Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 50
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
3.
J Aging Health ; 33(7-8_suppl): 10S-17S, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167343

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine age differences in the association between discrimination and depressive symptoms among urban American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN). Methods: A sample of 303 urban AI/AN (18-78 years old) reported on lifetime and past-week experiences of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were regressed on racial discrimination, age, and their interaction, adjusting for demographic factors and other life stressors. Results: Lifetime and past-week discrimination were significantly associated with depressive symptoms, and these associations were stronger among younger than older adult AI/AN. Discussion: The results are consistent with prior reports in other populations, but this is the first such study to focus on AI/AN, and it highlights the importance of considering life course perspectives. Conclusions are limited by the cross-sectional nature of the data. Longitudinal and qualitative work is needed to understand why discrimination may have a stronger effect on mental health for younger than older AI/AN.

4.
Elife ; 102021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032569

RESUMO

Addressing gender and racial-ethnic disparities at all career stages is a priority for the research community. In this article, we focus on efforts to encourage mid-career women, particularly women of color, to move into leadership positions in science and science policy. We highlight the need to strengthen leadership skills for the critical period immediately following promotion to associate/tenured professor - when formal career development efforts taper off while institutional demands escalate - and describe a program called MAVEN that has been designed to teach leadership skills to mid-career women scientists, particularly those from underrepresented groups.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251174, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether intersections of race with other key sociodemographic categories contribute to variations in multiple dimensions of race- and non-race-related, interpersonal-level discrimination and burden in urban-dwelling African Americans and Whites. METHODS: Data from 2,958 participants aged 30-64 in the population-based Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study were used to estimate up to four-way interactions of race, age, gender, and poverty status with reports of racial and everyday discrimination, discrimination across multiple social statuses, and related lifetime discrimination burden in multiple regression models. RESULTS: We observed that: 1) African Americans experienced all forms of discrimination more frequently than Whites, but this finding was qualified by interactions of race with age, gender, and/or poverty status; 2) older African Americans, particularly African American men, and African American men living in poverty reported the greatest lifetime discrimination burden; 3) older African Americans reported greater racial discrimination and greater frequency of multiple social status-based discrimination than younger African Americans; 4) African American men reported greater racial and everyday discrimination and a greater frequency of social status discrimination than African American women; and, 5) White women reported greater frequency of discrimination than White men. All p's < .05. CONCLUSIONS: Within African Americans, older, male individuals with lower SES experienced greater racial, lifetime, and multiple social status-based discrimination, but this pattern was not observed in Whites. Among Whites, women reported greater frequency of discrimination across multiple social statuses and other factors (i.e., gender, income, appearance, and health status) than men. Efforts to reduce discrimination-related health disparities should concurrently assess dimensions of interpersonal-level discrimination across multiple sociodemographic categories, while simultaneously considering the broader socioecological context shaping these factors.

6.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 27(1): 47-59, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Brief Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version (PEDQ-CVB) is a widely used, multidimensional measure of exposure to ethnic/racial discrimination. The PEDQ-CVB has not been previously validated for use with American Indians, who have endured a unique history of colonization, cultural oppression, and ongoing discrimination. This study examined the measurement invariance of the PEDQ-CVB in American Indians (AIs) and 4 other groups. Additional analyses assessed the scale's convergent and discriminant validity and provided initial evidence of associations with mental and physical health in AIs. METHOD: Primary data were collected from a community sample of urban-dwelling AIs (n = 222), which included measures of ethnic/racial identity, other life stressors, and mental and physical health, along with the PEDQ-CVB. These were supplemented by secondary analysis of PEDQ-CVB data from African Americans (n = 1176), Latinos (n = 564), East Asian Americans (n = 274), and South Asian Americans (n = 242). RESULTS: The PEDQ-CVB demonstrated measurement invariance across the 5 ethnic/racial groups and convergent and discriminant validity in AIs. The PEDQ-CVB was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and physical limitations in AIs, after controlling for relevant demographics. CONCLUSION: This study provides strong evidence that the PEDQ-CVB behaves consistently for AIs and other underrepresented ethnic/racial groups. As such, the PEDQ-CVB allows for documentation of the experiences of different ethnic/racial groups and provides a means to test theoretical models of the antecedents and consequences of perceived discrimination within and across groups. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Racismo , Afro-Americanos , Nativos Estadunidenses , Grupos Étnicos , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
7.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-20, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intimate partner problems increase suicide risk, particularly among active service members and veterans. Age, marital status and military service status may modify the role of intimate partner problems in suicide. METHODS: Participants included 6255 men who died by suicide at 18 years of age and older and who actively, previously, or never served in the military. Reports of intimate partner problems prior to suicide were documented by the Virginia Department of Health. RESULTS: Unmarried active service members, above middle age, were more likely than veterans and individuals without prior military service to have associated reports of intimate partner problems. CONCLUSION: Life stages and relationship context may influence the role of intimate partner problems as a risk factor for suicide.

