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1.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600786

RESUMO

We previously identified five SNPs at four susceptibility loci for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in individuals of European ancestry through a large genome-wide association study (GWAS). To further elucidate genetic susceptibility to DLBCL, we sought to validate 2 loci at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 that were suggestive in the original GWAS with additional genotyping. In the meta-analysis (5,662 cases and 9,237 controls) of the four original GWAS discovery scans and three replication studies, the 3q13.33 locus (rs9831894; minor allele frequency [MAF]=0.40) was associated with DLBCL risk (OR=0.83, P=3.62x10-13). rs9831894 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with additional variants that are part of a super-enhancer that physically interacts with promoters of CD86 and ILDR1. In the meta-analysis (5,510 cases and 12,817 controls) of the four GWAS discovery scans and four replication studies, the 3p24.1 locus (rs6773363; MAF=0.45) was also associated with DLBCL risk (OR=1.20, P=2.31x10-12). This SNP is 29,426 bp upstream of the nearest gene EOMES and in LD with additional SNPs that are part of a highly lineage-specific and tumor-acquired super-enhancer that shows long-range interaction with AZI2 promoter. These loci provide additional evidence for the role of immune function in the etiology of DLBCL, the most common lymphoma subtype.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504207

RESUMO

The genetic basis of healthy aging and longevity remains largely unexplained. One hypothesis as to why long-lived individuals do not appear to have a lower number of common-complex disease variants, is that despite carrying risk variants, they express disease-linked alleles at a lower level than the wild-type alleles. Allele-specific abundance (ASA) is the different transcript abundance of the two haplotypes of a diploid individual. We sequenced the transcriptomes of four healthy centenarians and four mid-life controls. CIBERSORT was used to estimate blood cell fractions: neutrophils were the most abundant source of RNA, followed by CD8+ T cells, resting NK cells, and monocytes. ASA variants were more common in noncoding than coding regions. Centenarians and controls had a comparable distribution of ASA variants by predicted effect, and we did not observe an overall bias in expression toward major or minor alleles. Immune pathways were most highly represented among the gene set that showed ASA. Although we found evidence of ASA in disease-associated genes and transcription factors, we did not observe any differences in the pattern of expression between centenarians and controls in this small pilot study.

3.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 844-863, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407831

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.

