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1.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21830, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342902

RESUMO

Muscle disuse leads to a rapid decline in muscle mass, with reduced muscle protein synthesis (MPS) considered the primary physiological mechanism. Here, we employed a systems biology approach to uncover molecular networks and key molecular candidates that quantitatively link to the degree of muscle atrophy and/or extent of decline in MPS during short-term disuse in humans. After consuming a bolus dose of deuterium oxide (D2 O; 3 mL.kg-1 ), eight healthy males (22 ± 2 years) underwent 4 days of unilateral lower-limb immobilization. Bilateral muscle biopsies were obtained post-intervention for RNA sequencing and D2 O-derived measurement of MPS, with thigh lean mass quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Application of weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified 15 distinct gene clusters ("modules") with an expression profile regulated by disuse and/or quantitatively connected to disuse-induced muscle mass or MPS changes. Module scans for candidate targets established an experimentally tractable set of candidate regulatory molecules (242 hub genes, 31 transcriptional regulators) associated with disuse-induced maladaptation, many themselves potently tied to disuse-induced reductions in muscle mass and/or MPS and, therefore, strong physiologically relevant candidates. Notably, we implicate a putative role for muscle protein breakdown-related molecular networks in impairing MPS during short-term disuse, and further establish DEPTOR (a potent mTOR inhibitor) as a critical mechanistic candidate of disuse driven MPS suppression in humans. Overall, these findings offer a strong benchmark for accelerating mechanistic understanding of short-term muscle disuse atrophy that may help expedite development of therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/genética , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/genética , Adulto Jovem
2.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21773, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324735

RESUMO

Acute hypoxia has previously been suggested to potentiate resistance training-induced hypertrophy by activating satellite cell-dependent myogenesis rather than an improvement in protein balance in human. Here, we tested this hypothesis after a 4-week hypoxic vs normoxic resistance training protocol. For that purpose, 19 physically active male subjects were recruited to perform 6 sets of 10 repetitions of a one-leg knee extension exercise at 80% 1-RM 3 times/week for 4 weeks in normoxia (FiO2 : 0.21; n = 9) or in hypoxia (FiO2 : 0.135, n = 10). Blood and skeletal muscle samples were taken before and after the training period. Muscle fractional protein synthetic rate was measured over the whole period by deuterium incorporation into the protein pool and muscle thickness by ultrasound. At the end of the training protocol, the strength gain was higher in the hypoxic vs the normoxic group despite no changes in muscle thickness and in the fractional protein synthetic rate. Only early myogenesis, as assessed by higher MyoD and Myf5 mRNA levels, appeared to be enhanced by hypoxia compared to normoxia. No effects were found on myosin heavy chain expression, markers of oxidative metabolism and lactate transport in the skeletal muscle. Though the present study failed to unravel clearly the mechanisms by which hypoxic resistance training is particularly potent to increase muscle strength, it is important message to keep in mind that this training strategy could be effective for all athletes looking at developing and optimizing their maximal muscle strength.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 866-879, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Declines in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and fat-free mass (FFM) with age are linked to mortality, morbidity and poor quality of life. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve CRF and FFM in many groups, but its efficacy in the very old, in whom comorbidities are present is undefined. We aimed to assess the efficacy of and physiological/metabolic responses to HIIT, in a cohort of octogenarians with comorbidities (e.g. hypertension and osteoarthritis). METHODS: Twenty-eight volunteers (18 men, 10 women, 81.2 ± 0.6 years, 27.1 ± 0.6 kg·m-2 ) with American Society of Anaesthesiology (ASA) Grade 2-3 status each completed 4 weeks (12 sessions) HIIT after a control period of equal duration. Before and after each 4 week period, subjects underwent body composition assessments and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Quadriceps muscle biopsies (m. vastus lateralis) were taken to quantify anabolic signalling, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and cumulative muscle protein synthesis (MPS) over 4-weeks. RESULTS: In comorbid octogenarians, HIIT elicited improvements in CRF (anaerobic threshold: +1.2 ± 0.4 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 , P = 0.001). HIIT also augmented total FFM (47.2 ± 1.4 to 47.6 ± 1.3 kg, P = 0.04), while decreasing total fat mass (24.8 ± 1.3 to 24 ± 1.2 kg, P = 0.0002) and body fat percentage (33.1 ± 1.5 to 32.1 ± 1.4%, P = 0.0008). Mechanistically, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity increased after HIIT (i.e. citrate synthase activity: 52.4 ± 4 to 67.9 ± 5.1 nmol·min-1 ·mg-1 , P = 0.005; membrane protein complexes (C): C-II, 1.4-fold increase, P = 0.002; C-III, 1.2-fold increase, P = 0.03), as did rates of MPS (1.3 ± 0.1 to 1.5 ± 0.1%·day-1 , P = 0.03). The increase in MPS was supported by up-regulated phosphorylation of anabolic signalling proteins (e.g. AKT, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1; all P < 0.05). There were no changes in any of these parameters during the control period. No adverse events were reported throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: The HIIT enhances skeletal muscle mass and CRF in octogenarians with disease, with up-regulation of MPS and mitochondrial capacity likely underlying these improvements. HIIT can be safely delivered to octogenarians with disease and is an effective, time-efficient intervention to improve muscle mass and physical function in a short time frame.