8.
Soc Sci Med ; 222: 91-100, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623798

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The aim of this study was to examine the direct associations of perceived personal and group discrimination with physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Latinx adults. We also tested whether ethnic identity and depression symptoms sequentially mediate these associations. METHOD: This population-based study included 5313 Latinx adults, ages 18-74 years, from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008-11) and its Sociocultural Ancillary Study (2010-11). Participants were recruited from the Bronx; NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; and San Diego, CA. Self-reported perceived personal and group discrimination, ethnic identity, depression symptoms, and physical HRQoL were ascertained through interviewer-administered surveys. Survey-weighted path analysis was used to examine direct and indirect effects simultaneously in one analytic model controlling for demographic covariates. RESULTS: Path analysis indicated that higher perceived personal discrimination was directly associated with poorer physical HRQoL and this association was only mediated by depression symptoms. In contrast, perceived group discrimination was not directly associated with physical HRQoL. However, each of the direct paths linking perceived group discrimination to physical HRQoL were statistically significant: perceived group discrimination was positively associated with ethnic identity, and ethnic identity was negatively associated with depression symptoms, and, in turn, depression symptoms were negatively associated with physical HRQoL. Our model accounted for 18% of the variance of physical HRQoL. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived personal and group discrimination are differently associated with physical HRQoL. Results highlight the importance of considering self-perceptions of different discrimination forms when evaluating its impact on the physical HRQoL of Latinx adults.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Identificação Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Stigma Health ; 4(1): 38-61, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524031

RESUMO

The bulk of the literature on the relationship of discrimination to health has relied on retrospective reports of perceived exposure to discrimination. Much less is known known about the real-time within-person association between discrimination and biopsychosocial processes. Intensive longitudinal methods, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and daily diary studies, are well suited for studying the dynamic nature of discriminatory experiences in daily life. This review examines research utilizing EMA and daily diaries to study discrimination within individuals in real-time and natural settings. We identified studies of discrimination related to race, sex, weight, and sexual orientation, and examined the prevalence and frequency of discrimination in daily life, the psychosocial correlates of discrimination, contextual factors related to discriminatory experiences, and moderators of the effects of discrimination. We highlight the benefits of using EMA and daily diaries in the study of discrimination and biopsychosocial processes, and provide suggestions for future work on these associations. EMA data suggests that discrimination occurs more frequently than might be clear from survey research and is associated with poor mental health in daily life. Further, discrimination may be enacted through various means (e.g., verbal expressions, behavior), by a variety of perpetrators (e.g., spouses, friends), and in various settings (e.g., in the home, in public places) in daily life. This methodology has potential to facilitate our understanding of the dynamic temporal relationship between cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to discrimination and poor health outcomes in daily life.

