3D culture. We showed promising effects of DPSCs in an in vitro OA model, as they undergo chondrogenesis in vitro, stimulate the survival of chondrocytes and have immunomodulatory effects.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220219

RESUMO

Tissue engineering aims to structurally and functionally regenerate damaged tissues, which requires the formation of new blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients by the process of angiogenesis. Stem cells are a promising tool in regenerative medicine due to their combined differentiation and paracrine angiogenic capacities. The study of their proangiogenic properties and associated potential for tissue regeneration requires complex in vivo models comprising all steps of the angiogenic process. The highly vascularized extraembryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of fertilized chicken eggs offers a simple, easy accessible, and cheap angiogenic screening tool compared to other animal models. Although the CAM assay was initially primarily performed for evaluation of tumor growth and metastasis, stem cell studies using this model are increasing. In this review, a detailed summary of angiogenic observations of different mesenchymal, cardiac, and endothelial stem cell types and derivatives in the CAM model is presented. Moreover, we focus on the variation in experimental setup, including the benefits and limitations of in ovo and ex ovo protocols, diverse biological and synthetic scaffolds, imaging techniques, and outcome measures of neovascularization. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of the CAM assay as a model for angiogenesis in tissue engineering in comparison with alternative in vivo animal models are described. Impact statement The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is an easy and cheap screening tool for the angiogenic properties of stem cells and their associated potential in the tissue engineering field. This review offers an overview of all published angiogenic studies of stem cells using this model, with emphasis on the variation in used experimental timeline, culture protocol (in ovo vs. ex ovo), stem cell type (derivatives), scaffolds, and outcome measures of vascularization. The purpose of this overview is to aid tissue engineering researchers to determine the ideal CAM experimental setup based on their specific study goals.

5.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012900

RESUMO

Blood vessel formation or angiogenesis is a key process for successful tooth regeneration. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) possess paracrine proangiogenic properties, which are, at least partially, induced by their extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, the isolation of BM-MSCs is associated with several drawbacks, which could be overcome by MSC-like cells of the teeth, called dental pulp stromal cells (DPSCs). This study aims to compare the angiogenic content and functions of DPSC and BM-MSC EVs and conditioned medium (CM). The angiogenic protein profile of DPSC- and BM-MSC-derived EVs, CM and EV-depleted CM was screened by an antibody array and confirmed by ELISA. Functional angiogenic effects were tested in transwell migration and chicken chorioallantoic membrane assays. All secretion fractions contained several pro- and anti-angiogenic proteins and induced in vitro endothelial cell motility. This chemotactic potential was higher for (EV-depleted) CM, compared to EVs with a stronger effect for BM-MSCs. Finally, BM-MSC CM, but not DPSC CM, nor EVs, increased in ovo angiogenesis. In conclusion, we showed that DPSCs are less potent in relation to endothelial cell chemotaxis and in ovo neovascularization, compared to BM-MSCs, which emphasizes the importance of choice of cell type and secretion fraction for stem cell-based regenerative therapies in inducing angiogenesis.

6.
Transl Stroke Res ; 11(1): 60-79, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309427

RESUMO

Adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone is a topic of intense research, since it has vast implications for the fundamental understanding of the neurobiology of the brain and its potential to being harnessed for therapy in various neurological disorders. Investigation of adult neurogenesis has been complicated by the difficulties with characterization of neural stem cells in vivo. However, recent single-cell transcriptomic studies provide more detailed information on marker expression in neural stem cells and their neuronal lineage, which hopefully will result in a more unified discussion. Regulation of the multiple biological steps in adult neurogenesis comprises intrinsic mechanisms as well as extrinsic factors which together orchestrate the process. In this review, we describe the regulating factors and their cellular sources in the physiological condition and provide an overview of the regulating factors mediating stroke-induced stimulation of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone. While there is ongoing debate about the longevity of active post-natal neurogenesis in humans, the subventricular zone has the capacity to upregulate neurogenesis in response to ischemic stroke. Though, the stroke-induced neurogenesis in humans does not seem to translate into adequate functional recovery, which opens discussion about potential treatment strategies to harness this neuroregenerative response. Various therapeutic approaches are explored in preclinical and clinical studies to target endogenous neurogenesis of which some are discussed in this review.