4.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 58, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Super-Seniors are healthy, long-lived individuals who were recruited at age 85 years or older with no history of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dementia, or major pulmonary disease. In a 10-year follow-up, we aimed to determine whether surviving Super-Seniors showed compression of morbidity, and to test whether the allele frequencies of longevity-associated variants in APOE and FOXO3 were more extreme in such long-term survivors. METHODS: Super-Seniors who survived and were contactable were re-interviewed 10 years after initial characterization. Health and lifestyle were characterized via questionnaire. Geriatric tests including the Timed Up and Go (TUG), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) were administered, and data were compared to results from on average 10 years earlier. As well, genotype and allele frequencies for SNPs rs7412 and rs429358 in APOE, and rs2802292 in FOXO3 were compared to the frequencies in the original collection of Super-Seniors and mid-life controls. RESULTS: Of the 480 Super-Seniors recruited from 2004 to 2007, 13 were alive, contactable, and consented to re-interview (mean age = 100.1 ± 3.3). Eight of these 13 participants (62%) still met Super-Senior health criteria. Diseases that occurred in late life were cardiovascular (5 of 13; 38%) and lung disease (1 of 13; 8%). MMSE and IADL scores declined in the decade between interviews, and GDS and TUG scores increased. The surviving group of centenarians had a higher frequency of APOE and FOXO3 longevity-associated variants even when compared to the original long-lived Super-Senior cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Although physical and mental decline occurred in the decade between interviews, the majority of Super-Seniors re-interviewed still met the original health criteria. These observations are consistent with reports of compression of morbidity at extreme ages, particularly in centenarians. The increased frequency of longevity- associated variants in this small group of survivors is consistent with studies that reported genetics as a larger contributor to longevity in older age groups.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209010, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation contributes to breast cancer development through its effects on cell damage. This damage is usually dealt with by key genes involved in apoptosis and autophagy pathways. METHODS: We tested 206 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 54 genes related to inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy in a population-based breast cancer study of women of European (658 cases and 795 controls) and East Asian (262 cases and 127 controls) descent. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for breast cancer risk, and case-only analysis to compare breast cancer subtypes (defined by ER/PR/HER2 status), with adjustment for confounders. We assessed statistical interactions between the SNPs and lifestyle factors (smoking status, physical activity and body mass index). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Although no SNP was associated with breast cancer risk among women of European descent, we found evidence for an association among East Asians for rs1800925 (IL-13) and breast cancer risk (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.32-3.28; p = 0.000779), which remained statistically significant after multiple testing correction (padj = 0.0350). This association was replicated in a meta-analysis of 4305 cases and 4194 controls in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Genetics Study (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 0.011). Further, we found evidence of an interaction between rs7874234 (TSC1) and physical activity among women of East Asian descent.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Inflamação/genética , Adulto , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197578, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand why some people live to advanced age in good health and others do not, it is important to study not only disease, but also long-term good health. The Super-Seniors Study aims to identify factors associated with healthy aging. METHODS: 480 healthy oldest-old 'Super-Seniors' aged 85 to 105 years and never diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dementia, or major pulmonary disease, were compared to 545 mid-life controls aged 41-54, who represent a group that is unselected for survival from late-life diseases. Health and lifestyle information, personal and family medical history, and blood samples were collected from all participants. Super-Seniors also underwent four geriatric tests. RESULTS: Super-Seniors showed high cognitive (Mini-Mental State Exam mean = 28.3) and functional capacity (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale mean = 21.4), as well as high physical function (Timed Up and Go mean = 12.3 seconds) and low levels of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale mean = 1.5). Super-Seniors were less likely to be current smokers than controls, but the frequency of drinking alcohol was the same in both groups. Super-Seniors were more likely to have 4 or more offspring; controls were more likely to have no children. Female Super-Seniors had a mean age of last fertility 1.9 years older than controls, and were 2.3 times more likely to have had a child at ≥ 40 years. The parents of Super-Seniors had mean ages of deaths of 79.3 years for mothers, and 74.5 years for fathers, each exceeding the life expectancy for their era by a decade. CONCLUSIONS: Super-Seniors are cognitively and physically high functioning individuals who have evaded major age-related chronic diseases into old age, representing the approximately top 1% for healthspan. The familiality of long lifespan of the parents of Super-Seniors supports the hypothesis that heritable factors contribute to this desirable phenotype.

8.
Blood ; 131(23): 2541-2551, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29674426

RESUMO

Inherited loci have been found to be associated with risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A combined polygenic risk score (PRS) of representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these loci may improve risk prediction over individual SNPs. Herein, we evaluated the association of a PRS with CLL risk and its precursor, monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). We assessed its validity and discriminative ability in an independent sample and evaluated effect modification and confounding by family history (FH) of hematological cancers. For discovery, we pooled genotype data on 41 representative SNPs from 1499 CLL and 2459 controls from the InterLymph Consortium. For validation, we used data from 1267 controls from Mayo Clinic and 201 CLL, 95 MBL, and 144 controls with a FH of CLL from the Genetic Epidemiology of CLL Consortium. We used odds ratios (ORs) to estimate disease associations with PRS and c-statistics to assess discriminatory accuracy. In InterLymph, the continuous PRS was strongly associated with CLL risk (OR, 2.49; P = 4.4 × 10-94). We replicated these findings in the Genetic Epidemiology of CLL Consortium and Mayo controls (OR, 3.02; P = 7.8 × 10-30) and observed high discrimination (c-statistic = 0.78). When jointly modeled with FH, PRS retained its significance, along with FH status. Finally, we found a highly significant association of the continuous PRS with MBL risk (OR, 2.81; P = 9.8 × 10-16). In conclusion, our validated PRS was strongly associated with CLL risk, adding information beyond FH. The PRS provides a means of identifying those individuals at greater risk for CLL as well as those at increased risk of MBL, a condition that has potential clinical impact beyond CLL.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3623, 2018 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483551