11.
Psychol Trauma ; 10(6): 689-697, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: First-responder employees, including firefighters, police, and medical examiners, are at risk for the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of exposure to workplace trauma. However, pathways linking workplace trauma exposure to mental health symptoms are not well understood. In the context of social-cognitive models of depression/PTSD, we examined the role of negative cognitions as mediators of the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship of workplace trauma exposure to symptoms of depression/PTSD in medical examiner (ME) employees. METHOD: 259 ME personnel were recruited from 8 sites nationwide and completed an online questionnaire assessing potential trauma exposure (i.e., exposure to disturbing cases and contact with distressed families of the deceased), negative cognitions, and symptoms of depression and PTSD, and 151 completed similar assessments 3 months later. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses indicated that increases in negative cognitions, and, in particular, thoughts about alienation predicted increases in depressive symptoms from Time 1 to Time 2. In cross-sectional analyses, but not longitudinal analyses, negative cognitions mediated the relationship of case exposure to symptoms of both depression and PTSD. Negative cognition also mediated the relationship of contact with distressed families to depressive symptoms. The strongest effects were for negative cognitions about being alienated from others. CONCLUSION: The results of this study support social-cognitive models of the development of posttraumatic distress in the workplace and have implications for the development of interventions to prevent and treat mental health symptoms in first responders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Médicos Legistas/psicologia , Depressão , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Alienação Social/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Pensamento
14.
Health Psychol ; 35(4): 333-42, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27018724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the relationships of lifetime discrimination to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) varied as a function of age in a sample of Black and Latino(a) adults ages 19 - 65. METHOD: Participants were 607 Black (n = 318) and Latino(a) (n = 289) adults (49% female) who completed the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version (PEDQ-CV), which assesses lifetime exposure to racism/ethnic discrimination. They were outfitted with an ABP monitor to assess systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) across a 24-hr period. Mixed-level modeling was conducted to examine potential interactive effects of lifetime discrimination and age to 24-hr, daytime, and nighttime ABP after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, personality and life stress characteristics, and substance consumption covariates (e.g., smoking, alcohol). RESULTS: There were significant interactions of Age × Lifetime Discrimination on 24-hr and daytime DBP (ps ≤ .04), and in particular significant interactions for the Social Exclusion component of Lifetime Discrimination. Post hoc probing of the interactions revealed the effects of Lifetime Discrimination on DBP were seen for older, but not younger participants. Lifetime discrimination was significantly positively associated with nocturnal SBP, and these effects were not moderated by age. All associations of Lifetime Discrimination to ABP remained significant controlling for recent exposure to discrimination as well as all other covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to racial/ethnic discrimination across the life course is associated with elevated ABP in middle to older aged Black and Latino(a) adults. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms linking discrimination to ABP over the life course. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Hipertensão/psicologia , Racismo , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Psychol Trauma ; 8(6): 668-675, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27018921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prior research has examined the incidence of posttraumatic stress stemming from either direct or indirect trauma exposure in employees of high-risk occupations. However, few studies have examined the contribution of both direct and indirect trauma exposure in high-risk groups. One particularly salient indirect trauma often endorsed as the most stressful by many occupational groups is interacting with distressed family members of victims of crime, illness, or accidents. The present study examined the extent to which interacting with distressed families moderated the impact of cumulative potentially traumatic event (PTE) exposure on depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 245 employees of medical examiner (ME) offices. METHOD: Employees from 9 ME office sites in the United States participated in an online survey investigating the frequency of work place PTE exposures (direct and indirect) and mental health outcomes. RESULTS: Results revealed that cumulative PTE exposure was associated with higher PTSD symptoms (PTSS) for employees who had higher frequency of exposure to distressed family members. After controlling for cumulative and direct PTE exposure, gender, and office site, exposure to distressed families was significantly associated with depressive symptoms, but not PTSS. CONCLUSIONS: Findings of our research underscore the need for training employees in high-risk occupations to manage their reactions to exposure to distraught family members. Employee training may buffer risk for developing PTSD and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Médicos Legistas/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Patologistas/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
J Lat Psychol ; 3(3): 160-176, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26491624

RESUMO

Empirical studies examining perceived ethnic discrimination in Latinos of diverse background groups are limited. This study examined prevalence and correlates of discrimination in a diverse sample of U.S. Latinos (N=5,291) from the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) and HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study. The sample permitted an examination of differences across seven groups (Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South American, and Other/Multiple Background). Most participants (79.5%) reported lifetime discrimination exposure and prevalence rates ranged from 64.9% to 98% across groups. Structural Equation Models (SEM) indicated that after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates most group differences in reports of discrimination were eliminated. However, Cubans reported the lowest levels of discrimination, overall among all groups. Furthermore, regional effects were more important than group effects. Participants from Chicago reported the highest levels of discrimination in comparison to other regions. Group differences among Latinos appear to be primarily a function of sociodemographic differences in education, income, and acculturation. In addition, differences in exposure to discrimination may be tied to variables associated with both immigration patterns and integration to U.S. culture. Results highlight the importance of considering historical context and the intersection of discrimination and immigration when evaluating the mental health of Latinos.