7.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 561, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275094

RESUMO

Despite the high prevalence and devastating outcome, only a few treatment options for cerebral ischemic stroke exist. Based on the nitric oxide (NO)-stimulating capacity of Non-pulsed Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Field (NP-SEMF) and the possible neuroprotective role of NO in ischemic stroke, we hypothesized that NP-SEMF is able to enhance survival and neurological outcome in a rat model of cerebral ischemia. The animals, in which ischemic injury was induced by occlusion of both common carotid arteries, received 20 min of NP-SEMF of either 10 or 60 Hz daily for 4 days. NP-SEMF dramatically increased survival, reduced the size of the infarcted brain area and significantly improved the neurological score of the surviving rats. Corresponding to previous reports, NP-SEMF was able to induce NO production in vitro. The importance of NO as a key signaling molecule was highlighted by inhibition of the NP-SEMF beneficial effects in the rat stroke model after blocking NO synthase (NOS). Our results indicate for the first time that NP-SEMF exposure (13.5 mT at 60 and 10 Hz) improves the survival and neurological outcome of rats subjected to cerebral ischemia and that this effect is mediated by NO, underlining the great therapeutic potential of NP-SEMF as a therapy for ischemic stroke.

8.
Stem Cells Int ; 2019: 8589149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089335

RESUMO

Pathologies of the central nervous system are characterized by loss of brain tissue and neuronal function which cannot be adequately restored by endogenous repair processes. This stresses the need for novel treatment options such as cell-based therapies that are able to restore damaged tissue or stimulate repair. This study investigated the neuroregenerative potential of the conditioned medium of human dental pulp stem cells (CM-hDPSCs) on neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and migration as well as on neurite outgrowth of primary cortical neurons (pCNs). Additionally, the effect of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) priming on the neuroregenerative potential of the hDPSC secretome on NSCs and pCNs was evaluated. L-PRF contains factors that enhance stem cell-induced regeneration, but its effect on hDPSC-mediated neuroregeneration is unknown. This study demonstrated that CM-hDPSCs enhanced neuritogenesis. Moreover, CM-hDPSCs had a chemoattractant effect on NSCs. Although priming hDPSCs with L-PRF increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor secretion, no additional effects on the paracrine-mediated repair mechanisms were observed. These data support the neuroregenerative potential of hDPSCs, and although priming had no additional effect, the potential of L-PRF-primed hDPSCs on distinct regenerative mechanisms remains to be clarified.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14632, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279483

RESUMO

Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) is an autologous platelet concentrate, consisting of a fibrin matrix enriched with platelets, leukocytes and a plethora of cytokines and growth factors. Since L-PRF is produced bedside from whole blood without the use of an anti-coagulant, it is becoming a popular adjuvant in regenerative medicine. While other types of platelet concentrates have been described to stimulate blood vessel formation, little is known about the angiogenic capacities of L-PRF. Therefore, this study aimed to fully characterize the angiogenic potential of L-PRF. With an antibody array, the growth factors released by L-PRF were determined and high levels of CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR-2) ligands and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were found. L-PRF induced in vitro key steps of the angiogenic process: endothelial proliferation, migration and tube formation. In addition, we could clearly demonstrate that L-PRF is able to induce blood vessel formation in vivo, the chorioallantoic membrane assay. In conclusion, we could demonstrate the angiogenic capacity of L-PRF both in vitro and in vivo, underlying the clinical potential of this easy-to-use platelet concentrate.


Assuntos
Neovascularização Fisiológica , Fibrina Rica em Plaquetas , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico , Humanos , Receptores de Interleucina-8B
10.
Stem Cells Int ; 2018: 9079538, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29535784

RESUMO

Due to the restricted intrinsic capacity of resident chondrocytes to regenerate the lost cartilage postinjury, stem cell-based therapies have been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach for cartilage repair. Moreover, stem cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been used successfully in preclinical and clinical settings. Despite these promising reports, the exact mechanisms underlying stem cell-mediated cartilage repair remain uncertain. Stem cells can contribute to cartilage repair via chondrogenic differentiation, via immunomodulation, or by the production of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles. But before novel cell-based therapies for cartilage repair can be introduced into the clinic, rigorous testing in preclinical animal models is required. Preclinical models used in regenerative cartilage studies include murine, lapine, caprine, ovine, porcine, canine, and equine models, each associated with its specific advantages and limitations. This review presents a summary of recent in vitro data and from in vivo preclinical studies justifying the use of MSCs and iPSCs in cartilage tissue engineering. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing small and large animals will be discussed, while also describing suitable outcome measures for evaluating cartilage repair.

