Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 117
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2093-2095, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tattoos may cause a variety of adverse reactions in the body, including immune reactions and infections. However, it is unknown whether tattoos may increase the risk of lymphatic cancers such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma. METHODS: Participants from two population-based case-control studies were included in logistic regression models to examine the association between tattoos and risk of NHL and multiple myeloma. RESULTS: A total of 1,518 participants from the NHL study (737 cases) and 742 participants from the multiple myeloma study (373 cases) were included in the analyses. No statistically significant associations were found between tattoos and risk of NHL or multiple myeloma after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, body mass index, and family history. CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify any significant associations between tattoos and risk of multiple myeloma, NHL, or NHL subtypes in these studies. IMPACT: Though biologically plausible, tattoos were not associated with increased risk of NHL or multiple myeloma in this study. Future studies with greater detail regarding tattoo exposure may provide further insights.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 123(5): 793-802, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PTEN loss is a putative driver in histotypes of ovarian cancer (high-grade serous (HGSOC), endometrioid (ENOC), clear cell (CCOC), mucinous (MOC), low-grade serous (LGSOC)). We aimed to characterise PTEN expression as a biomarker in epithelial ovarian cancer in a large population-based study. METHODS: Tumours from 5400 patients from a multicentre observational, prospective cohort study of the Ovarian Tumour Tissue Analysis Consortium were used to evaluate associations between immunohistochemical PTEN patterns and overall survival time, age, stage, grade, residual tumour, CD8+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) counts, expression of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and androgen receptor (AR) by means of Cox proportional hazard models and generalised Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. RESULTS: Downregulation of cytoplasmic PTEN expression was most frequent in ENOC (most frequently in younger patients; p value = 0.0001) and CCOC and was associated with longer overall survival in HGSOC (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.94, p value = 0.022). PTEN expression was associated with ER, PR and AR expression (p values: 0.0008, 0.062 and 0.0002, respectively) in HGSOC and with lower CD8 counts in CCOC (p value < 0.0001). Heterogeneous expression of PTEN was more prevalent in advanced HGSOC (p value = 0.019) and associated with higher CD8 counts (p value = 0.0016). CONCLUSIONS: PTEN loss is a frequent driver in ovarian carcinoma associating distinctly with expression of hormonal receptors and CD8+ TIL counts in HGSOC and CCOC histotypes.

