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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 606, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001696

RESUMO

Manipulating liquids with tunable shape and optical functionalities in real time is important for electroactive flow devices and optoelectronic devices, but remains a great challenge. Here, we demonstrate electrotunable liquid sulfur microdroplets in an electrochemical cell. We observe electrowetting and merging of sulfur droplets under different potentiostatic conditions, and successfully control these processes via selective design of sulfiphilic/sulfiphobic substrates. Moreover, we employ the electrowetting phenomena to create a microlens based on the liquid sulfur microdroplets and tune its characteristics in real time through changing the shape of the liquid microdroplets in a fast, repeatable, and controlled manner. These studies demonstrate a powerful in situ optical battery platform for unraveling the complex reaction mechanism of sulfur chemistries and for exploring the rich material properties of the liquid sulfur, which shed light on the applications of liquid sulfur droplets in devices such as microlenses, and potentially other electrotunable and optoelectronic devices.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4982, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676782

RESUMO

Compact and lightweight photodetection elements play a critical role in the newly emerging augmented reality, wearable and sensing technologies. In these technologies, devices are preferred to be transparent to form an optical interface between a viewer and the outside world. For this reason, it is of great value to create detection platforms that are imperceptible to the human eye directly onto transparent substrates. Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) make ideal photodetectors as their optical resonances enable parsing of the multi-dimensional information carried by light. Unfortunately, these optical resonances also give rise to strong, undesired light scattering. In this work, we illustrate how a new optical resonance arising from the radiative coupling between arrayed silicon NWs can be harnessed to remove reflections from dielectric interfaces while affording spectro-polarimetric detection. The demonstrated transparent photodetector concept opens up promising platforms for transparent substrates as the base for opto-electronic devices and in situ optical measurement systems.

3.
Nano Lett ; 19(11): 7988-7995, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560552

RESUMO

Plasmonic antennas and metasurfaces can effectively control light-matter interactions, and this facilitates a deterministic design of optical materials properties, including structural color. However, these optical properties are generally fixed after synthesis and fabrication, while many modern-day optics applications require active, low-power, and nonvolatile tuning. These needs have spurred broad research activities aimed at identifying materials and resonant structures capable of achieving large, dynamic changes in optical properties, especially in the challenging visible spectral range. In this work, we demonstrate dynamic tuning of polarization-dependent gap plasmon resonators that contain the electrochromic oxide WO3. Its refractive index in the visible changes continuously from n = 2.1 to 1.9 upon electrochemical lithium insertion and removal in a solid-state device. By incorporating WO3 into a gap plasmon resonator, the resonant wavelength can be shifted continuously and reversibly by up to 58 nm with less than 2 V electrochemical bias voltage. The resonator can remain in a tuned state for tens of minutes under open circuit conditions.

4.
Science ; 365(6450): 257-260, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320534

RESUMO

Metasurfaces offer the possibility to shape optical wavefronts with an ultracompact, planar form factor. However, most metasurfaces are static, and their optical functions are fixed after the fabrication process. Many modern optical systems require dynamic manipulation of light, and this is now driving the development of electrically reconfigurable metasurfaces. We can realize metasurfaces with fast (>105 hertz), electrically tunable pixels that offer complete (0- to 2π) phase control and large amplitude modulation of scattered waves through the microelectromechanical movement of silicon antenna arrays created in standard silicon-on-insulator technology. Our approach can be used to realize a platform technology that enables low-voltage operation of pixels for temporal color mixing and continuous, dynamic beam steering and light focusing.

5.
Science ; 365(6451): 374-377, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346064

RESUMO

The capability of on-chip wavefront modulation has the potential to revolutionize many optical device technologies. However, the realization of power-efficient phase-gradient metasurfaces that offer full-phase modulation (0 to 2π) and high operation speeds remains elusive. We present an approach to continuously steer light that is based on creating a virtual frequency-gradient metasurface by combining a passive metasurface with an advanced frequency-comb source. Spatiotemporal redirection of light naturally occurs as optical phase-fronts reorient at a speed controlled by the frequency gradient across the virtual metasurface. An experimental realization of laser beam steering with a continuously changing steering angle is demonstrated with a single metasurface over an angle of 25° in just 8 picoseconds. This work can support integrated-on-chip solutions for spatiotemporal optical control, directly affecting emerging applications such as solid-state light detection and ranging (LIDAR), three-dimensional imaging, and augmented or virtual systems.