11.
Stem Cells Int ; 2017: 2582080, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29018483

RESUMO

Adequate vascularization, a restricting factor for the survival of engineered tissues, is often promoted by the addition of stem cells or the appropriate angiogenic growth factors. In this study, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) were applied in an in vivo model of dental pulp regeneration in order to compare their regenerative potential and confirm their previously demonstrated paracrine angiogenic properties. 3D-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds containing DPSCs and/or SCAPs were subcutaneously transplanted into immunocompromised mice. After twelve weeks, histological and ultrastructural analysis demonstrated the regeneration of vascularized pulp-like tissue as well as mineralized tissue formation in all stem cell constructs. Despite the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro, the stem cell constructs did not display a higher vascularization rate in comparison to control conditions. Similar results were found after eight weeks, which suggests both osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of the transplanted stem cells and the promotion of angiogenesis in this particular setting. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate the successful formation of vascularized pulp-like tissue in 3D-printed scaffolds containing dental stem cells, emphasizing the promising role of this approach in dental tissue engineering.

12.
J Endod ; 43(9S): S12-S16, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28781091

RESUMO

Dental pulp is a highly vascularized and innervated tissue containing a heterogeneous stem cell population with multilineage differentiation potential. Current endodontic treatments focus on the preservation of the pulp tissue and the regeneration of dental pulp after pathological insults. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are currently investigated as stem cell-based therapy for pulp regeneration and for peripheral nerve injury in which neurons and Schwann cells display limited regenerative capacity. We have developed a neuronal differentiation protocol for hDPSCs that requires neurosphere formation before neuronal maturation. Moreover, Schwann cell differentiation of hDPSCs in our group revealed that differentiated hDPSCs have acquired the ability to myelinate and guide neurites from dorsal root ganglia. Besides their dynamic differentiation capacity, hDPSCs were shown to exert a paracrine effect on neural and endothelial cells. Analysis of hDPSC conditioned medium revealed the secretion of a broad spectrum of growth factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glial-derived neurotrophic factor. Application of the conditioned medium to endothelial cells promoted cell migration and tubulogenesis, indicating a paracrine proangiogenic effect. This hypothesis was enforced by the enhanced formation of blood vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane assay in the presence of hDPSCs. In addition, transplantation of 3-dimensional-printed hydroxyapatite scaffolds containing peptide hydrogels and hDPSCs into immunocompromised mice revealed blood vessel ingrowth, pulplike tissue formation, and osteodentin deposition suggesting osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Future studies in our research group will focus on the pulp regeneration capacity of hDPSCs and the role of fibroblasts within the pulp extracellular matrix.


Assuntos
Polpa Dentária/citologia , Polpa Dentária/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Neurogênese , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Regeneração
13.
J Cell Physiol ; 232(2): 298-308, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27403604

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is associated with changes in endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and tube formation, controlled by extracellular receptor-activated kinase (ERK)/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt signaling. Important regulators of these systems include hormones acting on G-protein-coupled receptors, such as beta 2-adrenoceptors (ß2-ARs). In central nervous system (CNS) trauma, the importance of ß2-AR modulation has been highlighted, although the effects on revascularization remain unclear. Vascular protection and revascularization are, however, key to support regeneration. We have investigated the angiogenic capacity of the specific ß2-AR agonist terbutaline on ECs derived from the CNS, namely bEnd.3-cells. As angiogenesis is a multistep process involving increased proliferation and tube formation of ECs, we investigated the effects of terbutaline on these processes. We show that terbutaline significantly induced bEnd.3 tube formation in a matrigel in vitro assay. Moreover, administration of specific inhibitors of ERK and Akt signaling both inhibited terbutaline-induced tube formation. The proliferation rate of the ECs was not affected. In order to investigate the general effects of terbutaline in an organotypic system, we have used the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)-assay. Most importantly, terbutaline increased the number of blood vessels in this in ovo setting. Although we observed a positive trend, the systemic administration of terbutaline did not significantly improve the functional outcome, nor did it affect revascularization in our spinal cord injury model. In conclusion, these data indicate that terbutaline is promising to stimulate blood vessel formation, underscoring the importance of further research into the angiotherapeutic relevance of terbutaline and ß2-AR signaling after CNS-trauma. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 298-308, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Terbutalina/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Corioalantoide/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Terbutalina/uso terapêutico
14.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 37(2): 726-739, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26994041