3.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 106, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very few people live to eighty-five years and older (the 'oldest old'), and even fewer live to this age without developing chronic diseases. It is important to understand the relationship, if any, of modifiable factors such as diet on healthy aging. However, there are few studies of diet among healthy oldest old, especially in North American populations. We aimed to characterize dietary patterns among 'super-seniors' (SS) within the Canadian Healthy Aging Study. METHODS: 122 SS aged 85 years or older and free of cancer, cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, dementia and diabetes were recruited. Comparisons were made to 12,626 participants aged 65-86 in the Canadian Longitudinal Study of Aging who completed the same 36-item food frequency questionnaire that queried consumption over the prior 12 months of nutrients and foods thought to be important for aging. Dietary patterns were identified with principal component analysis. The odds of being a SS were determined for quartiles of each dietary pattern with logistic regression. RESULTS: Two dietary patterns were identified; a western diet characterized by french fries, red meat, processed meat and a nutrient-rich diet which included fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and seeds among other healthy food choices. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with increased odds of being a SS, however, only the western dietary pattern remained associated with adjustment for covariates (Quartile 4: OR = 3.21, 95% CI 1.91-5.51). CONCLUSIONS: Our finding adds to the limited evidence on dietary intake among the healthiest oldest old but it is unclear whether assocations reflect generational differences between groups or possible contributions to longevity.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(6): 1168-1178, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial aggregation of lymphoid cancers and immune-related disorders suggests a role for genetic susceptibility; however, few studies examine environmental factors. According to the hygiene hypothesis, adult-onset immune-related diseases may be a consequence of reduced childhood infectious exposures and aberrant immune development. In a cohort of 196 multiple-case lymphoid cancer families, we analyzed environmental factors related to the hygiene hypothesis. METHODS: Family structure, childhood environment, and immune-related disorders were examined among 196 lymphoid cancer families, in relation to risk of lymphoid cancer. We report on 450 lymphoid cancer cases and 1,018 unaffected siblings using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association. RESULTS: The risk of lymphoma tended to decrease with later birth order (OR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.78-0.89) and larger sibship size (OR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.85). High maternal education, above average family income during childhood, allergies (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.44-3.51), and tonsillectomy (OR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.14-2.78) were independent risk factors for lymphoma. Familial lymphoid cancer cases were more likely to report environment (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.21-2.98) and drug (OR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.41-3.73) allergies. CONCLUSIONS: These associations underscore the complex etiology of familial lymphoma. To our knowledge, this is the largest multiple-case family-based study that supports the hygiene hypothesis contributing to lymphoid cancer risk. IMPACT: Understanding the mechanism by which environmental and lifestyle factors affect lymphoid cancer risk may advance cancer prevention, even in the familial context.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(5): 1074-1078, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid traits have been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We examined the association of genetically predicted lipid traits with risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) using Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: Genome-wide association study data from the InterLymph Consortium were available for 2,661 DLBCLs, 2,179 CLLs, 2,142 FLs, 824 MZLs, and 6,221 controls. SNPs associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, n = 164), low-density lipoprotein (LDL, n = 137), total cholesterol (TC, n = 161), and triglycerides (TG, n = 123) were used as instrumental variables (IV), explaining 14.6%, 27.7%, 16.8%, and 12.8% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Associations between each lipid trait and NHL subtype were calculated using the MR inverse variance-weighted method, estimating odds ratios (OR) per standard deviation and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: HDL was positively associated with DLBCL (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00-1.30) and MZL (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18), while TG was inversely associated with MZL risk (OR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99), all at nominal significance (P < 0.05). A positive trend was observed for HDL with FL risk (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.19; P = 0.087). No associations were noteworthy after adjusting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find evidence of a clear or strong association of these lipid traits with the most common NHL subtypes. While these IVs have been previously linked to other cancers, our findings do not support any causal associations with these NHL subtypes. IMPACT: Our results suggest that prior reported inverse associations of lipid traits are not likely to be causal and could represent reverse causality or confounding.

7.
Bioinformatics ; 36(7): 2295-2297, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764964

RESUMO

SUMMARY: We present the R package SimRVSequences to simulate sequence data for pedigrees. SimRVSequences allows for simulations of large numbers of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and scales well with increasing numbers of pedigrees. Users provide a sample of pedigrees and SNV data from a sample of unrelated individuals. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: SimRVSequences is publicly-available on CRAN https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/SimRVSequences/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software , Humanos , Linhagem
8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(1): 70-79, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600786

RESUMO

We previously identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at four susceptibility loci for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in individuals of European ancestry through a large genome-wide association study (GWAS). To further elucidate genetic susceptibility to DLBCL, we sought to validate two loci at 3q13.33 and 3p24.1 that were suggestive in the original GWAS with additional genotyping. In the meta-analysis (5662 cases and 9237 controls) of the four original GWAS discovery scans and three replication studies, the 3q13.33 locus (rs9831894; minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.40) was associated with DLBCL risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, P = 3.62 × 10-13]. rs9831894 is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with additional variants that are part of a super-enhancer that physically interacts with promoters of CD86 and ILDR1. In the meta-analysis (5510 cases and 12 817 controls) of the four GWAS discovery scans and four replication studies, the 3p24.1 locus (rs6773363; MAF = 0.45) was also associated with DLBCL risk (OR = 1.20, P = 2.31 × 10-12). This SNP is 29 426-bp upstream of the nearest gene EOMES and in LD with additional SNPs that are part of a highly lineage-specific and tumor-acquired super-enhancer that shows long-range interaction with AZI2 promoter. These loci provide additional evidence for the role of immune function in the etiology of DLBCL, the most common lymphoma subtype.