4.
Physiol Rep ; 9(10): e14799, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042295

RESUMO

The development of safe and practical strategies to prevent weakening of bone tissue is vital, yet attempts to achieve this have been hindered by a lack of understanding of the short-term (days-weeks) physiology of bone collagen turnover. To address this, we have developed a method to quantify bone collagen synthesis in vivo, using deuterium oxide (D2 O) tracer incorporation techniques combined with gas chromatography pyrolysis isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-pyrolysis-IRMS). Forty-six male and female rats from a selectively bred model ingested D2 O for 3 weeks. Femur diaphyses (FEM), tibia proximal (T-PRO), and distal (T-DIS) epiphyses-metaphyses and tibia mid-shaft diaphyses (T-MID) were obtained from all rats after necropsy. After demineralisation, collagen proteins were isolated and hydrolysed and collagen fractional synthetic rates (FSRs) determined by incorporation of deuterium into protein-bound alanine via GC-pyrolysis-IRMS. The collagen FSR for the FEM (0.131 ± 0.078%/day; 95% CI [0.106-0.156]) was greater than the FSR at T-MID (0.055 ± 0.049%/day; 95% CI [0.040-0.070]; p < 0.001). The T-PRO site had the highest FSR (0.203 ± 0.123%/day; 95% CI [0.166-0.241]) and T-DIS the lowest (0.027 ± 0.015%/day; 95% CI [0.022-0.031]). The three tibial sites exhibited different FSRs (p < 0.001). Herein, we have developed a sensitive method to quantify in vivo bone collagen synthesis and identified site-specific rates of synthesis, which could be applicable to studies of human bone collagen turnover.

5.
Geroscience ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046811

RESUMO

Optimising approaches for measuring skeletal muscle mass and turnover that are widely applicable, minimally invasive and cost effective is crucial in furthering research into sarcopenia and cachexia. Traditional approaches for measurement of muscle protein turnover require infusion of expensive, sterile, isotopically labelled tracers which limits the applicability of these approaches in certain populations (e.g. clinical, frail elderly). To concurrently quantify skeletal muscle mass and muscle protein turnover i.e. muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB), in elderly human volunteers using stable-isotope labelled tracers i.e. Methyl-[D3]-creatine (D3-Cr), deuterium oxide (D2O), and Methyl-[D3]-3-methylhistidine (D3-3MH), to measure muscle mass, MPS and MPB, respectively. We recruited 10 older males (71 ± 4 y, BMI: 25 ± 4 kg.m2, mean ± SD) into a 4-day study, with DXA and consumption of D2O and D3-Cr tracers on day 1. D3-3MH was consumed on day 3, 24 h prior to returning to the lab. From urine, saliva and blood samples, and a single muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis), we determined muscle mass, MPS and MPB. D3-Cr derived muscle mass was positively correlated to appendicular fat-free mass (AFFM) estimated by DXA (r = 0.69, P = 0.027). Rates of cumulative myofibrillar MPS over 3 days were 0.072%/h (95% CI, 0.064 to 0.081%/h). Whole-body MPB over 6 h was 0.052 (95% CI, 0.038 to 0.067). These rates were similar to previous literature. We demonstrate the potential for D3-Cr to be used alongside D2O and D3-3MH for concurrent measurement of muscle mass, MPS, and MPB using a minimally invasive design, applicable for clinical and frail populations.

