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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e044517, 2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811054

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Physical distancing and stay-at-home measures implemented to slow transmission of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may intensify feelings of loneliness in older adults, especially those living alone. Our aim was to characterise the extent of loneliness during the first wave in a sample of older adults living in the community and assess characteristics associated with loneliness. DESIGN: Online cross-sectional survey between 6 May and 19 May 2020. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Convenience sample of members of a national retired educators' organisation. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported loneliness, including differences between women and men. RESULTS: 4879 respondents (71.0% women; 67.4% 65-79 years) reported that in the preceding week, 43.1% felt lonely at least some of the time, including 8.3% who felt lonely always or often. Women had increased odds of loneliness compared with men, whether living alone (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.52, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.04) or with others (2.44, 95% CI 2.04 to 2.92). Increasing age group decreased the odds of loneliness (aOR 0.69 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.81) 65-79 years and 0.50 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.65) 80+ years compared with <65 years). Living alone was associated with loneliness, with a greater association in men (aOR 4.26, 95% CI 3.15 to 5.76) than women (aOR 2.65, 95% CI 2.26 to 3.11). Other factors associated with loneliness included: fair or poor health (aOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.41), being a caregiver (aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.37), receiving care (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.81), high concern for the pandemic (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.84), not experiencing positive effects of pandemic distancing measures (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.32) and changes to daily routine (aOR 2.81, 95% CI 1.96 to 4.03). CONCLUSIONS: While many older adults reported feeling lonely during COVID-19, several characteristics-such as being female and living alone-increased the odds of loneliness. These characteristics may help identify priorities for targeting interventions to reduce loneliness.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Solidão , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Pandemias
2.
Drugs Aging ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is relatively common among nursing home residents, and decisions regarding anticoagulant therapy in this setting may be complicated by resident frailty and other factors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine trends and correlates of oral anticoagulant use among newly admitted nursing home residents with AF following the approval of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adults aged > 65 years with AF who were newly admitted to nursing homes in Ontario, Canada, between 2011 and 2018 (N = 36,466). Health administrative databases were linked with comprehensive clinical assessment data captured shortly after admission, to ascertain resident characteristics. Trends in prevalence of anticoagulant use (any, warfarin, DOAC) at admission were captured with prescription claims and examined by frailty and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Log-binomial regression models estimated crude percentage changes in use over time and modified Poisson regression models assessed factors associated with anticoagulant use and type. RESULTS: The prevalence of anticoagulant use at admission increased from 41.1% in 2011/2012 to 58.0% in 2017/2018 (percentage increase = 41.1%, p < 0.001). Warfarin use declined (- 67.7%, p < 0.001), while DOAC use increased. Anticoagulant use was less likely among residents with a prior hospitalization for hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.70) or gastrointestinal bleed (aRR 0.80, 95% CI 0.78-0.83), liver disease (aRR 0.78, 95% CI 0.69-0.89), severe cognitive impairment (aRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.85-0.94), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (aRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71-0.81) or antiplatelet (aRR 0.25, 95% CI 0.23-0.27) use, but more likely for those with a prior hospitalization for ischemic stroke or thromboembolism (aRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.27-1.33). CKD was associated with a reduced likelihood of DOAC versus warfarin use in both the early (aRR 0.62, 95% CI 0.54-0.71) and later years (aRR 0.79, 95% CI 0.76-0.83) of our study period. Frail residents were significantly less likely to receive an anticoagulant at admission, although this association was modest (aRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98). Frailty was not associated with anticoagulant type. CONCLUSIONS: While the proportion of residents with AF receiving oral anticoagulants at admission increased following the approval of DOACs, over 40% remained untreated. Among those treated, use of a DOAC increased, while warfarin use declined. The impact of these recent treatment patterns on the balance between benefit and harm among residents warrant further investigation.