9.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(6): 1068-1072, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504207

RESUMO

The genetic basis of healthy aging and longevity remains largely unexplained. One hypothesis as to why long-lived individuals do not appear to have a lower number of common-complex disease variants, is that despite carrying risk variants, they express disease-linked alleles at a lower level than the wild-type alleles. Allele-specific abundance (ASA) is the different transcript abundance of the two haplotypes of a diploid individual. We sequenced the transcriptomes of four healthy centenarians and four mid-life controls. CIBERSORT was used to estimate blood cell fractions: neutrophils were the most abundant source of RNA, followed by CD8+ T cells, resting NK cells, and monocytes. ASA variants were more common in noncoding than coding regions. Centenarians and controls had a comparable distribution of ASA variants by predicted effect, and we did not observe an overall bias in expression toward major or minor alleles. Immune pathways were most highly represented among the gene set that showed ASA. Although we found evidence of ASA in disease-associated genes and transcription factors, we did not observe any differences in the pattern of expression between centenarians and controls in this small pilot study.

10.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 844-863, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407831

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Linfoma não Hodgkin/genética , Alelos , Feminino , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 58, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Super-Seniors are healthy, long-lived individuals who were recruited at age 85 years or older with no history of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dementia, or major pulmonary disease. In a 10-year follow-up, we aimed to determine whether surviving Super-Seniors showed compression of morbidity, and to test whether the allele frequencies of longevity-associated variants in APOE and FOXO3 were more extreme in such long-term survivors. METHODS: Super-Seniors who survived and were contactable were re-interviewed 10 years after initial characterization. Health and lifestyle were characterized via questionnaire. Geriatric tests including the Timed Up and Go (TUG), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) were administered, and data were compared to results from on average 10 years earlier. As well, genotype and allele frequencies for SNPs rs7412 and rs429358 in APOE, and rs2802292 in FOXO3 were compared to the frequencies in the original collection of Super-Seniors and mid-life controls. RESULTS: Of the 480 Super-Seniors recruited from 2004 to 2007, 13 were alive, contactable, and consented to re-interview (mean age = 100.1 ± 3.3). Eight of these 13 participants (62%) still met Super-Senior health criteria. Diseases that occurred in late life were cardiovascular (5 of 13; 38%) and lung disease (1 of 13; 8%). MMSE and IADL scores declined in the decade between interviews, and GDS and TUG scores increased. The surviving group of centenarians had a higher frequency of APOE and FOXO3 longevity-associated variants even when compared to the original long-lived Super-Senior cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Although physical and mental decline occurred in the decade between interviews, the majority of Super-Seniors re-interviewed still met the original health criteria. These observations are consistent with reports of compression of morbidity at extreme ages, particularly in centenarians. The increased frequency of longevity- associated variants in this small group of survivors is consistent with studies that reported genetics as a larger contributor to longevity in older age groups.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Genótipo , Longevidade/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Morbidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Tempo
12.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209010, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation contributes to breast cancer development through its effects on cell damage. This damage is usually dealt with by key genes involved in apoptosis and autophagy pathways. METHODS: We tested 206 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 54 genes related to inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy in a population-based breast cancer study of women of European (658 cases and 795 controls) and East Asian (262 cases and 127 controls) descent. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for breast cancer risk, and case-only analysis to compare breast cancer subtypes (defined by ER/PR/HER2 status), with adjustment for confounders. We assessed statistical interactions between the SNPs and lifestyle factors (smoking status, physical activity and body mass index). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Although no SNP was associated with breast cancer risk among women of European descent, we found evidence for an association among East Asians for rs1800925 (IL-13) and breast cancer risk (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.32-3.28; p = 0.000779), which remained statistically significant after multiple testing correction (padj = 0.0350). This association was replicated in a meta-analysis of 4305 cases and 4194 controls in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Genetics Study (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 0.011). Further, we found evidence of an interaction between rs7874234 (TSC1) and physical activity among women of East Asian descent.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Inflamação/genética , Adulto , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Oncol ; 9: 1539, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064237

