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1.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 57(8): 988-996, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398597

RESUMO

The sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor (S1P1R ) is expressed by lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and vascular endothelial cells and plays a role in the regulation of chronic inflammation and lymphocyte egress from peripheral lymphoid organs. Ozanimod is an oral selective modulator of S1P1R and S1P5R receptors in clinical development for the treatment of chronic immune-mediated, inflammatory diseases. This first-in-human study characterized the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of ozanimod in 88 healthy volunteers using a range of single and multiple doses (7 and 28 days) and a dose-escalation regimen. Ozanimod was generally well tolerated up to a maximum single dose of 3 mg and multiple doses of 2 mg/d, with no severe adverse events (AEs) and no dose-limiting toxicities. The most common ozanimod-related AEs included headache, somnolence, dizziness, nausea, and fatigue. Ozanimod exhibited linear PK, high steady-state volume of distribution (73-101 L/kg), moderate oral clearance (204-227 L/h), and an elimination half-life of approximately 17 to 21 hours. Ozanimod produced a robust dose-dependent reduction in total peripheral lymphocytes, with a median decrease of 65% to 68% observed after 28 days of dosing at 1 and 1.5 mg/d, respectively. Ozanimod selectivity affected lymphocyte subtypes, causing marked decreases in cells expressing CCR7 and variable decreases in subsets lacking CCR7. A dose-dependent negative chronotropic effect was observed following the first dose, with the dose-escalation regimen attenuating the first-dose negative chronotropic effect. Ozanimod safety, PK, and PD properties support the once-daily regimens under clinical investigation.


Assuntos
Indanos , Oxidiazóis , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Indanos/efeitos adversos , Indanos/sangue , Indanos/farmacocinética , Indanos/farmacologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxidiazóis/efeitos adversos , Oxidiazóis/sangue , Oxidiazóis/farmacocinética , Oxidiazóis/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
2.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 468(8): 2092-100, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20195806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When a physician-directed antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement (ALBC) formulation is used in total hip arthroplasties (THAs) and total knee arthroplasties (TKAs), current practice in the United States involves arbitrary choice of the antibiotic loading (herein defined as the ratio of the mass of the antibiotic added to the mass of the cement powder). We suggest there is a need to develop a rational method for determining this loading. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We propose a new method for determining the antibiotic loading to use when preparing a physician-directed ALBC formulation and illustrate this method using three in vitro properties of an ALBC in which the antibiotic was daptomycin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Daptomycin was blended with the powder of the cement using a mechanical mixer. We performed fatigue, elution, and activity tests on three sets of specimens having daptomycin loadings of 2.25, 4.50, and 11.00 wt/wt%. Correlational analyses of the results of these tests were used in conjunction with stated constraints and a nonlinear optimization method to determine the daptomycin loading to use. RESULTS: With an increase in daptomycin loading, the estimated mean fatigue limit of the cement decreased, the estimated elution rate of the antibiotic increased, and the percentage inhibition of staphylococcal growth by the eluate remained unchanged at 100%. For a daptomycin-loaded PMMA bone cement we computed the optimum amount of daptomycin to mechanically blend with 40 g of cement powder is 1.36 g. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest an approach that may be used to determine the amount of antibiotic to blend with the powder of a PMMA bone cement when preparing a physician-directed ALBC formulation, and highlighted the attractions and limitations of this approach. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: When a physician-directed ALBC formulation is selected for use in a TKA or THA, the approach we detail may be employed to determine the antibiotic loading to use rather than the empirical approach that is taken in current clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Cimentos para Ossos/química , Daptomicina/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Substituição/métodos , Daptomicina/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Prótese Articular , Teste de Materiais , Pós , Estresse Mecânico , Resistência à Tração/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15892257