3.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e33, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890565

RESUMO

AIMS: Social determinants of health have the potential to influence mental health and addictions-related emergency department (ED) visits and the likelihood of admission to hospital. We aimed to determine how social determinants of health, individually and in combination, relate to the likelihood of hospital admission at the time of postpartum psychiatric ED visits. METHODS: Among 10 702 postpartum individuals (female based on health card) presenting to the ED for a psychiatric reason in Ontario, Canada (2008-2017), we evaluated the relation between six social determinants of health (age, neighbourhood quintile [Q, Q1 = lowest, Q5 = highest], rurality, immigrant category, Chinese or South Asian ethnicity and neighbourhood ethnic diversity) and the likelihood of hospital admission from the ED. Poisson regression models generated relative risks (RR, 95% CI) of admission for each social determinant, crude and adjusted for clinical severity (diagnosis and acuity) and other potential confounders. Generalised estimating equations were used to explore additive interaction to understand whether the likelihood of admission depended on intersections of social determinants of health. RESULTS: In total, 16.0% (n = 1715) were admitted to hospital from the ED. Being young (age 19 or less v. 40 or more: RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.82), rural-dwelling (v. urban-dwelling: RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.91) and low-income (Q1 v. Q5: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.66-0.98) were each associated with a lower likelihood of admission. Being an immigrant (non-refugee immigrant v. Canadian-born/long-term resident: RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.56), of Chinese ethnicity (v. non-Chinese/South Asian ethnicity: RR 1.88, 95% CI 1.42-2.49); and living in the most v. least ethnically diverse neighbourhoods (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53) were associated with a higher likelihood of admission. Only Chinese ethnicity remained significant in the fully-adjusted model (aRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.24-1.80). Additive interactions were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: For the most part, whether a postpartum ED visit resulted in admission from the ED depended primarily on the clinical severity of presentation, not on individual or intersecting social determinants of health. Being of Chinese ethnicity did increase the likelihood of admission independent of clinical severity and other measured factors; the reasons for this warrant further exploration.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto Jovem
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic over-prescribing in long-term care settings is driven by prescriber preferences and is associated with preventable harms for residents. We aimed to determine whether peer comparison audit and feedback reporting for physicians reduces antibiotic over-prescribing among residents. METHODS: We employed a province wide, difference-in-differences study of antibiotic prescribing audit and feedback, with an embedded pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT) across all long-term care facilities in Ontario, Canada in 2019. The study year included 1,238 physicians caring for 96,185 residents. 895 (72%) physicians received no feedback; 343 (28%) were enrolled to receive audit and feedback and randomized 1:1 to static or dynamic reports. The primary outcomes were proportion of residents initiated on an antibiotic and proportion of antibiotics prolonged beyond 7 days per quarter. RESULTS: Among all residents, between the first quarter of 2018 and last quarter of 2019, there were temporal declines in antibiotic initiation (28.4% to 21.3%) and prolonged duration (34.4% to 29.0%). Difference-in-differences analysis confirmed that feedback was associated with a greater decline in prolonged antibiotics (adjusted difference -2.65%, 95%CI -4.93 to -0.28%, p=0.026), but there was no significant difference in antibiotic initiation. The reduction in antibiotic durations was associated with 335,912 fewer days of treatment. The embedded RCT detected no differences in outcomes between the dynamic and static reports. CONCLUSIONS: Peer comparison audit and feedback is a pragmatic intervention that can generate small relative reductions in the use of antibiotics for prolonged durations that translate to large reductions in antibiotic days of treatment across populations.