RESUMO

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive hematological cancer for which mitochondrial metabolism may play an important role. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes crucial mitochondrial proteins, yet the relationship between mtDNA and DLBCL remains unclear. We analyzed the functional consequences and mutational spectra of mtDNA somatic mutations and private constitutional variants in 40 DLBCL tumour-normal pairs. While private constitutional variants occurred frequently in the D-Loop, somatic mutations were randomly distributed across the mitochondrial genome. Heteroplasmic constitutional variants showed a trend towards loss of heteroplasmy in the corresponding tumour regardless of whether the reference or variant allele was being lost, suggesting that these variants are selectively neutral. The mtDNA mutational spectrum showed minimal support for ROS damage and revealed strand asymmetry with increased C > T and A > G transitions on the heavy strand, consistent with a replication-associated mode of mutagenesis. These heavy strand transitions carried higher proportions of amino acid changes - which were also more pathogenic - than equivalent substitutions on the light strand. Taken together, endogenous replication-associated events underlie mtDNA mutagenesis in DLBCL and preferentially generate functionally consequential mutations. Yet mtDNA somatic mutations remain selectively neutral, suggesting that mtDNA-encoded mitochondrial functions may not play an important role in DLBCL.

10.
Lupus Sci Med ; 4(1): e000187, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214033

RESUMO

Objective: Determinants of the increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in SLE are unclear. Using data from a recent lymphoma genome-wide association study (GWAS), we assessed whether certain lupus-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also associated with DLBCL. Methods: GWAS data on European Caucasians from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph) provided a total of 3857 DLBCL cases and 7666 general-population controls. Data were pooled in a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Among the 28 SLE-related SNPs investigated, the two most convincingly associated with risk of DLBCL included the CD40 SLE risk allele rs4810485 on chromosome 20q13 (OR per risk allele=1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.16, p=0.0134), and the HLA SLE risk allele rs1270942 on chromosome 6p21.33 (OR per risk allele=1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.36, p=0.0362). Of additional possible interest were rs2205960 and rs12537284. The rs2205960 SNP, related to a cytokine of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily TNFSF4, was associated with an OR per risk allele of 1.07, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16, p=0.0549. The OR for the rs12537284 (chromosome 7q32, IRF5 gene) risk allele was 1.08, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.18, p=0.0765. Conclusions: These data suggest several plausible genetic links between DLBCL and SLE.

12.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14175, 2017 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165464

RESUMO

Several chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) susceptibility loci have been reported; however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies, imputed using a merged reference panel of 1,000 Genomes and UK10K data, totalling 6,200 cases and 17,598 controls after replication. We identify nine risk loci at 1p36.11 (rs34676223, P=5.04 × 10-13), 1q42.13 (rs41271473, P=1.06 × 10-10), 4q24 (rs71597109, P=1.37 × 10-10), 4q35.1 (rs57214277, P=3.69 × 10-8), 6p21.31 (rs3800461, P=1.97 × 10-8), 11q23.2 (rs61904987, P=2.64 × 10-11), 18q21.1 (rs1036935, P=3.27 × 10-8), 19p13.3 (rs7254272, P=4.67 × 10-8) and 22q13.33 (rs140522, P=2.70 × 10-9). These new and established risk loci map to areas of active chromatin and show an over-representation of transcription factor binding for the key determinants of B-cell development and immune response.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Adulto , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
13.
Oncotarget ; 8(13): 20612-20621, 2017 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28206976