6.
Science ; 364(6441)2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097638

RESUMO

Optical metasurfaces have provided us with extraordinary ways to control light by spatially structuring materials. The space-time duality in Maxwell's equations suggests that additional structuring of metasurfaces in the time domain can even further expand their impact on the field of optics. Advances toward this goal critically rely on the development of new materials and nanostructures that exhibit very large and fast changes in their optical properties in response to external stimuli. New physics is also emerging as ultrafast tuning of metasurfaces is becoming possible, including wavelength shifts that emulate the Doppler effect, Lorentz nonreciprocity, time-reversed optical behavior, and negative refraction. The large-scale manufacturing of dynamic flat optics has the potential to revolutionize many emerging technologies that require active wavefront shaping with lightweight, compact, and power-efficient components.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(11): 117401, 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951323

RESUMO

We study two-dimensional hexagonal photonic lattices of silicon Mie resonators with a topological optical band structure in the visible spectral range. We use 30 keV electrons focused to nanoscale spots to map the local optical density of states in topological photonic lattices with deeply subwavelength resolution. By slightly shrinking or expanding the unit cell, we form hexagonal superstructures and observe the opening of a band gap and a splitting of the double-degenerate Dirac cones, which correspond to topologically trivial and nontrivial phases. Optical transmission spectroscopy shows evidence of topological edge states at the domain walls between topological and trivial lattices.

8.
Nano Lett ; 19(4): 2267-2271, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897902

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) single-particle tracking (SPT) is a key tool for studying dynamic processes in the life sciences. However, conventional optical elements utilizing light fields impose an inherent trade-off between lateral and axial resolution, preventing SPT with high spatiotemporal resolution across an extended volume. We overcome the typical loss in spatial resolution that accompanies light-field-based approaches to obtain 3D information by placing a standard microscope coverslip patterned with a multifunctional, light-field metasurface on a specimen. This approach enables an otherwise unmodified microscope to gather 3D information at an enhanced spatial resolution. We demonstrate simultaneous tracking of multiple fluorescent particles within a large 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.3 mm3 volume using a standard epi-fluorescent microscope with submicron lateral and micron-level axial resolution.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5289, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538249

RESUMO

Electrochemical intercalation of ions into the van der Waals gap of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials is a promising low-temperature synthesis strategy to tune their physical and chemical properties. It is widely believed that ions prefer intercalation into the van der Waals gap through the edges of the 2D flake, which generally causes wrinkling and distortion. Here we demonstrate that the ions can also intercalate through the top surface of few-layer MoS2 and this type of intercalation is more reversible and stable compared to the intercalation through the edges. Density functional theory calculations show that this intercalation is enabled by the existence of natural defects in exfoliated MoS2 flakes. Furthermore, we reveal that sealed-edge MoS2 allows intercalation of small alkali metal ions (e.g., Li+ and Na+) and rejects large ions (e.g., K+). These findings imply potential applications in developing functional 2D-material-based devices with high tunability and ion selectivity.

10.
Sci Adv ; 4(12): eaat3163, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539139

RESUMO

Thermal emission from objects tends to be spectrally broadband, unpolarized, and temporally invariant. These common notions are now challenged with the emergence of new nanophotonic structures and concepts that afford on-demand, active manipulation of the thermal emission process. This opens a myriad of new applications in chemistry, health care, thermal management, imaging, sensing, and spectroscopy. Here, we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a new approach to actively tailor thermal emission with a reflective, plasmonic metasurface in which the active material and reflector element are epitaxially grown, high-carrier-mobility InAs layers. Electrical gating induces changes in the charge carrier density of the active InAs layer that are translated into large changes in the optical absorption and thermal emission from metasurface. We demonstrate polarization-dependent and electrically controlled emissivity changes of 3.6%P (6.5% in relative scale) in the mid-infrared spectral range.