5.
Autism Res ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694293

RESUMO

Population-level identification of children and youth with ASD is essential for surveillance and planning for required services. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an algorithm for the identification of children and youth with ASD using administrative health data. In this retrospective validation study, we linked an electronic medical record (EMR)-based reference standard, consisting 10,000 individuals aged 1-24 years, including 112 confirmed ASD cases to Ontario administrative health data, for the testing of multiple case-finding algorithms. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each algorithm. The optimal algorithm was validated in three external cohorts representing family practice, education, and specialized clinical settings. The optimal algorithm included an ASD diagnostic code for a single hospital discharge or emergency department visit or outpatient surgery, or three ASD physician billing codes in 3 years. This algorithm's sensitivity was 50.0% (95%CI 40.7-88.7%), specificity 99.6% (99.4-99.7), PPV 56.6% (46.8-66.3), and NPV 99.4% (99.3-99.6). The results of this study illustrate limitations and need for cautious interpretation when using administrative health data alone for the identification of children and youth with ASD. LAY SUMMARY: We tested algorithms (set of rules) to identify young people with ASD using routinely collected administrative health data. Even the best algorithm misses more than half of those in Ontario with ASD. To understand this better, we tested how well the algorithm worked in different settings (family practice, education, and specialized clinics). The identification of individuals with ASD at a population level is essential for planning for support services and the allocation of resources.

6.
JBI Evid Synth ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aims to compare strategies for measuring prescription medication switching with pharmacy claims data, with a focus on psychotropic vs non-psychotropic medications. INTRODUCTION: Medication switching (ie, the replacement of one medication for another) is common and occurs due to several factors (such as adverse effects to a specific medication). In pharmacoepidemiology studies that use pharmacy claims data, it is important to identify and account for switches; however, due to data limitations and lack of a methodological standard, this can be challenging. The aim of this scoping review is to describe how studies have previously measured medication switching with pharmacy claims data in order to create a repository of common strategies and highlight areas for future research. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will include studies that have used pharmacy claims data to measure medication switching as their primary independent or dependent variable. Studies conducted at the individual level (ie, not ecological), published between January 1, 1980, and October 31, 2020, and investigating orally administered, non-anti-infective medications will be considered. No age, population, or context restrictions are specified as inclusion criteria. METHODS: JBI methodology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews were used for this protocol. MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), Central (Cochrane Library), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and Google Scholar will be searched with the assistance of a health sciences research librarian. Two reviewers will independently screen titles, abstracts, and full-text articles. Strategies for measuring medication switching will be narratively described and summarized overall and by broad medication class.

8.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(2): 287-295, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the short-term risks of emergency general surgery (EGS) admission among older adults have been studied, little is known about long-term functional outcomes in this population. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between EGS admission and the probability of an older adult being alive and residing in their own home 5 years later. We also examined the extent to which specific EGS diagnoses, need for surgery, and frailty modified this relationship. METHODS: We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults (age, ≥65 years) admitted to hospital for one of eight EGS diagnoses (appendicitis, cholecystitis, diverticulitis, strangulated hernia, bowel obstruction, peptic ulcer disease, intestinal ischemia, or perforated viscus) between 2006 and 2018 in Ontario, Canada. Cases were matched to controls from the general population. Time spent alive and at home (measured as time to nursing home admission or death) was compared between cases and controls using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models. RESULTS: A total of 90,245 older adults admitted with an EGS diagnosis were matched with controls. In the 5 years following an EGS admission, cases experienced significantly fewer months alive and at home compared with controls (mean time, 43 vs. 50 months; p < 0.001). Except for patients operated on for appendicitis and cholecystitis, all remaining patient subgroups experienced reduced time alive and at home compared with controls (p < 0.001). Cases remained at elevated risk of nursing home admission or death compared with controls for the entirety of the 5-year follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.17-5.11). CONCLUSION: Older adults who required hospitalization for an EGS diagnosis were at higher risk for death or admission to a nursing home for at least 5 years following admission compared with controls. However, most patients (57%) remained alive and living in their own home at the end of this 5-year period. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Institucionalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/reabilitação
9.
Diabetologia ; 64(5): 1093-1102, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491105