RESUMO

Several studies have found that long-lived individuals do not appear to carry lower numbers of common disease-associated variants than ordinary people; it has been hypothesized that they may instead carry protective variants. An intriguing type of protective variant is buffering variants that protect against variants that have deleterious effects. We genotyped 18 variants in 15 genes related to longevity or healthy aging that had been previously reported as having a gene-gene interaction or buffering effect. We compared a group of 446 healthy oldest-old 'Super-Seniors' (individuals 85 or older who have never been diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, dementia, diabetes or major pulmonary disease) to 421 random population-based midlife controls. Cases and controls were of European ancestry. Association tests of individual SNPs showed that Super-Seniors were less likely than controls to carry an APOEε4 allele or a haptoglobin HP2 allele. Interactions between APOE/FOXO3, APOE/CRYL1, and LPA/CRYL1 did not remain significant after multiple testing correction. In a network analysis of the candidate genes, lipid and cholesterol metabolism was a common theme. APOE, HP, and CRYL1 have all been associated with Alzheimer's Disease, the pathology of which involves lipid and cholesterol pathways. Age-related changes in lipid and cholesterol maintenance, particularly in the brain, may be central to healthy aging and longevity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Longevidade/genética , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Epistasia Genética , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10933, 2016 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26956414

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy with strong heritability. To further understand the genetic susceptibility for CLL and identify common loci associated with risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS) composed of 3,100 cases and 7,667 controls with follow-up replication in 1,958 cases and 5,530 controls. Here we report three new loci at 3p24.1 (rs9880772, EOMES, P=2.55 × 10(-11)), 6p25.2 (rs73718779, SERPINB6, P=1.97 × 10(-8)) and 3q28 (rs9815073, LPP, P=3.62 × 10(-8)), as well as a new independent SNP at the known 2q13 locus (rs9308731, BCL2L11, P=1.00 × 10(-11)) in the combined analysis. We find suggestive evidence (P<5 × 10(-7)) for two additional new loci at 4q24 (rs10028805, BANK1, P=7.19 × 10(-8)) and 3p22.2 (rs1274963, CSRNP1, P=2.12 × 10(-7)). Pathway analyses of new and known CLL loci consistently show a strong role for apoptosis, providing further evidence for the importance of this biological pathway in CLL susceptibility.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteína 11 Semelhante a Bcl-2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Serpinas/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(8): 1663-76, 2016 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27008888

RESUMO

Evidence from a small number of studies suggests that longer telomere length measured in peripheral leukocytes is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, these studies may be biased by reverse causation, confounded by unmeasured environmental exposures and might miss time points for which prospective telomere measurement would best reveal a relationship between telomere length and NHL risk. We performed an analysis of genetically inferred telomere length and NHL risk in a study of 10 102 NHL cases of the four most common B-cell histologic types and 9562 controls using a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising nine telomere length-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This approach uses existing genotype data and estimates telomere length by weighing the number of telomere length-associated variant alleles an individual carries with the published change in kb of telomere length. The analysis of the telomere length GRS resulted in an association between longer telomere length and increased NHL risk [four B-cell histologic types combined; odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% CI 1.22-1.82,P-value = 8.5 × 10(-5)]. Subtype-specific analyses indicated that chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) was the principal NHL subtype contributing to this association (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.93-3.51,P-value = 4.0 × 10(-10)). Significant interactions were observed across strata of sex for CLL/SLL and marginal zone lymphoma subtypes as well as age for the follicular lymphoma subtype. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase NHL risk, particularly risk of CLL/SLL, and are consistent with earlier studies relating longer telomere length with increased NHL risk.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Linfoma de Células B/patologia , Telômero/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(12): djv279, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26464424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers. RESULTS: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, hl (2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (ρ = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (ρ = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (ρ = 0.51, SE =0.18), and bladder and lung (ρ = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures. CONCLUSION: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Osteossarcoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
17.
Gerontology ; 62(1): 58-62, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26066993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not understood whether long-term good health is promoted by the absence of disease risk variants, the presence of protective variants, or both. We characterized the exomes of two exceptionally healthy centenarian brothers aged 106 and 109 years who had never been diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, or major pulmonary disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to gain insight into whether exceptional health and longevity are a result of carrying fewer disease-associated variants than typical individuals. METHODS: We compared the number of disease-associated alleles, and the proportion of alleles predicted to be functionally damaging, between the centenarian brothers and published population data. Mitochondrial sequence reads were extracted from the exome data in order to analyze mitochondrial variants. RESULTS: The brothers carry a similar number of common disease-associated variants and predicted damaging variants compared to reference groups. They did not carry any high-penetrance clinically actionable variants. They carry mitochondrial haplogroup T, and one brother has a single heteroplasmic variant. CONCLUSION: Although our small sample size does not allow for definitive conclusions, a healthy aging and longevity phenotype is not necessarily due to a decreased burden of common disease-associated variants. Instead, it may be rare 'positive' variants that play a role in this desirable phenotype.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Doença/genética , Longevidade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Apolipoproteínas B/genética , Canais de Cálcio/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Exoma , Genes BRCA2 , Genes p53/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Irmãos
18.
Nat Commun ; 6: 5751, 2015 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25569183