RESUMO

3'-Azido-3',5-dideoxythymidine 5'-phosphonate and 3',5'-dideoxy-5'-difluoromethylenethymidine 5'-phosphonate were prepared by multistep syntheses. The nucleoside 5'-phosphonates were converted to their triphosphates and triphosphate mimics (P3Ms) containing beta,gamma-difluoromethylene, beta,gamma-dichloromethylene, or beta,gamma-imodo by condensation with pyrophosphate or pyrophosphate mimics, respectively. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by the nucleoside P3Ms is briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , Mimetismo Molecular , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Timidina/análogos & derivados , Nucleotídeos de Timina/síntese química , Zidovudina/análogos & derivados , Didesoxinucleotídeos , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Timidina/síntese química , Timidina/química , Timidina/farmacologia , Nucleotídeos de Timina/química , Nucleotídeos de Timina/farmacologia , Zidovudina/síntese química , Zidovudina/química , Zidovudina/farmacologia
4.
J Med Chem ; 48(7): 2695-700, 2005 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15801860

RESUMO

The triphosphates of antiviral 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides (ddNs) are the active chemical species that inhibit viral DNA synthesis. The inhibition involves incorporation of ddNMP into DNA and subsequent chain termination. A conceivable strategy for antiviral drugs is to employ nucleoside 5'-triphosphate mimics that can entirely bypass cellular phosphorylation. AZT 5'-alpha-R(P)-borano-beta,gamma-(difluoromethylene)triphosphate (5'-alphaB-betagammaCF(2)TP) has been identified as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT). This work was aimed at confirming that 5'-alphaB-betagammaCF(2)TP is a useful generic triphosphate moiety and can render antiviral ddNs with potent inhibitory effects on HIV-1 RT. Thus, 10 ddNs were converted to their 5'-alphaB-betagammaCF(2)TPs via a sequence (one-pot) of reactions: formation of an activated phosphite, formation of a cyclic triphosphate, boronation, and hydrolysis. Other synthetic routes were also explored. All ddN 5'-alphaB-betagammaCF(2)TPs tested exhibited essentially the same level of inhibition of HIV-1 RT as the corresponding ddNTPs. A conclusion can be made that 5'-alphaB-betagammaCF(2)TP is a generic and promising triphosphate mimic (P3M) concerning HIV-1 RT inhibition and serum stability. It is anticipated that use of 5'-alphaB-betagammaCF(2)TP as P3M moiety will lead to the discovery of a new class of anti-HIV agents.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Compostos de Boro/síntese química , Desoxirribonucleotídeos/síntese química , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/metabolismo , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Compostos de Boro/química , Compostos de Boro/metabolismo , Bovinos , Desoxirribonucleotídeos/química , Desoxirribonucleotídeos/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo
5.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids ; 24(10-12): 1651-64, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16438041

RESUMO

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are prodrugs which require three intracellular phosphorylation steps to yield their corresponding, biologically active, nucleoside triphosphate. In order to circumvent this often inefficient phosphorylation cascade, a plausible approach is to provide the active species directly in the form of a stabilized nucleoside triphosphate mimic. We have previously shown that such a mimic, namely 5'-alpha-Rp-borano-beta,gamma-(difluoromethylene)triphosphate (5'-alphaBCF2TP) is a generic triphosphate mimic that is biologically stable and can render antiviral ddNs with potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 RT. Herein we report the synthesis and activity against HIV-1 RT of several ddN 5'-alpha-modified-beta,gamma(difluoromethylene)triphosphate mimics with either a non-bridging calphaP-thio (5'-alphaSCF2TP) or alpha-P-seleno (5'-alpha SeCF2TP) modification. One compound, namely, AZT-5'-alpha-P-seleno-beta,gamma-(difluoromethylene)triphosphate (diastereomer I), was identified as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT (Ki = 64 nM) and represents the first report of HIV-1 RT inhibition data for a nucleotide bearing an alpha-P-seleno modification. These triphosphate mimics may be useful in the investigation of enzyme mechanism and may have interesting properties with respect to drug resistance and polymerase selectivity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Didesoxinucleosídeos/síntese química , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Organosselênicos/síntese química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Sulfetos/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Didesoxinucleosídeos/química , Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/química , Compostos Organosselênicos/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Sulfetos/química
6.
J Med Chem ; 47(27): 6902-13, 2004 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15615539