RESUMO

We have characterized both acute and long-term vascular and metabolic effects of unilateral common carotid artery occlusion in mice by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. This common carotid artery occlusion model induces chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and is therefore relevant to both preclinical stroke studies, where it serves as a control condition for a commonly used mouse model of ischemic stroke, and neurodegeneration, as chronic hypoperfusion is causative to cognitive decline. By using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that under isoflurane anesthesia, cerebral perfusion levels recover gradually over one month. This recovery is paralleled by an increase in lumen diameter and altered tortuosity of the contralateral internal carotid artery at one year post-ligation as derived from magnetic resonance angiography data. Under urethane/α-chloralose anesthesia, no acute perfusion differences are observed, but the vascular response capacity to hypercapnia is found to be compromised. These hemispheric perfusion alterations are confirmed by water [15O]-H2O positron emission tomography. Glucose metabolism ([18F]-FDG positron emission tomography) or white matter organization (diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging) did not show any significant alterations. In conclusion, permanent unilateral common carotid artery occlusion results in acute and long-term vascular remodeling, which may have immediate consequences for animal models of stroke but also vascular dementia.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/patologia , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/patologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Remodelação Vascular , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/metabolismo , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/metabolismo , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos
15.
PLoS One ; 11(12): e0167807, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27936076

RESUMO

Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) represent a good source of multipotent cells for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. The success rate of these treatments is severely dependent on the establishment of adequate vasculature in order to provide oxygen and nutrients to the transplanted cells. Pharmacological preconditioning of stem cells has been proposed as a promising method to augment their therapeutic efficacy. In this study, the aim was to improve the intrinsic angiogenic properties of PDLSCs by in vitro pretreatment with deferoxamine (DFX; 100µM), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 10ng/mL) or both substances combined. An antibody array revealed the differential expression of several proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF). ELISA data confirmed a 1.5 to 1.8-fold increase in VEGF for all tested conditions. Moreover, 48 hours after the removal of DFX, VEGF levels remained elevated (1.8-fold) compared to control conditions. FGF-2 and combination treatment resulted in a 5.4 to 13.1-fold increase in PlGF secretion, whereas DFX treatment had no effect. Furthermore, both PDLSCs as pretreated PDLSCs induced endothelial migration. Despite the significant elevated VEGF levels of pretreated PDLSCs, the induced endothelial migration was not higher by pretreated PDLSCs. We find that the observed induced endothelial cell motility was not dependent on VEGF, since blocking the VEGFR1-3 with Axitinib (0.5nM) did not inhibit endothelial motility towards PDLSCs. Taken together, this study provides evidence that preconditioning with DFX and/or FGF-2 significantly improves the angiogenic secretome of PDLSCs, in particular VEGF and PlGF secretion. However, our data suggest that VEGF is not the only player when it comes to influencing endothelial behavior by the PDLSCs.


Assuntos
Desferroxamina/farmacologia , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/farmacologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Ligamento Periodontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 951: 199-235, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27837566

RESUMO

Over the past decade, dental tissues have become an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Dental stem cells (DSCs) are not only able to differentiate into adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic lineanges, but an increasing amount of research also pointed out their potential applicability in numerous clinical disorders, such as myocardial infarction, neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. Together with their multilineage differentiation capacity, their easy availability from extracted third molars makes these stem cells a suitable alternative for bone marrow-derived MSCs. More importantly, DSCs appear to retain their stem cell properties following cryopreservation, a key aspect in their long-term preservation and upscale production. However, the vast number of different cryopreservation protocols makes it difficult to draw definite conclusions regarding the behavior of these stem cells. The routine application and banking of DSCs is also associated with some other pitfalls, such as interdonor variability, cell culture-induced changes and the use of animal-derived culture medium additives. Only thorough assessment of these challenges and the implementation of standardized, GMP procedures will successfully lead to better treatment options for patients who no longer benefit from current stem cell therapies.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Criopreservação/métodos , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Polpa Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Polpa Dentária/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/transplante , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/transplante , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurônios/transplante , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
17.
Stem Cells Int ; 2016: 9762871, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27688777

RESUMO

Within the field of tissue engineering, natural tissues are reconstructed by combining growth factors, stem cells, and different biomaterials to serve as a scaffold for novel tissue growth. As adequate vascularization and innervation are essential components for the viability of regenerated tissues, there is a high need for easily accessible stem cells that are capable of supporting these functions. Within the human tooth and its surrounding tissues, different stem cell populations can be distinguished, such as dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human deciduous teeth, stem cells from the apical papilla, dental follicle stem cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Given their straightforward and relatively easy isolation from extracted third molars, dental stem cells (DSCs) have become an attractive source of mesenchymal-like stem cells. Over the past decade, there have been numerous studies supporting the angiogenic, neuroprotective, and neurotrophic effects of the DSC secretome. Together with their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells and neural cell types, this makes DSCs suitable candidates for dental tissue engineering and nerve injury repair.