17.
J Behav Med ; 38(4): 689-700, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26054448

RESUMO

Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Hispano-Americanos , Racismo , Fumar/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Características de Residência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychosom Med ; 77(1): 2-5, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25551202

RESUMO

Race, ethnicity, and social class differences in the prevalence and effects of cardiovascular risk factors have been observed in many studies. Understanding the drivers of these differences is critical to efforts aimed at reducing racial disparities in health. Two articles in this volume of Psychosomatic Medicine contribute to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms driving racial disparities in health. The first article confirms the deleterious effects of psychosocial stressors on neuroendocrine function and suggests that the effects of stress on cortisol patterning are worse for Black and Latino individuals than for White individuals. The second meta-analysis article indicates that, in comparison to Whites, Black individuals display higher levels of high frequency heart rate variability, a measure of parasympathetic activity that may be an indicator of potential resilience to stress. To interpret these effects, it can be useful to move beyond assessments of phenotype and to consider the psychosocial context in which people live and assessments of risk are made. The psychosocial context includes variables and processes that influence the type, timing, and frequency of stress exposure, and the levels of background stress. Ultimately, these variables may create race and class differences in the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the development of different risk factors for adverse health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. This editorial describes the relevance of incorporating the variables associated with psychosocial context when building new models in the next generation of research on health disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Int J Intercult Relat ; 49: 212-222, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27647943

RESUMO

Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and length of residence in the U.S. on self-reported discrimination in a sample of urban-dwelling Asian and Black adults (n= 1454). Analyses examined POB effects on different types of discrimination including race-related stigmatization, exclusion, threat, and workplace discrimination. Sociodemographic variables (including age, gender, employment status and education level) were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between POB and discrimination. The results revealed a significant main effect for POB on discrimination, with U.S.-born individuals reporting significantly more discrimination than foreign-born individuals, although the effect was reduced when sociodemographic variables were controlled. Across the sample, POB effects were seen only for race-related stigmatization and exclusion, not for threat and workplace discrimination. With the exception of limited effects for gender, sociodemographic variables did not moderate these effects. Younger age at immigration and greater years of residence in the U.S. were also positively associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination. These findings suggest increasing acculturation may shape the experience and perception of racial and ethnic discrimination.

20.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 61(3): 225-35, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24985313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ethnic density hypothesis suggests that ethnic density confers greater social support and consequently protects against depressive symptoms in ethnic minority individuals. However, the potential benefits of ethnic density have not been examined in individuals who are facing a specific and salient life stressor. AIMS: We examined the degree to which the effects of Hispanic ethnic density on depressive symptoms are explained by socioeconomic resources and social support. METHODS: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, N = 472) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and measures of demographics, ACS clinical factors and perceived social support. Neighborhood characteristics, including median income, number of single parent households and Hispanic ethnic density, were extracted from the American Community Survey Census (2005-2009) for each patient using his or her geocoded address. RESULTS: In a linear regression analysis adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, Hispanic ethnic density was positively associated with depressive symptoms (ß = .09, standard error (SE) = .04, p = .03). However, Hispanic density was no longer a significant predictor of depressive symptoms when neighborhood characteristics were controlled. The relationship of Hispanic density on depressive symptoms was moderated by nativity status. Among US-born patients with ACS, there was a significant positive relationship between Hispanic density and depressive symptoms and social support significantly mediated this effect. There was no observed effect of Hispanic density to depressive symptoms for foreign-born ACS patients. CONCLUSION: Although previous research suggests that ethnic density may be protective against depression, our data suggest that among patients with ACS, living in a community with a high concentration of Hispanic individuals is associated with constrained social and economic resources that are themselves associated with greater depressive symptoms. These data add to a growing body of literature on the effects of racial or ethnic segregation on health outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/psicologia , Depressão/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Idoso , Censos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , New Jersey/etnologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/etnologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...