6.
J Physiol ; 599(3): 963-979, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258480

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Reduced vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression prompts skeletal muscle atrophy. Atrophy occurs through catabolic processes, namely the induction of autophagy, while anabolism remains unchanged. In response to VDR-knockdown mitochondrial function and related gene-set expression is impaired. In vitro VDR knockdown induces myogenic dysregulation occurring through impaired differentiation. These results highlight the autonomous role the VDR has within skeletal muscle mass regulation. ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is estimated to affect ∼40% of the world's population and has been associated with impaired muscle maintenance. Vitamin D exerts its actions through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), the expression of which was recently confirmed in skeletal muscle, and its down-regulation is linked to reduced muscle mass and functional decline. To identify potential mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy, we studied the impact of VDR knockdown (KD) on mature skeletal muscle in vivo, and myogenic regulation in vitro in C2C12 cells. Male Wistar rats underwent in vivo electrotransfer (IVE) to knock down the VDR in hind-limb tibialis anterior (TA) muscle for 10 days. Comprehensive metabolic and physiological analysis was undertaken to define the influence loss of the VDR on muscle fibre composition, protein synthesis, anabolic and catabolic signalling, mitochondrial phenotype and gene expression. Finally, in vitro lentiviral transfection was used to induce sustained VDR-KD in C2C12 cells to analyse myogenic regulation. Muscle VDR-KD elicited atrophy through a reduction in total protein content, resulting in lower myofibre area. Activation of autophagic processes was observed, with no effect upon muscle protein synthesis or anabolic signalling. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing analysis identified systematic down-regulation of multiple mitochondrial respiration-related protein and genesets. Finally, in vitro VDR-knockdown impaired myogenesis (cell cycling, differentiation and myotube formation). Together, these data indicate a fundamental regulatory role of the VDR in the regulation of myogenesis and muscle mass, whereby it acts to maintain muscle mitochondrial function and limit autophagy.


Assuntos
Receptores de Calcitriol , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Animais , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Vitamina D
7.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(1): 52-69, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor recovery from periods of disuse accelerates age-related muscle loss, predisposing individuals to the development of secondary adverse health outcomes. Exercise prior to disuse (prehabilitation) may prevent muscle deterioration during subsequent unloading. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of short-term resistance exercise training (RET) prehabilitation on muscle morphology and regulatory mechanisms during 5 days of bed rest in older men. METHODS: Ten healthy older men aged 65-80 years underwent four bouts of high-volume unilateral leg RET over 7 days prior to 5 days of inpatient bed rest. Physical activity and step-count were monitored over the course of RET prehabilitation and bed rest, whilst dietary intake was recorded throughout. Prior to and following bed rest, quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA), and hormone/lipid profiles were determined. Serial muscle biopsies and dual-stable isotope tracers were used to determine integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (iMyoPS) over RET prehabilitation and bed rest phases, and acute postabsorptive and postprandial myofibrillar protein synthesis (aMyoPS) rates at the end of bed rest. RESULTS: During bed rest, daily step-count and light and moderate physical activity time decreased, whilst sedentary time increased when compared with habitual levels (P < 0.001 for all). Dietary protein and fibre intake during bed rest were lower than habitual values (P < 0.01 for both). iMyoPS rates were significantly greater in the exercised leg (EX) compared with the non-exercised control leg (CTL) over prehabilitation (1.76 ± 0.37%/day vs. 1.36 ± 0.18%/day, respectively; P = 0.007). iMyoPS rates decreased similarly in EX and CTL during bed rest (CTL, 1.07 ± 0.22%/day; EX, 1.30 ± 0.38%/day; P = 0.037 and 0.002, respectively). Postprandial aMyoPS rates increased above postabsorptive values in EX only (P = 0.018), with no difference in delta postprandial aMyoPS stimulation between legs. Quadriceps CSA at 40%, 60%, and 80% of muscle length decreased significantly in EX and CTL over bed rest (0.69%, 3.5%, and 2.8%, respectively; P < 0.01 for all), with no differences between legs. No differences in fibre-type CSA were observed between legs or with bed rest. Plasma insulin and serum lipids did not change with bed rest. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term resistance exercise prehabilitation augmented iMyoPS rates in older men but did not offset the relative decline in iMyoPS and muscle mass during bed rest.