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: More than 25% of older adults (age ≥75 years) have diabetes and may be at risk of adverse events related to treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intensive glycaemic control in this group, potential overtreatment among older adults and the impact of overtreatment on the risk of serious events. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of community-dwelling older adults in Ontario using administrative data. Participants were ≥75 years of age with diagnosed diabetes treated with at least one anti-hyperglycaemic agent between 2014 and 2015. Individuals were categorised as having intensive or conservative glycaemic control (HbA1c <53 mmol/mol [<7%] or 54-69 mmol/mol [7.1-8.5%], respectively), and as undergoing treatment with high-risk (i.e. insulin, sulfonylureas) or low-risk (other) agents. We measured the composite risk of emergency department visits, hospitalisations, or death within 30 days of reaching intensive glycaemic control with high-risk agents. RESULTS: Among 108,620 older adults with diagnosed diabetes in Ontario, the mean (± SD) age was 80.6 (±4.5) years, 49.7% were female, and mean (± SD) diabetes duration was 13.7 (±6.3) years. Overall, 61% of individuals were treated to intensive glycaemic control and 21.6% were treated to intensive control using high-risk agents. Using inverse probability treatment weighting with propensity scores, intensive control with high-risk agents was associated with nearly 50% increased risk of the composite outcome compared with conservative glycaemic control with low-risk agents (RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08, 2.05). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings underscore the need to re-evaluate glycaemic targets in older adults and to reconsider the use of anti-hyperglycaemic medications that may lead to hypoglycaemia, especially in setting of intensive glycaemic control.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our understanding of why older adults with depression are at increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains incomplete. Most adults living with AD are women, and women have a near twofold lifetime risk of depression. We examined the risk of depression upon incident AD, and how sex influences this risk. METHODS: Using the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database, older adults (age 50+) with normal cognition, who visited memory clinics across the United States between September 2005 and December 2019, were followed until first diagnosis of AD or loss to follow up. Multivariable survival analyses were performed to determine if recent and/or remote depression were independent risk factors for AD, if this depression-related risk exists for each sex or was moderated by sex. RESULTS: Six hundred and fifty-two of 10,739 enrolled participants developed AD over a median follow-up of 55.3 months. Recent depression (active within the last 2 years) was independently associated with increased risk of AD (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.0; 95%CI, 1.5-2.6) while a remote history of depression was not (HR = 1.0; 95%CI, 0.7-1.5). After stratification by sex, recent depression was an independent predictor in females (HR = 2.3; 95%CI, 1.7-3.1) but not in males (HR = 1.4; 95%CI, 0.8-2.6). No interaction between recent depression and sex was observed. CONCLUSION: Only a recent history of depression was associated with higher risk of AD. This association was significant among women only, but was not moderated by sex. Future analyses should determine if these findings extend to other populations and may be explained by variable distribution of neurobiological or other modifiable risk factors between the sexes.

11.
Healthc Policy ; 16(2): 69-81, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retirement home residents represent a growing proportion of older Ontarians who cannot be identified within existing administrative databases. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to develop an approach for determining, from an individual's postal code, their likelihood of residing in a retirement home. METHODS: We identified 748 licensed retirement homes in Ontario as of June 1, 2018, from a public registry. We developed a two-step evaluation and verification process to determine the probability (certain, likely or unlikely) of identifying a retirement home, as opposed to other dwellings, within a postal code. RESULTS: We identified 274 (36.7%) retirement homes within a postal code certain to indicate that a person was residing in a retirement home, 200 (26.7%) for which it was likely and 274 (36.7%) for which it was unlikely. Postal codes that were certain and likely identified retirement homes with a capacity for 59,920 residents (79.9% of total provincial retirement home capacity). CONCLUSION: It is feasible to identify a substantive cohort of retirement home residents using postal code data in settings where street address is unavailable for linkage to administrative databases.

12.
Autism Res ; 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098262

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder requiring significant health and educational resources for affected individuals. A reference standard for ASD was generated from an existing population-based cohort of 10,000 children and youth aged 1-24 years who were randomly selected for chart abstraction from 29,256 patients from 119 family physicians. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify children and youth with ASD within an electronic medical record system (N = 80,237, aged 1-24 years) in order to examine the prevalence of comorbidities and quantify health system utilization within the cohort. We identified 1,062 children and youth with ASD representing a prevalence of 1.32%. Compared to individuals without ASD, those with ASD had a higher prevalence of asthma, were more likely to visit a specialist, undergo surgery, and be hospitalized for psychiatric reasons. Children and youth with ASD in Ontario have complex health system needs, illustrated through a significant burden of comorbidities and increased health system utilization. LAY SUMMARY: Our paper generates population-based estimates of health system use by children and youth with ASD, who have a higher burden of comorbidities than the general population. We developed a case-finding algorithm and applied it in electronic medical records to create a cohort of children and youth with ASD, thereby generating an important resource to further study the health care needs of individuals with ASD.