RESUMO

Although the evidence is not consistent, epidemiologic studies have suggested that taller adult height may be associated with an increased risk of some non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. Height is largely determined by genetic factors, but how these genetic factors may contribute to NHL risk is unknown. We investigated the relationship between genetic determinants of height and NHL risk using data from eight genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising 10,629 NHL cases, including 3,857 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2,847 follicular lymphoma (FL), 3,100 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 825 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, and 9,505 controls of European ancestry. We evaluated genetically predicted height by constructing polygenic risk scores using 833 height-associated SNPs. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between genetically determined height and the risk of four NHL subtypes in each GWAS and then used fixed-effect meta-analysis to combine subtype results across studies. We found suggestive evidence between taller genetically determined height and increased CLL risk (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, p = 0.049), which was slightly stronger among women (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.31, p = 0.036). No significant associations were observed with DLBCL, FL, or MZL. Our findings suggest that there may be some shared genetic factors between CLL and height, but other endogenous or environmental factors may underlie reported epidemiologic height associations with other subtypes.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 144(9): 2192-2205, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499236

RESUMO

As a follow-up to genome-wide association analysis of common variants associated with ovarian carcinoma (cancer), our study considers seven well-known ovarian cancer risk factors and their interactions with 28 genome-wide significant common genetic variants. The interaction analyses were based on data from 9971 ovarian cancer cases and 15,566 controls from 17 case-control studies. Likelihood ratio and Wald tests for multiplicative interaction and for relative excess risk due to additive interaction were used. The top multiplicative interaction was noted between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use (ever vs. never) and rs13255292 (p value = 3.48 × 10-4 ). Among women with the TT genotype for this variant, the odds ratio for OCP use was 0.53 (95% CI = 0.46-0.60) compared to 0.71 (95%CI = 0.66-0.77) for women with the CC genotype. When stratified by duration of OCP use, women with 1-5 years of OCP use exhibited differential protective benefit across genotypes. However, no interaction on either the multiplicative or additive scale was found to be statistically significant after multiple testing correction. The results suggest that OCP use may offer increased benefit for women who are carriers of the T allele in rs13255292. On the other hand, for women carrying the C allele in this variant, longer (5+ years) use of OCP may reduce the impact of carrying the risk allele of this SNP. Replication of this finding is needed. The study presents a comprehensive analytic framework for conducting gene-environment analysis in ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Risco
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
16.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 38(4): 353-362, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901523

RESUMO

Ovarian carcinoma histotypes are critical for research and patient management and currently assigned by a combination of histomorphology +/- ancillary immunohistochemistry (IHC). We aimed to validate the previously described IHC algorithm (Calculator of Ovarian carcinoma Subtype/histotype Probability version 3, COSPv3) in an independent population-based cohort, and to identify problem areas for IHC predictions. Histotype was abstracted from cancer registries for eligible ovarian carcinoma cases diagnosed from 2002 to 2011 in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Slides were reviewed according to World Health Organization 2014 criteria, tissue microarrays were stained with and scored for the 8 COSPv3 IHC markers, and COSPv3 histotype predictions were calculated. Discordant cases for review and COSPv3 prediction were arbitrated by integrating morphology with IHC results. The integrated histotype (N=880) was then used to identify areas of inferior COSPv3 performance. Review histotype and integrated histotype demonstrated 93% agreement suggesting that IHC information revises expert review in up to 7% of cases. There was also 93% agreement between COSPv3 prediction and integrated histotype. COSPv3 errors predominated in 4 areas: endometrioid carcinoma (EC) versus clear cell (N=23), EC versus low-grade serous (N=15), EC versus high-grade serous (N=11), and high-grade versus low-grade serous (N=6). Most problems were related to Napsin A-negative clear cell, WT1-positive EC, and p53 IHC wild-type high-grade serous carcinomas. Although 93% of COSPv3 prediction accuracy was validated, some histotyping required integration of morphology with ancillary test results. Awareness of these limitations will avoid overreliance on IHC and misclassification of histotypes for research and clinical management.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/classificação , Algoritmos , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Modelos Logísticos , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Análise Serial de Tecidos
18.
Source Code Biol Med ; 13: 2, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356812