9.
Mol Metab ; 42: 101059, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has been positively associated with skeletal muscle mass, function and regeneration. Mechanistic studies have focused on the loss of the receptor, with in vivo whole-body knockout models demonstrating reduced myofibre size and function and impaired muscle development. To understand the mechanistic role upregulation of the VDR elicits in muscle mass/health, we studied the impact of VDR over-expression (OE) in vivo before exploring the importance of VDR expression upon muscle hypertrophy in humans. METHODS: Wistar rats underwent in vivo electrotransfer (IVE) to overexpress the VDR in the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle for 10 days, before comprehensive physiological and metabolic profiling to characterise the influence of VDR-OE on muscle protein synthesis (MPS), anabolic signalling and satellite cell activity. Stable isotope tracer (D2O) techniques were used to assess sub-fraction protein synthesis, alongside RNA-Seq analysis. Finally, human participants underwent 20 wks of resistance exercise training, with body composition and transcriptomic analysis. RESULTS: Muscle VDR-OE yielded total protein and RNA accretion, manifesting in increased myofibre area, i.e., hypertrophy. The observed increases in MPS were associated with enhanced anabolic signalling, reflecting translational efficiency (e.g., mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR-signalling), with no effects upon protein breakdown markers being observed. Additionally, RNA-Seq illustrated marked extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, while satellite cell content, markers of proliferation and associated cell-cycled related gene-sets were upregulated. Finally, induction of VDR mRNA correlated with muscle hypertrophy in humans following long-term resistance exercise type training. CONCLUSION: VDR-OE stimulates muscle hypertrophy ostensibly via heightened protein synthesis, translational efficiency, ribosomal expansion and upregulation of ECM remodelling-related gene-sets. Furthermore, VDR expression is a robust marker of the hypertrophic response to resistance exercise in humans. The VDR is a viable target of muscle maintenance through testable Vitamin D molecules, as active molecules and analogues.

10.
Exp Physiol ; 105(7): 1081-1089, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362047

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This review discusses the application of new stable isotope tracer techniques in understanding the control of skeletal muscle mass. What advances does it highlight? This review highlights current advances in stable isotope tracer techniques through their combination with high-throughput proteomics technologies. ABSTRACT: Beyond its primary locomotory and key structural functions, skeletal muscle provides additional vital roles for maintenance of metabolic health, acting as a storage point for glucose and intramuscular lipids for energy production, alongside being the largest reservoir for amino acids in the body. Therefore, maintenance of muscle mass is key to the promotion of health and well-being across the lifespan and in several disease states. As such, when skeletal muscle is lost, in either clinical (cancer, organ failure etc.) or non-clinical (ageing, inactivity) situations, there are potentially devastating consequences attached, with robust links existing between muscle mass loss and mortality. Great efforts are being made to reverse or slow muscle mass declines in health and disease, through combinations of lifestyle changes and nutritional and/or pharmaceutical intervention. However, despite this comprehensive research effort, the underlying metabolic and molecular mechanisms have yet to be defined properly. However, with the rapid acceleration of analytical developments over recent years, the application of stable isotope tracers to the study of human muscle metabolism is providing unique insights into the mechanisms controlling skeletal muscle loss and allowing more targeted therapeutic strategies to be developed. The aim of this review is to highlight the technical breakthroughs in our understanding of muscle wasting in health and disease and how future directions and developments incorporating 'omics' with stable isotope tracers will allow for a more personalized and stratified therapeutic approach.

11.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein supplementation on myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS) and muscle recovery over a 7-d period of intensified resistance training (RT). METHODS: In a double-blind randomised parallel group design, 16 resistance-trained men aged 18 to 35 years completed a 7-d RT protocol, consisting of three lower-body RT sessions on non-consecutive days. Participants consumed a controlled diet (146 kJ·kg-1·d-1, 1.7 g·kg-1·d-1 protein) with either a whey protein supplement or an isonitrogenous control (0.33 g·kg-1·d-1 protein). To measure myoPS, 400 ml of deuterium oxide (D2O) (70 atom %) was ingested the day prior to starting the study and m. vastus lateralis biopsies were taken before and after RT-intervention. Myofibrillar fractional synthetic rate (myoFSR) was calculated via deuterium labelling of myofibrillar-bound alanine, measured by gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Pyr-IRMS). Muscle recovery parameters (i.e., countermovement jump height, isometric-squat force, muscle soreness and serum creatine kinase) were assessed daily. RESULTS: MyoFSR PRE was 1.6 (0.2) %∙d-1 (mean (SD)). Whey protein supplementation had no effect on myoFSR (p = 0.771) or any recovery parameter (p = 0.390-0.989). CONCLUSIONS: Over an intense 7-d RT protocol, 0.33 g·kg-1·d-1 of supplemental whey protein does not enhance day-to-day measures of myoPS or postexercise recovery in resistance-trained men.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Treinamento de Força , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Adulto Jovem
12.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 23(3): 174-180, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175954