14.
Drugs Aging ; 37(11): 817-827, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In nursing homes, residents with dementia frequently receive potentially inappropriate medications that are associated with an increased risk of adverse events. Despite known sex differences in clinical presentation and sociodemographic characteristics among persons with dementia, few studies have examined sex differences in patterns and predictors of potentially inappropriate medication use. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine sex differences in the patterns of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use in the 180 days following admission to a nursing home, estimate clinical and sociodemographic predictors of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use in male and female residents, and explore the effects of modification by sex on the predictors of using these drug therapies. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 35,169 adults aged 66 years and older with dementia who were newly admitted to nursing homes in Ontario, Canada between 2011 and 2014. Health administrative databases were linked to detailed clinical assessment data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI-MDS 2.0). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic covariates to estimate the rate of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine initiation and discontinuation in the 180 days following nursing home admission in the total sample and stratified by sex. Sex-covariate interaction terms were used to assess whether sex modified the association between covariates and the rate of drug therapy initiation or discontinuation following nursing home entry. RESULTS: Across 638 nursing homes, our analytical sample included 22,847 females and 12,322 males. At admission, male residents were more likely to be prevalent antipsychotic users than female residents (33.8% vs 28.3%; p < 0.001), and female residents were more likely to be prevalent benzodiazepine users than male residents (17.2% vs 15.3%, p < 0.001). In adjusted models, female residents were less likely to initiate an antipsychotic after admission (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.86); however, no sex difference was observed in the rate of benzodiazepine initiation (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.12). Female residents were less likely than males to discontinue antipsychotics (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98) and benzodiazepines (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.89). Sex modified the association between some covariates and the rate of changes in drug use (e.g., widowed males exhibited an increased rate of antipsychotic discontinuation (p-interaction = 0.03) compared with married males), but these associations were not statistically significant among females. Sex did not modify the effect of frailty on the rates of initiation and discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Males and females with dementia differed in their exposure to antipsychotics and benzodiazepines at nursing home admission and their patterns of use following admission. A greater understanding of factors driving sex differences in potentially inappropriate medication use may help tailor interventions to reduce exposure in this vulnerable population.

15.
Ann Fam Med ; 18(5): 406-412, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928756

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous work has demonstrated that home care patients have an increased risk of visiting the emergency department after a home nursing visit on the same day. We investigated whether this association is modified by greater access to after-hours primary care. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-crossover study of home care patients in Ontario, Canada in 2014-2016. Emergency department visits after 5:00 pm were selected as case periods and matched, within the same patient, to control periods within the previous week. The association between home nursing visits and same-day emergency department visits was estimated with conditional logistic regression. Access to after-hours primary care, measured on the patient and practice level, was tested for effect modification using an interaction term approach. Analysis was performed separately for all emergency department visits and a less urgent subset not admitted to hospital. RESULTS: A total of 11,840 patients contributed cases to the analysis. Patients with a history of after-hours primary care use had a smaller increased risk of a same-day after-hours emergency department visit (OR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.30) compared with patients with no after-hours care (OR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.25-1.39). The modifying effect was stronger among emergency department visits not admitted to hospital (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.97-1.28 vs OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.31-1.51). CONCLUSION: Greater access to after-hours primary care reduced the risk of less-urgent emergency department use associated with home nursing visits. These findings suggest increasing access to after-hours primary care could prevent some less-urgent emergency department visits.