RESUMO

Background: Studies that ascertain families containing multiple relatives affected by disease can be useful for identification of causal, rare variants from next-generation sequencing data. Results: We present the R package SimRVPedigree, which allows researchers to simulate pedigrees ascertained on the basis of multiple, affected relatives. By incorporating the ascertainment process in the simulation, SimRVPedigree allows researchers to better understand the within-family patterns of relationship amongst affected individuals and ages of disease onset. Conclusions: Through simulation, we show that affected members of a family segregating a rare disease variant tend to be more numerous and cluster in relationships more closely than those for sporadic disease. We also show that the family ascertainment process can lead to apparent anticipation in the age of onset. Finally, we use simulation to gain insight into the limit on the proportion of ascertained families segregating a causal variant. SimRVPedigree should be useful to investigators seeking insight into the family-based study design through simulation.

19.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0197561, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979793

RESUMO

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality in American women. Normal ovarian physiology is intricately connected to small GTP binding proteins of the Ras superfamily (Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, and Ran) which govern processes such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cell motility, and vesicle transport. We hypothesized that common germline variation in genes encoding small GTPases is associated with EOC risk. We investigated 322 variants in 88 small GTPase genes in germline DNA of 18,736 EOC patients and 26,138 controls of European ancestry using a custom genotype array and logistic regression fitting log-additive models. Functional annotation was used to identify biofeatures and expression quantitative trait loci that intersect with risk variants. One variant, ARHGEF10L (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 like) rs2256787, was associated with increased endometrioid EOC risk (OR = 1.33, p = 4.46 x 10-6). Other variants of interest included another in ARHGEF10L, rs10788679, which was associated with invasive serous EOC risk (OR = 1.07, p = 0.00026) and two variants in AKAP6 (A-kinase anchoring protein 6) which were associated with risk of invasive EOC (rs1955513, OR = 0.90, p = 0.00033; rs927062, OR = 0.94, p = 0.00059). Functional annotation revealed that the two ARHGEF10L variants were located in super-enhancer regions and that AKAP6 rs927062 was associated with expression of GTPase gene ARHGAP5 (Rho GTPase activating protein 5). Inherited variants in ARHGEF10L and AKAP6, with potential transcriptional regulatory function and association with EOC risk, warrant investigation in independent EOC study populations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ancoragem à Quinase A/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fatores de Risco
20.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0197578, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand why some people live to advanced age in good health and others do not, it is important to study not only disease, but also long-term good health. The Super-Seniors Study aims to identify factors associated with healthy aging. METHODS: 480 healthy oldest-old 'Super-Seniors' aged 85 to 105 years and never diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dementia, or major pulmonary disease, were compared to 545 mid-life controls aged 41-54, who represent a group that is unselected for survival from late-life diseases. Health and lifestyle information, personal and family medical history, and blood samples were collected from all participants. Super-Seniors also underwent four geriatric tests. RESULTS: Super-Seniors showed high cognitive (Mini-Mental State Exam mean = 28.3) and functional capacity (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale mean = 21.4), as well as high physical function (Timed Up and Go mean = 12.3 seconds) and low levels of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale mean = 1.5). Super-Seniors were less likely to be current smokers than controls, but the frequency of drinking alcohol was the same in both groups. Super-Seniors were more likely to have 4 or more offspring; controls were more likely to have no children. Female Super-Seniors had a mean age of last fertility 1.9 years older than controls, and were 2.3 times more likely to have had a child at ≥ 40 years. The parents of Super-Seniors had mean ages of deaths of 79.3 years for mothers, and 74.5 years for fathers, each exceeding the life expectancy for their era by a decade. CONCLUSIONS: Super-Seniors are cognitively and physically high functioning individuals who have evaded major age-related chronic diseases into old age, representing the approximately top 1% for healthspan. The familiality of long lifespan of the parents of Super-Seniors supports the hypothesis that heritable factors contribute to this desirable phenotype.


Assuntos
Avaliação Geriátrica , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...