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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(15)2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707995

RESUMO

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) have emerged as multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens associated with periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads (ALCSB) in inhibiting bacterial growth, encouraging biofilm formation and killing preformed biofilms of CRE and VRE. Three strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) and a strain of Enterococcus faecalis (EF) were used. ALCSB of 4.8-mm diameter were loaded with vancomycin (V) and gentamicin (G), V and rifampicin (R), V and tobramycin (T) or R and meropenem (M), and placed onto tryptic soy agar (TSA), spread with one of the test strains and incubated for 24 h at 37 °C. Beads were transferred daily onto fresh TSA spread plates and the zone of inhibition (ZOI) was recorded until no inhibition was observed. ALCSB containing R + M or R + V produced the most extensive ZOI up to 5 weeks. Biofilm prevention efficacy was investigated by challenging ALCSB daily with 5 × 105 CFU/mL bacterial cells and analyzing for biofilm formation at challenges 1, 2 and 3. In the biofilm killing experiments, ALCSB were added to pre-grown 3-day biofilms of KP and EF strains, which were then analyzed at days 1 and 3 post-exposure. The CFU counts and confocal images of the attached cells showed that ALCSB treatment reduced colonization and biofilm formation significantly (5-7 logs) with combinations of R + M or R + V, compared to unloaded beads. This study provides evidence that the local release of antibiotics from ALCSB may be useful in treating the biofilms of multidrug-resistant strains of CRE and VRE.

2.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(23): 234001, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958775

RESUMO

We implement stochastic many-body perturbation theory for systems with 2D periodic boundary conditions. The method is used to compute quasiparticle excitations in twisted bilayer phosphorene. Excitation energies are studied using stochastic [Formula: see text] and partially self-consistent [Formula: see text] approaches. The approach is inexpensive; it is used to study twisted systems with unit cells containing >2700 atoms (>13 500 valence electrons), which corresponds to a minimum twisting angle of [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. Twisted bilayers exhibit band splitting, increased localization and formation of localized Moiré impurity states, as documented by band-structure unfolding. Structural changes in twisted structures lift band degeneracies. Energies of the impurity states vary with the twisting angle due to an interplay between non-local exchange and polarization effects. The mechanisms of quasiparticle energy (de)stabilization due to twisting are likely applicable to a wide range of low-dimensional Moiré superstructures.

3.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(24)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817373

RESUMO

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) are the major causative agents of acute and chronic infections. Antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads (ALCSB) are used in the management of musculoskeletal infections such as periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). Methods: To determine whether the number and spatial distribution of ALCSB are important factors to totally eradicate biofilms, ALCSBs containing vancomycin and tobramycin were placed on 24 h agar lawn biofilms as a single bead in the center, or as 16 beads placed as four clusters of four, a ring around the edge and as a group in the center or 19 beads evenly across the plate. Bioluminescence was used to assess spatial metabolic activity in real time. Replica plating was used to assess viability. Results: For both strains antibiotics released from the beads completely killed biofilm bacteria in a zone immediately adjacent to each bead. However, for PA extended incubation revealed the emergence of resistant colony phenotypes between the zone of eradication and the background lawn. The rate of biofilm clearing was greater when the beads were distributed evenly over the plate. Conclusions: Both number and distribution pattern of ALCSB are important to ensure adequate coverage of antibiotics required to eradicate biofilms.

5.
Langmuir ; 34(4): 1353-1362, 2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341626

RESUMO

Noncovalent monolayer chemistries are often used to functionalize 2D materials. Nanoscopic ligand ordering has been widely demonstrated (e.g., lying-down lamellar phases of functional alkanes); however, combining this control with micro- and macroscopic patterning for practical applications remains a significant challenge. A few reports have demonstrated that standing phase Langmuir films on water can be converted into nanoscopic lying-down molecular domains on 2D substrates (e.g., graphite), using horizontal dipping (Langmuir-Schaefer, LS, transfer). Molecular patterns are known to form at scales up to millimeters in Langmuir films, suggesting the possibility of transforming such structures into functional patterns on 2D materials. However, to our knowledge, this approach has not been investigated, and the rules governing LS conversion are not well understood. In part, this is because the conversion process is mechanistically very different from classic LS transfer of standing phases; challenges also arise due to the need to characterize structure in noncovalently adsorbed ligand layers <0.5 nm thick, at scales ranging from millimeters to nanometers. Here, we show that scanning electron microscopy enables diynoic acid lying-down phases to be imaged across this range of scales; using this structural information, we establish conditions for LS conversion to create hierarchical microscopic and nanoscopic functional patterns. Such control opens the door to tailoring noncovalent surface chemistry of 2D materials to pattern local interactions with the environment.

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