16.
Implement Sci Commun ; 1: 30, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885189

RESUMO

Background: Antipsychotic medication use in nursing homes is associated with potential for harms. In Ontario, Canada, an agency of the provincial government offers nursing home physicians quarterly audit and feedback on their antipsychotic prescribing. We compared the characteristics of physicians who did and did not engage with the intervention, and assessed early changes in prescribing. Methods: This population-level, retrospective cohort study used linked administrative databases to track prescribing practices in nursing homes pre-intervention (baseline), immediately post-initiative (3 months), and at follow-up (6 months). Exposure variables identified whether a physician signed up to participate (or not) or viewed the feedback following sign up (or not). Differences in the proportion of days that residents received antipsychotic medications at 6 months compared to baseline by exposure(s) were assessed using a linear mixed effects regression analysis to adjust for a range of resident, physician, and nursing home factors. Benzodiazepine and statin prescribing were assessed as a balance and tracer measures, respectively. Results: Of 944 eligible physicians, 210 (22.3%) signed up to recieve the feedback report and 132 (13.9%) viewed their feedback. Physicians who signed up for feedback were more likely to have graduated from a Canadian medical school, work in urban nursing homes, and care for a larger number of residents. The clinical and functional characteristics of residents were similar across physician exposure groups. At 6 months, antipsychotic prescribing had decreased in all exposure groups. Those who viewed their feedback report had a signicantly greater reduction in antipsychotic prescribing than those who did not sign up (0.94% patient-days exposed; 95% CI 0.35 to 1.54%, p = 0.002). Trends in prescribing patterns across exposure groups for benzodiazepines and statins were not statistically significant. Interpretation: Almost a quarter of eligible physicians engaged early in a voluntary audit and feedback intervention related to antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes. Those who viewed their feedback achieved a small but statistically significant change in prescribing, equivalent to approximately 14,000 fewer days that nursing home residents received antipsychotic medications over 6 months. This study adds to the literature regarding the role of audit and feedback interventions to improve quality of care.

17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Social media platforms are promising sources for large quantities of participant-driven research data and circumvent some common challenges when conducting dementia research. This study provides a summary of key considerations and recommendations about using these platforms as research tools for dementia. DESIGN: Mixed methods. SETTING: Alzheimer's Society's online Dementia Talking Point forum from inception to April 17, 2018, and Twitter in February and March 2018. PARTICIPANTS: All users of Dementia Talking Point who posted in subforums labeled "I have dementia" and "I care for a person with dementia," and Twitter users whose posts contained the keywords "dementia," "Alzheimer," or "Alzheimer's." MEASUREMENTS: We quantified the average daily number of dementia-related posts on each platform and number of words per post. Guided by a codebook, we conducted thematic content analysis of 5% of the 15,513 posts collected from Dementia Talking Point, and 10% of the 25,948 comprehensible posts from Twitter containing "dementia," "Alzheimer," or "Alzheimer's." We also summarized research-relevant characteristics inherent to platforms and posts. RESULTS: On average, Dementia Talking Point provided less than two new daily dementia-related posts with 213.5 to 241.5 words, compared with 7,883 new daily Twitter posts with 14.5 words. Persons with dementia (PWDs) commonly shared dementia-related concerns (75.7%), experiences (68.6%), and requests for, as well as offers of, information and support (44.3% and 38.6%, respectively). Caregivers commonly shared caregiving experience (67.0%) and requests for information and support (52.5%). Most common dementia-related Twitter posts were derogatory use of the term dementia (14.5%), advocacy, fundraising, and awareness (11.6%), and research dissemination (8.0%). Recommendations about these platforms' unique technical and ethical considerations are outlined. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the priorities of PWDs and their caregivers remains important to understand how clinicians can best support them. This study will help clinicians and researcher to better leverage online health forums and Twitter for such dementia-related information.