11.
Opt Express ; 26(19): 24835-24842, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469594

RESUMO

Metasurface optical elements, optical phased arrays constructed from a dense arrangement of nanoscale antennas, are promising candidates for the next generation of flat optical components. Metasurfaces that rely on the Pancharatnam-Berry phase facilitate complete and efficient wavefront control. However, their operation typically requires control over the polarization state of the incident light to achieve a desired optical function. Here, we circumvent this inherent sensitivity to the incident polarization by multiplexing two metasurfaces that were designed to achieve the same optical function with incident light of opposite helicity. We analyze the optical performance of different multiplexing approaches, and demonstrate a subwavelength random interleaved polarization-independent metasurface lens operating in the visible spectrum, providing a diffraction-limited spot size for the shared-aperture.

12.
Opt Express ; 26(23): 31031-31038, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469990

RESUMO

Metasurfaces facilitate the interleaving of multiple topologies in an ultra-thin photonic system. Here, we report on the spectral interleaving of topological states of light using a geometric phase metasurface. We realize that a dielectric spectrally interleaved metasurface generates multiple interleaved vortex beams at different wavelengths. By harnessing the space-variant polarization manipulations that are enabled by the geometric phase mechanism, a vectorial vortex array is implemented. The presented interleaved topologies concept can greatly enhance the functionality of advanced microscopy and communication systems.

13.
Nano Lett ; 18(11): 7323-7329, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339400

RESUMO

Plasmonic waveguides consisting of metal nanoparticle chains can localize and guide light well below the diffraction limit, but high propagation losses due to lithography-limited large interparticle spacing have impeded practical applications. Here, we demonstrate that DNA-origami-based self-assembly of monocrystalline gold nanoparticles allows the interparticle spacing to be decreased to ∼2 nm, thus reducing propagation losses to 0.8 dB per 50 nm at a deep subwavelength confinement of 62 nm (∼λ/10). We characterize the individual waveguides with nanometer-scale resolution by electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Light propagation toward a fluorescent nanodiamond is directly visualized by cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy on a single-device level, thereby realizing nanoscale light manipulation and energy conversion. Simulations suggest that longitudinal plasmon modes arising from the narrow gaps are responsible for the efficient waveguiding. With this scalable DNA origami approach, micrometer-long propagation lengths could be achieved, enabling applications in information technology, sensing, and quantum optics.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Fluorescência , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanodiamantes/química
14.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3224, 2018 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104605

RESUMO

Solid state light emitters rely on metallic contacts with a high sheet-conductivity for effective charge injection. Unfortunately, such contacts also support surface plasmon polariton and lossy wave excitations that dissipate optical energy into the metal and limit the external quantum efficiency. Here, inspired by the concept of radio-frequency high-impedance surfaces and their use in conformal antennas we illustrate how electrodes can be nanopatterned to simultaneously provide a high DC electrical conductivity and high-impedance at optical frequencies. Such electrodes do not support SPPs across the visible spectrum and greatly suppress dissipative losses while facilitating a desirable Lambertian emission profile. We verify this concept by studying the emission enhancement and photoluminescence lifetime for a dye emitter layer deposited on the electrodes.

15.
Nano Lett ; 18(6): 3857-3864, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787285

RESUMO

The ability to control and structurally tune the optical resonances of semiconductor nanostructures has far-reaching implications for a wide range of optical applications, including photodetectors, (bio)sensors, and photovoltaics. Such control is commonly obtained by tailoring the nanostructure's geometry, material, or dielectric environment. Here, we combine insights from the field of coherent optics and metasurface mirrors to effectively turn Mie resonances on and off with high spatial control and in a polarization-dependent fashion. We illustrate this in an integrated device by manipulating the photocurrent spectra of a single-nanowire photodetector placed on a metasurface mirror. This approach can be generalized to control spectral, angle-dependent, absorption, and scattering properties of semiconductor nanostructures with an engineered metasurface and without a need to alter their geometric or materials properties.