18.
Med Res Rev ; 36(6): 1080-1126, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27439773

RESUMO

Stroke is the second most common cause of death and is a major cause of permanent disability. Given the current demographic trend of an ageing population and associated increased risk, the prevalence of and socioeconomic burden caused by stroke will continue to rise. Current therapies are unable to sufficiently ameliorate the disease outcome and are not applicable to all patients. Therefore, strategies such as cell-based therapies with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) or induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) pave the way for new treatment options for stroke. These cells showed great preclinical promise despite the fact that the precise mechanism of action and the optimal administration route are unknown. To gain dynamic insights into the underlying repair processes after stem cell engraftment, noninvasive imaging modalities were developed to provide detailed spatial and functional information on the donor cell fate and host microenvironment. This review will focus on MSCs and iPSCs as types of widely used stem cell sources in current (bio)medical research and compare their efficacy and potential to ameliorate the disease outcome in animal stroke models. In addition, novel noninvasive imaging strategies allowing temporospatial in vivo tracking of transplanted cells and coinciding evaluation of neuronal repair following stroke will be discussed.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Regeneração/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos
19.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 97: 235-44, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27291064

RESUMO

Cardiac atrial appendage stem cells (CASCs) show extraordinary myocardial differentiation properties, making them ideal candidates for myocardial regeneration. However, since the myocardium is a highly vascularized tissue, revascularization of the ischemic infarct area is essential for functional repair. Therefore, this study assessed if CASCs contribute to cardiac angiogenesis via paracrine mechanisms. First, it was demonstrated that CASCs produce and secrete high levels of numerous angiogenic growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). Functional in vitro assays with a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) and CASC CM showed that CASCs promote endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation, the most important steps of the angiogenesis process. Addition of inhibitory antibodies against identified growth factors could significantly reduce these effects, indicating their importance in CASC-induced neovascularization. The angiogenic potential of CASCs and CASC CM was also confirmed in a chorioallantoic membrane assay, demonstrating that CASCs promote blood vessel formation in vivo. In conclusion, this study shows that CASCs not only induce myocardial repair by cardiomyogenic differentiation, but also stimulate blood vessel formation by paracrine mechanisms. The angiogenic properties of CASCs further strengthen their therapeutic potential and make them an optimal stem cell source for the treatment of ischemic heart disease.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/citologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Indutores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotelina-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
20.
Int J Cardiol ; 210: 100-8, 2016 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26938684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with adverse cardiac outcome. Growing evidence shows that high molecular weight AGEs (HMW-AGEs) might be as important as the characterized low molecular weight AGEs. To date, the role of HMW-AGEs in the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether HMW-AGEs are involved in cardiac dysfunction. METHODS: Healthy rats were daily ip injected with 20mg/kg BSA-derived HMW-AGEs or, as a control, unmodified BSA, during 6 weeks. Cardiac function was assessed with echocardiography. Plasma levels of glucose, AGEs and soluble RAGE (sRAGE) were measured. AGEs, RAGE and lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression were determined by western blot. RESULTS: After 6 weeks, animals displayed a sustained increase in circulating total AGEs without hyperglycemia. HMW-AGEs injections induced cardiac dysfunction characterized by wall hypertrophy, increased heart sphericity, reduced strain and strain rate with preserved ejection fraction. Plasma sRAGE levels were significantly higher compared to control and correlated significantly with decreased strain. RAGE expression, TNF-α and IL-6 remained unchanged. Finally, HMW-AGEs induced prominent cardiac fibrosis associated with an increased LOX expression. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that rather than via a specific activation of RAGE, the deleterious effects of HMW-AGEs are likely mediated via an increased collagen cross-linking responsible for the observed cardiac stiffness. Additionally, we show that in the setting of elevated HMW-AGEs, increased sRAGE levels are markers of altered cardiac function.


Assuntos
Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/metabolismo , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/toxicidade , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/sangue , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/toxicidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Cardiopatias , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/patologia
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