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skeletal muscle has many essential roles in maintaining human health, not only being crucial for locomotion, but further as a metabolically important organ. Muscle wasting in disease (cachexia) is highly prevalent, associated with poor clinical outcomes and is not fully reversible with nutritional interventions. Understanding proteostasis in diseased states is of great importance to design novel, effective nutritional/nutraceutical strategies aimed at alleviating muscle wasting. In this review, we will provide an update on muscle kinetics in disease and the effects of nutritional interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Whole body and skeletal muscle kinetics are commonly shown to be imbalanced in disease, promoting overall catabolism that underlies the development of cachexia. However, recent advancements in defining the effectiveness of nutritional interventions on muscle anabolism are clouded by heterogenous patient populations and a lack of direct incorporation stable isotope techniques. Current recommendations are focused on combating malnutrition, with increased protein intake (high in EAA) demonstrating promise. SUMMARY: Recent progress in understanding catabolic states in cachexia across disease is minimal. Further, studies investigating muscle-specific protein turnover along with nutritional interventions are scarce. As such, there is a significant requirement for strong RCT's investigating both acute and chronic nutritional interventions and their impact on skeletal muscle in individual disease states.


Assuntos
Caquexia/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/terapia , Humanos , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/terapia , Necessidades Nutricionais
13.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 10(6): 1276-1294, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The andropause is associated with declines in serum testosterone (T), loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia), and frailty. Two major interventions purported to offset sarcopenia are anabolic steroid therapies and resistance exercise training (RET). Nonetheless, the efficacy and physiological and molecular impacts of T therapy adjuvant to short-term RET remain poorly defined. METHODS: Eighteen non-hypogonadal healthy older men, 65-75 years, were assigned in a random double-blinded fashion to receive, biweekly, either placebo (P, saline, n = 9) or T (Sustanon 250 mg, n = 9) injections over 6 week whole-body RET (three sets of 8-10 repetitions at 80% one-repetition maximum). Subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, ultrasound of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture, and knee extensor isometric muscle force tests; VL muscle biopsies were taken to quantify myogenic/anabolic gene expression, anabolic signalling, muscle protein synthesis (D2 O), and breakdown (extrapolated). RESULTS: Testosterone adjuvant to RET augmented total fat-free mass (P=0.007), legs fat-free mass (P=0.02), and appendicular fat-free mass (P=0.001) gains while decreasing total fat mass (P=0.02). Augmentations in VL muscle thickness, fascicle length, and quadriceps cross-section area with RET occured to a greater extent in T (P < 0.05). Sum strength (P=0.0009) and maximal voluntary contract (e.g. knee extension at 70°) (P=0.002) increased significantly more in the T group. Mechanistically, both muscle protein synthesis rates (T: 2.13 ± 0.21%·day-1 vs. P: 1.34 ± 0.13%·day-1 , P=0.0009) and absolute breakdown rates (T: 140.2 ± 15.8 g·day-1 vs. P: 90.2 ± 11.7 g·day-1 , P=0.02) were elevated with T therapy, which led to higher net turnover and protein accretion in the T group (T: 8.3 ± 1.4 g·day-1 vs. P: 1.9 ± 1.2 g·day-1 , P=0.004). Increases in ribosomal biogenesis (RNA:DNA ratio); mRNA expression relating to T metabolism (androgen receptor: 1.4-fold; Srd5a1: 1.6-fold; AKR1C3: 2.1-fold; and HSD17ß3: two-fold); insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signalling [IGF-1Ea (3.5-fold) and IGF-1Ec (three-fold)] and myogenic regulatory factors; and the activity of anabolic signalling (e.g. mTOR, AKT, and RPS6; P < 0.05) were all up-regulated with T therapy. Only T up-regulated mitochondrial citrate synthase activity (P=0.03) and transcription factor A (1.41 ± 0.2-fold, P=0.0002), in addition to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1-α mRNA (1.19 ± 0.21-fold, P=0.037). CONCLUSIONS: Administration of T adjuvant to RET enhanced skeletal muscle mass and performance, while up-regulating myogenic gene programming, myocellular translational efficiency and capacity, collectively resulting in higher protein turnover, and net protein accretion. T coupled with RET is an effective short-term intervention to improve muscle mass/function in older non-hypogonadal men.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Quadríceps/diagnóstico por imagem , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Quadríceps/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Quadríceps/metabolismo , Testosterona/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
14.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331099