16.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(4): 294-299, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483599

RESUMO

Doped semiconductors are the most important building elements for modern electronic devices 1 . In silicon-based integrated circuits, facile and controllable fabrication and integration of these materials can be realized without introducing a high-resistance interface2,3. Besides, the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials enables the realization of atomically thin integrated circuits4-9. However, the 2D nature of these materials precludes the use of traditional ion implantation techniques for carrier doping and further hinders device development 10 . Here, we demonstrate a solvent-based intercalation method to achieve p-type, n-type and degenerately doped semiconductors in the same parent material at the atomically thin limit. In contrast to naturally grown n-type S-vacancy SnS2, Cu intercalated bilayer SnS2 obtained by this technique displays a hole field-effect mobility of ~40 cm2 V-1 s-1, and the obtained Co-SnS2 exhibits a metal-like behaviour with sheet resistance comparable to that of few-layer graphene 5 . Combining this intercalation technique with lithography, an atomically seamless p-n-metal junction could be further realized with precise size and spatial control, which makes in-plane heterostructures practically applicable for integrated devices and other 2D materials. Therefore, the presented intercalation method can open a new avenue connecting the previously disparate worlds of integrated circuits and atomically thin materials.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 316, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358626

RESUMO

The ability to split an incident light beam into separate wavelength bands is central to a diverse set of optical applications, including imaging, biosensing, communication, photocatalysis, and photovoltaics. Entirely new opportunities are currently emerging with the recently demonstrated possibility to spectrally split light at a subwavelength scale with optical antennas. Unfortunately, such small structures offer limited spectral control and are hard to exploit in optoelectronic devices. Here, we overcome both challenges and demonstrate how within a single-layer metafilm one can laterally sort photons of different wavelengths below the free-space diffraction limit and extract a useful photocurrent. This chipscale demonstration of anti-Hermitian coupling between resonant photodetector elements also facilitates near-unity photon-sorting efficiencies, near-unity absorption, and a narrow spectral response (∼ 30 nm) for the different wavelength channels. This work opens up entirely new design paradigms for image sensors and energy harvesting systems in which the active elements both sort and detect photons.

18.
Nano Lett ; 18(3): 1699-1706, 2018 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29356548

RESUMO

Explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics are energetic materials that can store and quickly release tremendous amounts of chemical energy. Aluminum (Al) is a particularly important fuel in many applications because of its high energy density, which can be released in a highly exothermic oxidation process. The diffusive oxidation mechanism (DOM) and melt-dispersion mechanism (MDM) explain the ways powders of Al nanoparticles (NPs) can burn, but little is known about the possible use of plasmonic resonances in NPs to manipulate photoignition. This is complicated by the inhomogeneous nature of powders and very fast heating and burning rates. Here, we generate Al NPs with well-defined sizes, shapes, and spacings by electron beam lithography and demonstrate that their plasmonic resonances can be exploited to heat and ignite them with a laser. By combining simulations with thermal-emission, electron-, and optical-microscopy studies, we reveal how an improved control over NP ignition can be attained.

19.
Science ; 358(6369): 1407-1410, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242341

RESUMO

Subwavelength, high-refractive index semiconductor nanostructures support optical resonances that endow them with valuable antenna functions. Control over the intrinsic properties, including their complex refractive index, size, and geometry, has been used to manipulate fundamental light absorption, scattering, and emission processes in nanostructured optoelectronic devices. In this study, we harness the electric and magnetic resonances of such antennas to achieve a very strong dependence of the optical properties on the external environment. Specifically, we illustrate how the resonant scattering wavelength of single silicon nanowires is tunable across the entire visible spectrum by simply moving the height of the nanowires above a metallic mirror. We apply this concept by using a nanoelectromechanical platform to demonstrate active tuning.

20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14753, 2017 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116150

RESUMO

The ability of metasurfaces to manipulate light at the subwavelength scale offers unprecedented functionalities for passive and active lasing devices. However, applications of metasurfaces to optical devices are rare due to fabrication difficulties. Here, we present quantum dot light emitting diodes (QDLEDs) with a metasurface-integrated metal electrode and demonstrate microscopically controlled LED emission. By incorporating slot-groove antennas into the metal electrode, we show that LED emission from randomly polarized QD sources can be polarized and directed at will. Utilizing the relation between polarization and emission direction, we also demonstrate microscopic LED beam splitting through the selective choice of polarization.

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