18.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(9): 1028-1034, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic use in nursing homes is often inappropriate, in terms of overuse and misuse, and it can be linked to adverse events and antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) can optimize antibiotic use by minimizing unnecessary prescriptions, treatment cost, and the overall spread of antimicrobial resistance. Nursing home providers and residents are candidates for ASP implementation, yet guidelines for implementation are limited. OBJECTIVE: To support nursing home providers with the selection and adoption of ASP interventions. DESIGN AND SETTING: A multiphase modified Delphi method to assess 15 ASP interventions across criteria addressing scientific merit, feasibility, impact, accountability, and importance. This study included surveys supplemented with a 1-day consensus meeting. PARTICIPANTS: A 16-member multidisciplinary panel of experts and resident representatives. RESULTS: From highest to lowest, 6 interventions were prioritized by the panel: (1) guidelines for empiric prescribing, (2) audit and feedback, (3) communication tools, (4) short-course antibiotic therapy, (5) scheduled antibiotic reassessment, and (6) clinical decision support systems. Several interventions were not endorsed: antibiograms, educational interventions, formulary review, and automatic substitution. A lack of nursing home resources was noted, which could impede multifaceted interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Nursing home providers should consider 6 key interventions for ASPs. Such interventions may be feasible for nursing home settings and impactful for improving antibiotic use; however, scientific merit supporting each is variable. A multifaceted approach may be necessary for long-term improvement but difficult to implement.

19.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e037485, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term trajectories of health system use by persons with dementia as they remain in the community over time. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study using health administrative data. SETTING: Ontario, Canada from 1 April 2007 to 31 March 2014. PARTICIPANTS: 62 622 community-dwelling adults aged 65+ years with prevalent dementia on 1 April 2007 matched 1:1 to persons without dementia based on age, sex and comorbidity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of health service use, long-term care placement and mortality over time. RESULTS: After 7 years, 49.0% of persons with dementia had spent time in long-term care (6.8% without) and 64.5% had died (30.0% without). Persons with dementia were more likely than those without to use home care (rate ratio (RR) 3.02, 95% CI 2.93 to 3.11) and experience hospitalisations with a discharge delay (RR 2.36, 95% CI 2.30 to 2.42). As they remained in the community, persons with dementia used home care at a growing rate (10.7%, 95% CI 10.0 to 11.3 increase per year vs 6.7%, 95% CI 4.3 to 9.0 per year among those without), but rates of acute care hospitalisation remained constant (0.6%, 95% CI -0.6 to 1.9 increase per year). CONCLUSIONS: While persons with dementia used more health services than those without dementia over time, the rate of change in use differed by service type. These results, particularly enumerating the increased intensity of home care service use, add value to capacity planning initiatives where limited budgets require balancing services.

20.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(9): 2074-2081, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home-based primary care has been associated with reductions in hospital use among homebound older adults, but population-based studies on the general home visit patterns of primary care physicians are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between the provision of home visits by primary care physicians and subsequent use of hospital-based care among their older adult patients with extensive functional impairments. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The setting was Ontario, Canada, from October 2014 to September 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults (aged ≥65 years) with extensive functional impairments receiving publicly funded home care. MEASUREMENTS: We measured the provision of home visits by a patient's most responsible primary care physician during the year before a comprehensive home care assessment. Physician home visit patterns were measured as the proportion of the total outpatient visits in a year that were home visits, categorized with quartiles. Multivariable, multilevel negative binomial regression models examined the associations between physician-level home visit provision and patient emergency department visits and hospital admissions over the 6 months following the home care assessment. RESULTS: There were 49,613 patients in the cohort who were linked to 8,096 unique primary care physicians. A total of 69.1% of physicians provided at least one home visit in a year, with the median proportion of home visits to total visits ranging from 0.057% to 3.19% across quartiles. Patients whose physicians were in the highest home visit provision quartile had lower rates of emergency department visits (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90-0.96) and hospital admissions (IRR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.85-0.93) compared with patients whose physician did not do home visits. CONCLUSION: Home care patients with extensive functional impairments whose physicians provided higher levels of home visits had fewer emergency department visits and hospital admissions. Expanding home visits by primary care physicians could reduce hospital use by older adults living with functional impairments in the community.

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