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to test the effects of two disparate isonitrogenous, isocaloric pre-exercise feeds on deuterium-oxide (D2O) derived measures of myofibrillar protein synthesis (myoPS) in humans. Methods: In a double-blind parallel group design, 22 resistance-trained men aged 18 to 35 years ingested a meal (6 kcal·kg-1, 0.8 g·kg-1 carbohydrate, 0.2 g·kg-1 fat) with 0.33 g·kg-1 nonessential amino acids blend (NEAA) or whey protein (WHEY), prior to resistance exercise (70% 1RM back-squats, 10 reps per set to failure, 25% duty cycle). Biopsies of M. vastus lateralis were obtained pre-ingestion (PRE) and +3 h post-exercise (POST). The myofibrillar fractional synthetic rate (myoFSR) was calculated via deuterium labelling of myofibrillar-bound alanine, measured by gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Pyr-IRMS). Data are a mean percentage change (95% CI). Results: There was no discernable change in myoFSR following NEAA (10(-5, 25) %, p = 0.235), whereas an increase in myoFSR was observed after WHEY (28 (13, 43) %, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Measured by a D2O tracer technique, a disparate myoPS response was observed between NEAA and WHEY. Pre-exercise ingestion of whey protein increased post-exercise myoPS, whereas a NEAA blend did not, supporting the use of NEAA as a viable isonitrogenous negative control.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminoácidos/sangue , Aminoácidos Essenciais/administração & dosagem , Aminoácidos Essenciais/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Treinamento de Força , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Nutr ; 6: 40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032258

RESUMO

Background: We previously showed that daily consumption of a multi-ingredient nutritional supplement increased lean mass in older men, but did not enhance lean tissue gains during a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) plus resistance exercise training (RET) program. Here, we aimed to determine whether these divergent observations aligned with the myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) response to acute unaccustomed and accustomed resistance exercise. Methods: A sub-sample of our participants were randomly allocated (n = 15; age: 72 ± 7 years; BMI: 26.9 ± 3.1 kg/m2 [mean ± SD]) to ingest an experimental supplement (SUPP, n = 8: containing whey protein, creatine, vitamin D, and n-3 PUFA) or control beverage (CON, n = 7: 22 g maltodextrin) twice per day for 21 weeks. After 7 weeks of consuming the beverage alone (Phase 1: SUPP/CON only), subjects completed 12 weeks of RET (twice per week) + HIIT (once per week) (Phase 2: SUPP/CON + EX). Orally administered deuterated water was used to measure integrated rates of MyoPS over 48 h following a single session of resistance exercise pre- (unaccustomed) and post-training (accustomed). Results: Following an acute bout of accustomed resistance exercise, 0-24 h MyoPS was 30% higher than rest in the SUPP group (effect size: 0.86); however, in the CON group, 0-24 h MyoPS was 0% higher than rest (effect size: 0.04). Nonetheless, no within or between group changes in MyoPS were statistically significant. When collapsed across group, rates of MyoPS in recovery from acute unaccustomed resistance exercise were positively correlated with training-induced gains in whole body lean mass (r = 0.63, p = 0.01). Conclusion: There were no significant between-group differences in MyoPS pre- or post-training. Integrated rates of MyoPS post-acute exercise in the untrained state were positively correlated with training-induced gains in whole body lean mass. Our finding that supplementation did not alter 0-48 h MyoPS following 12 weeks of training suggests a possible adaptive response to longer-term increased protein intake and warrants further investigation. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02281331.