RESUMO

Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is the third most common subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here we perform a two-stage GWAS of 1,281 MZL cases and 7,127 controls of European ancestry and identify two independent loci near BTNL2 (rs9461741, P=3.95 × 10(-15)) and HLA-B (rs2922994, P=2.43 × 10(-9)) in the HLA region significantly associated with MZL risk. This is the first evidence that genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex influences MZL susceptibility.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Butirofilinas , Biologia Computacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos
19.
Nat Genet ; 46(11): 1233-8, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25261932

RESUMO

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype and is clinically aggressive. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for DLBCL, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 new genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 1 previous scan, totaling 3,857 cases and 7,666 controls of European ancestry, with additional genotyping of 9 promising SNPs in 1,359 cases and 4,557 controls. In our multi-stage analysis, five independent SNPs in four loci achieved genome-wide significance marked by rs116446171 at 6p25.3 (EXOC2; P = 2.33 × 10(-21)), rs2523607 at 6p21.33 (HLA-B; P = 2.40 × 10(-10)), rs79480871 at 2p23.3 (NCOA1; P = 4.23 × 10(-8)) and two independent SNPs, rs13255292 and rs4733601, at 8q24.21 (PVT1; P = 9.98 × 10(-13) and 3.63 × 10(-11), respectively). These data provide substantial new evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B cell malignancy and point to pathways involved in immune recognition and immune function in the pathogenesis of DLBCL.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
20.
Mutat Res ; 766-767: 37-43, 2014 Aug-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25847270

RESUMO

Due to the critical role of the H2AX histone variant in double-strand break repair, genetic variants in the H2AX gene, H2AFX, may influence cancer susceptibility. Genetic association studies have correlated H2AFX upstream variants with cancer risk; however it is unclear if any are causal. H2AFX has at least two alternate transcripts that encode the same reading frame; a short 0.6kb transcript that lacks an intron or poly-A tail and is predicted to be highly expressed during the replication stage of the cell cycle, and a long 1.6kb poly-A tailed transcript that is expressed in a replication-independent manner. To examine the functional impact of the rs643788, rs8551, rs7759, and rs2509049 upstream variants, we characterized their influence on gene expression, cell survival after DNA assault, and transcription factor binding. Analysis of allelic imbalance using quantitative sequencing of cDNA from lymphoblast cell lines did not reveal any difference in expression of the 1.6kb polyadenylated transcript between the common H2AFX upstream haplotypes. We did, however, identify a previously unreported 197 base pair intron in the H2AFX 3'untranslated region that appears to be present regardless of haplotype. Assessment of cell survival after irradiation treatment did not show any difference in survival between cell lines of different haplotypes. Gel shift assays revealed that the rs643788 C allele disrupts YY1 transcription factor binding and the rs2509049 C allele binds more strongly to a protein complex than does the rs2509049 T allele. Though we did not identify any differences in expression or survival between haplotypes, differential protein binding at two of the polymorphisms suggests further functional analyses may reveal a role for these variants in influencing gene expression at specific points of the cell cycle or in specific tissues.


Assuntos
Histonas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Desequilíbrio Alélico , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Raios gama , Células HeLa , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular
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