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Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(3): 269-292, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511219


Coronaviruses belong to the family Coronaviridae order Nidovirales and are known causes of respiratory and intestinal disease in various mammalian and avian species. Species of coronaviruses known to infect humans are referred to as human coronaviruses (HCoVs). While traditionally, HCoVs have been a significant cause of the common cold, more recently, emergent viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. Here, we discuss coronavirus disease (COVID-19) biology, pathology, epidemiology, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and recent clinical trials involving promising treatments.

Antivirais/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Animais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus/imunologia , Tosse/epidemiologia , Tosse/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/terapia , Febre , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(3): 377-388, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511226


The Hospital Incident Command System (HICS) is an incident management system specific to hospitals based on the principles of Incident Command System (ICS), and it includes prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery. It plays a crucial role in effective and timely response during the periods of disasters, mass casualties, and public health emergencies. In recent times, hospitals have used a customized HICS structure to coordinate effective responses to public health problems such as the Ebola outbreak in the US and SARS epidemic in Taiwan. The current COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented challenges on the healthcare system, necessitating the creation of HICS that can help in the proper allocation of resources and ineffective utilization of healthcare personnel. The key elements in managing a response to this pandemic include screening and early diagnosis, quarantining affected individuals, monitoring disease progression, delivering appropriate treatment, and ensuring an adequate supply of personal protective equipment (PPE) to healthcare staff.

COVID-19/epidemiologia , Gestão de Recursos da Equipe de Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , COVID-19/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Centros de Informação/tendências
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 35(3): 449-459, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511232


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes many deleterious effects throughout the body. Prior studies show that the incidence of acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients could be as high as 25%. There are also autopsy reports showing evidence of viral tropism to the renal system. In this regard, COVID-19 can damage the kidneys and increase a patient's risk of requiring dialysis. Available evidence suggests that renal involvement in COVID-19 infection is not uncommon, and there has been an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease related to the pandemic. In this literature analysis, we address COVID-19 and its effects on the renal system, including the pathophysiologic mechanisms. We also address current studies on the causes of injury to the renal system, the cause of kidney failure, its effect on mortality, the impact on dialysis patients, and the impact on renal transplant patients. COVID-19 disease may have unique features in individuals on chronic dialysis and kidney transplant recipients, requiring increased vigilance in limiting viral transmission in perioperative, in-patient, and dialysis center settings.

COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Humanos , Rim/virologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/terapia , Nefropatias/virologia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Diálise Renal/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
Pain Manag ; 11(4): 347-356, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618542


HTX-011 is an extended-release, dual-acting local anesthetic consisting of bupivacaine (sodium-channel blocker) and low-dose meloxicam (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug [NSAID]) applied needle-free during surgery. Introducing low-dose meloxicam addresses the limited efficacy of liposomal bupivacaine in acidic inflamed tissues and allows enhanced analgesic effects over three days. It has great promise to be an extremely effective postoperative pain regimen and produce an opioid-free surgical recovery, as it has consistently significantly reduced pain scores and opioid consumption through 72 h. This manuscript provides an updated, concise narrative review of the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of this drug and its applications to prevent postoperative pain.