16.
Exp Physiol ; 103(11): 1513-1523, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184287

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Can phenotypic traits associated with low response to one mode of training be extrapolated to other exercise-inducible phenotypes? The present study investigated whether rats that are low responders to endurance training are also low responders to resistance training. What is the main finding and its importance? After resistance training, rats that are high responders to aerobic exercise training improved more in maximal strength compared with low-responder rats. However, the greater gain in strength in high-responder rats was not accompanied by muscle hypertrophy, suggesting that the responses observed could be mainly neural in origin. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether rats selectively bred for low and high response to aerobic exercise training co-segregate for differences in muscle adaptations to ladder-climbing resistance training. Five high-responder (HRT) and five low-responder (LRT) rats completed the resistance training, while six HRT and six LRT rats served as sedentary control animals. Before and after the 6 week intervention, body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Before tissue harvesting, the right triceps surae muscles were loaded by electrical stimulation. Muscle fibre cross-sectional areas, nuclei per cell, phosphorylation status of selected signalling proteins of mTOR and Smad pathways, and muscle protein, DNA and RNA concentrations were determined for the right gastrocnemius muscle. The daily protein synthesis rate was determined by the deuterium oxide method from the left quadriceps femoris muscle. Tissue weights of fore- and hindlimb muscles were measured. In response to resistance training, maximal carrying capacity was greater in HRT (∼3.3 times body mass) than LRT (∼2.5 times body mass), indicating greater improvements of strength in HRT. However, muscle hypertrophy that could be related to greater strength gains in HRT was not observed. Furthermore, noteworthy changes within the experimental groups or differences between groups were not observed in the present measures. The lack of hypertrophic muscular adaptations despite considerable increases in muscular strength suggest that adaptations to the present ladder-climbing training in HRT and LRT rats were largely induced by neural adaptations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Treinamento de Força
17.
Exp Gerontol ; 110: 202-208, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation may contribute to anabolic resistance in response to protein and exercise in older adults. We investigated whether consumption of montmorency cherry concentrate (MCC) increased anabolic sensitivity to protein ingestion and resistance exercise in healthy older men. METHODS: Sixteen healthy older men were randomized to receive MCC (60 mL·d-1) or placebo (PLA) for two weeks, after baseline measures in week 1. During week 3, participants consumed 10 g whey protein·d-1 and completed three bouts of unilateral leg resistance exercise (4 × 8-10 repetitions at 80% 1RM). Participants consumed a bolus (150 mL) and weekly (50 mL) doses of deuterated water. Body water 2H enrichment was measured in saliva and vastus lateralis biopsies were taken from the non-exercised leg after weeks 1, 2 and 3, and the exercised leg after week 3, to measure tracer incorporation at rest, in response to protein and protein + exercise. RESULTS: Myofibrillar protein synthesis increased in response to exercise + protein compared to rest (p < 0.05) in both groups, but there was no added effect of supplement (MCC: 1.79 ±â€¯0.75 EX vs 1.15 ±â€¯0.40 rest; PLA: 2.22 ±â€¯0.54 vs 1.21 ±â€¯0.18; all %·d-1). Muscle total NFĸB protein was decreased with exercise and protein in MCC (NFĸB: -20.7 ±â€¯17.5%) but increased in PLA (NFĸB: 17.8 ±â€¯31.3%, p = 0.073). CONCLUSION: Short-term MCC ingestion does not affect the anabolic response to protein and exercise in healthy, relatively active, older men, despite MCC ingestion attenuating expression of proteins involved in the muscle inflammatory response to exercise, which may influence the chronic training response.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Prunus avium/química , Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Deutério , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Músculo Quadríceps/patologia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem
18.
Clin Nutr ; 37(6 Pt A): 2011-2021, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Impaired anabolic responses to nutrition and exercise contribute to loss of skeletal muscle mass with ageing (sarcopenia). Here, we tested responses of muscle protein synthesis (MPS), in the under represented group of older women, to leucine-enriched essential amino acids (EAA) in comparison to a large bolus of whey protein (WP). METHODS: Twenty-four older women (65 ± 1 y) received (N = 8/group) 1.5 g leucine-enriched EAA supplements (LEAA_1.5), 6 g LEAA (LEAA_6) in comparison to 40 g WP. A primed constant I.V infusion of 13C6-phenylalanine was used to determine MPS at baseline and in response to feeding (FED) and feeding-plus-exercise (FED-EX; 6 × 8 unilateral leg extensions; 75%1-RM). We quantified plasma insulin/AA concentrations, leg femoral blood flow (LBF)/muscle microvascular blood flow (MBF), and anabolic signalling via immunoblotting. RESULTS: Plasma insulineamia and EAAemia were greater and more prolonged with WP than LEAA, although LEAA_6 peaked at similar levels to WP. Neither LEAA or WP modified LBF or MBF. FED increased MPS similarly in the LEAA_1.5, LEAA_6 and WP (P < 0.05) groups over 0-2 h, with MPS significantly higher than basal in the LEAA_6 and WP groups only over 0-4 h. However, FED-EX increased MPS similarly across all the groups from 0 to 4 h (P < 0.05). Only p-p70S6K1 increased with WP at 2 h in FED (P < 0.05), and at 2/4 h in FED-EX (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, LEAA_1.5, despite only providing 0.6 g of leucine, robustly (perhaps maximally) stimulated MPS, with negligible trophic advantage of greater doses of LEAA or even to 40 g WP. Highlighting that composition of EAA, in particular the presence of leucine rather than amount is most crucial for anabolism.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Leucina , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite , Idoso , Aminoácidos Essenciais/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Leucina/administração & dosagem , Leucina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia
19.
F1000Res ; 6: 1235, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developing alternative exercise programmes that can alleviate certain barriers to exercise such as psychological, environmental or socio-economical barriers, but provide similar physiological benefits e.g. increases in muscle mass and strength, is of grave importance. This pilot study aimed to assess the efficacy of an unsupervised, 4-week, whole-body home-based exercise training (HBET) programme, incorporated into daily living activities, on skeletal muscle mass, power and strength. METHODS: Twelve healthy older volunteers (63±3 years, 7 men: 5 women, BMI: 29±1 kg/m²) carried out the 4-week "lifestyle-integrated" HBET of 8 exercises, 3x12 repetitions each, every day. Before and after HBET, a number of physical function tests were carried out: unilateral leg extension 1-RM (one- repetition maximum), MVC (maximal voluntary contraction) leg extension, lower leg muscle power (via Nottingham Power Rig), handgrip strength and SPPBT (short physical performance battery test). A D 3-Creatine method was used for assessment of whole-body skeletal muscle mass, and ultrasound was used to measure the quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle thickness. RESULTS: Four weeks HBET elicited significant (p<0.05) improvements in leg muscle power (276.7±38.5 vs. 323.4±43.4 W), maximal voluntary contraction (60°: 154.2±18.4 vs. 168.8±15.2 Nm, 90°: 152.1±10.5 vs. 159.1±11.4 Nm) and quadriceps CSA (57.5±5.4 vs. 59.0±5.3 cm 2), with a trend for an increase in leg strength (1-RM: 45.7±5.9 vs. 49.6±6.0 kg, P=0.08). This was despite there being no significant differences in whole-body skeletal muscle mass, as assessed via D 3-Creatine. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that increases in multiple aspects of muscle function can be achieved in older adults with just 4-weeks of "lifestyle-integrated" HBET, with a cost-effective means. This training mode may prove to be a beneficial alternative for maintaining and/or improving muscle mass and function in older adults.