RESUMO

In search of active nucleoside 5'-triphosphate mimics, we have synthesized a series of AZT triphosphate mimics (AZT P3Ms) and evaluated their inhibitory effects on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase as well as their stability in fetal calf serum and in CEM cell extracts. Reaction of AZT with 2-chloro-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin-4-one, followed by treatment of the phosphite intermediate 2 with pyrophosphate analogues, yielded the cyclic triphosphate intermediates 4b-4f, which were subjected to boronation and subsequent hydrolysis to give AZT 5'-alpha-borano-beta,gamma-bridge-modified triphosphates 6b-6f in moderate to good yields. Reaction of the cyclic intermediate 4d with iodine, followed by treatment with a series of nucleophiles, afforded the AZT 5'-beta,gamma-difluoromethylene-gamma-substituted triphosphates (7b-7i). Several different types of AZT P3Ms containing alpha-P-thio (or dithio) and beta,gamma-difluoromethylene (13,14), alpha,beta-difluoromethylene and gamma-P-methyl(or phenyl) (15,16), and alpha-borano-beta,gamma-difluoromethylene and gamma-O-methyl/phenyl (11,12) were also synthesized. The effectiveness of the compounds as inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was determined using a fluorometric assay and a poly(A) homopolymer as a template. A number of AZT P3Ms exhibited very potent inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Modifications at the beta,gamma-bridge of triphosphate rendered the AZT P3Ms 6b-6f with varied activities (K(i) from 9.5 to >>500 nM) while modification at the alpha,beta-bridge of triphosphate led to weak AZT P3M inhibitors. The results imply that the AZT P3Ms were substrate inhibitors, as is AZT triphosphate. The most active compound, AZT 5'-alpha-R(p)()-borano-beta,gamma-(difluoromethylene)triphosphate (AZT 5'-alphaB-betagammaCF(2)TP) (6d-I), is as potent as AZT triphosphate with a K(i)() value of 9.5 nM and at least 20-fold more stable than AZT triphosphate in the serum and cell extracts. Therefore, for the first time, a highly active and stable nucleoside triphosphate mimic has been identified, which is potentially useful as a new type of antiviral drug. The promising triphosphate mimic, 5'-alpha-borano-beta,gamma-(difluoromethylene)triphosphate, is expected to be valuable to the discovery of nucleotide mimic antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Transcriptase Reversa do HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/síntese química , Zidovudina/análogos & derivados , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/química , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15043157

RESUMO

IMPDH inhibitors have potential antimicrobial, anticancer and immunomodulatory effects. Nucleoside inhibitors of IMPDH exert their inhibitory effects via nucleoside 5'-MPs. Conversion of nucleoside analogs to NMPs by cellular nucleoside kinases is not assured, and usually is inefficient. In order to bypass cellular phosphorylation, a series of azole nucleoside 5'-MP mimics (P1Ms) based on ribavirin, EICAR and bredinin were synthesized and screened against human and C. albicans IMP dehydrogenises. P1Ms 8, 16, 25, 28 and 29 demonstrated substantial IMPDH inhibition with Ki values in low micromolar range.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , IMP Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Nucleotídeos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Nucleotídeos/química
8.
Future Child ; 12(1): 78-95, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11980040

RESUMO

Even prior to passage of federal welfare reform, many demonstration programs anticipated key features of the 1996 law, such as "work-first" strategies, time limits on welfare receipt, and financial incentives to work. Over the past decade, 10 experimental evaluations of these programs have extended their studies to examine the impacts on children. This article provides a synthesis of findings from the first seven of these studies to release results concerning child impacts. Key observations include the following: Across the different types of welfare-to-work programs examined, researchers found neither widespread harm nor widespread benefit to young children, but some significant impacts did occur. Favorable impacts tended to occur in programs that improved family economic status or maternal education, but these programs still did not bring children to the level of national norms for positive child development. Unfavorable impacts tended to occur when families did not show economic progress or when their economic situation worsened, when the children were adolescents, and--unexpectedly--when the families were believed to be at lower risk for long-term welfare receipt. Thus, although impacts were not widespread, these programs did have the potential to affect children for both better and worse across a range of developmental outcomes. The authors conclude that these findings underscore the importance of strengthening program approaches to enhance developmental outcomes for children in families being served by the welfare system.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança/economia , Planejamento em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Características da Família , Humanos , Assistência Pública/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
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