20.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 20(6): 433-439, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832372

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In addition to being essential for movement, skeletal muscles act as both a store and source of key macronutrients. As such, muscle is an important tissue for whole body homeostasis, undergoing muscle wasting in times of starvation, disease, and stress, for example, to provide energy substrates for other tissues. Yet, muscle wasting is also associated with disability, comorbidities, and mortality. As nutrition is so crucial to maintaining muscle homeostasis 'in health', it has been postulated that muscle wasting in cachexia syndromes may be alleviated by nutritional interventions. This review will highlight recent work in this area in relation to muscle kinetics, the acute metabolic (e.g. dietary protein), and longer-term effects of dietary interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: Whole body and skeletal muscle protein synthesis invariably exhibit deranged kinetics (favouring catabolism) in wasting states; further, many of these conditions harbour blunted anabolic responses to protein nutrition compared with healthy controls. These derangements underlie muscle wasting. Recent trials of essential amino acid and protein-based nutrition have shown some potential for therapeutic benefit. SUMMARY: Nutritional modulation, particularly of dietary amino acids, may have benefits to prevent or attenuate disease-induced muscle wasting. Nonetheless, there remains a lack of recent studies exploring these key concepts to make conclusive recommendations.


Assuntos
Caquexia/complicações , Dieta , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia , Atrofia Muscular/dietoterapia , Síndrome de Emaciação/dietoterapia , Doença Aguda , Caquexia/dietoterapia , Comorbidade , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Desnutrição/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Estado Nutricional , Síndrome de Emaciação/etiologia
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