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1.
Affect Sci ; 3(1): 62-68, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046093

RESUMO

Emotion knowledge (EK) is a malleable set of skills that is central to social interactions and school success during early childhood. The current study describes an anti-racist approach to adapting an EK measure that assesses knowledge of facial expressions to be ecologically valid for young children of color attending pre-Kindergarten (pre-K) programs in a large urban school district. This approach involved (1) attending to race/ethnicity in selection of visual stimuli, (2) ensuring appropriate translation and language for administration, and (3) exploring the functioning of the measure within a racially, ethnically, and linguistically diverse group of children. A total of 235 children (67.4% Latinx, 14.1% non-Latinx Black, 7.1% non-Latinx White, 7.8% Asian, 3.6% another racial/ethnicity) were assessed in English (74%) or Spanish (26%) during the fall of pre-K (mean age = 4.4). Both English and Spanish versions appear to have similar reliability, although accuracy levels were lower when administered in Spanish. No differences in mean accuracy scores were found across racial/ethnic groups or for boys versus girls. This study contributes to the growing literature necessary to advance anti-racist research in affective science. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42761-022-00105-w.

2.
SSM Popul Health ; 17: 101053, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35284616

RESUMO

Families of color living in historically disinvested neighborhoods face a multitude of health disparities which have been exacerbated by COVID-19 and the resulting strategies to mitigate its transmission. School closure, which occurred with little warning and few, if any, resources for preparation, disrupted multiple aspects of families' lives; these disruptions are anticipated to adversely impact mental health and well-being. The current study aims to advance understanding of the experiences of families of young children of color during the pandemic by utilizing a natural experiment design to test impact on child and parent mental health and sleep in the context of COVID-19 related school closure among families in historically disinvested neighborhoods. Data from this study come from an ongoing study of 281 families of color enrolled in 41 pre-kindergarten (pre-K) programs in neighborhoods across New York City (NYC). In NYC, school closure occurred on March 16, 2020, during a data collection period involving phone surveys with parents; the quasi-experimental design allows for comparison of the 198 families who had completed the survey prior to March 16, and the 83 families who completed the survey after March 16, using identical protocols and procedures. Results demonstrate poorer mental health among parents surveyed after school closure as compared to before school closure. No differences were found for parent sleep, child mental health, or child sleep. Implications of this work highlight the need for structural and systemic supports for families faced with compounding stressors as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and related school closure.

4.
Child Dev ; 91(6): e1249-e1266, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865229

RESUMO

This study examined longitudinal relations between emotion knowledge (EK) in pre-kindergarten (pre-K; Mage  = 4.8 years) and math and reading achievement 1 and 3 years later in a sample of 1,050 primarily Black children (over half from immigrant families) living in historically disinvested neighborhoods. Participants were part of a follow-up study of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Controlling for pre-academic skills, other social-emotional skills, sociodemographic characteristics, and school intervention status, higher EK at the end of pre-K predicted higher math and reading achievement test scores in kindergarten and second grade. Moderation analyses suggest that relations were attenuated among children from immigrant families. Findings suggest the importance of enriching pre-K programs for children of color with EK-promotive interventions and strategies.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Conhecimento , Grupos Minoritários , Áreas de Pobreza , Afro-Americanos/educação , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Carência Cultural , Escolaridade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/educação , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Matemática/educação , Matemática/história , Grupos Minoritários/educação , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Leitura , Características de Residência/história , Instituições Acadêmicas/economia , Instituições Acadêmicas/história , Habilidades Sociais , Populações Vulneráveis/etnologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
5.
GeoJournal ; 83(4): 775-782, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416248

RESUMO

Sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are key modifiable behavioral risk factors for chronic health problems, such as obesity and diabetes. Little is known about how sedentary behavior and physical activity among adolescents spatially cluster. The objective was to detect spatial clustering of sedentary behavior and physical activity among Boston adolescents. Data were used from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset, a sample of public high school students who responded to a sedentary behavior and physical activity questionnaire. Four binary variables were created: 1) TV watching (>2 hours/day), 2) video games (>2 hours/day), 3) total screen time (>2 hours/day); and 4) 20 minutes/day of physical activity (≥5 days/week). A spatial scan statistic was utilized to detect clustering of sedentary behavior and physical activity. One statistically significant cluster of TV watching emerged among Boston adolescents in the unadjusted model. Students inside the cluster were more than twice as likely to report > 2 hours/day of TV watching compared to respondents outside the cluster. No significant clusters of sedentary behavior and physical activity emerged. Findings suggest that TV watching is spatially clustered among Boston adolescents. Such findings may serve to inform public health policymakers by identifying specific locations in Boston that could provide opportunities for policy intervention. Future research should examine what is linked to the clusters, such as neighborhood environments and network effects.

6.
Front Public Health ; 6: 190, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050895

RESUMO

Background: Partnership, engagement, and collaboration (PEC) are critical factors in dissemination and implementation (D&I) research. Despite a growing recognition that incorporating PEC strategies in D&I research is likely to increase the relevance, feasibility, impacts, and of evidence-based interventions or practices (EBIs, EBPs), conceptual frameworks and methodologies to guide the development and testing of PEC strategies in D&I research are lacking. To address this methodological gap, a review was conducted to summarize what we know, what we think we know, and what we need to know about PEC to inform D&I research. Methods: A cross-field scoping review, drawing upon a broad range of PEC related literature in health, was conducted. Publications reviewed focused on factors influencing PEC, and processes, mechanisms and strategies for promoting effective PEC. The review was conducted separately for three forms of partnerships that are commonly used in D&I research: (1) consumer-provider or patient-implementer partnership; (2) delivery system or implementation team partnership; and (3) sustainment/support or interagency/community partnership. A total of 39 studies, of which 21 were review articles, were selected for an in-depth review. Results: Across three forms of partnerships, four domains (cognitive, interpersonal/affective, behavioral, and contextual domains) were consistently identified as factors and strategies for promoting PEC. Depending on the stage (preparation or execution) and purpose of the partnership (regulating performance or managing maintenance), certain PEC strategies are more or less relevant. Recent developments of PEC frameworks, such as Partnership Stage of Change and multiple dynamic processes, provide more comprehensive conceptual explanations for PEC mechanisms, which can better guide PEC strategies selection and integration in D&I research. Conclusions: This review contributes to D&I knowledge by identifying critical domain factors, processes, or mechanisms, and key strategies for PEC, and offers a multi-level PEC framework for future research to build the evidence base. However, more research is needed to test PEC mechanisms.

7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 183: 231-239, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We measured associations between parental incarceration and STI/HIV-related drug use and sex risk, assessing differences by race, age at first parental incarceration, and potential mediators of the relationship. METHODS: We used Waves I (adolescence), III (young adulthood), and IV (adulthood) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 11,884) to measure associations between age of parental incarceration (never; <8; 8-17; ≥18 years old) and marijuana and cocaine use, multiple partnerships, and STI in adolescence and adulthood among white, Black, and Hispanic participants and assessed mediation by sexual and physical abuse, mental disorder symptoms, and drug use. RESULTS: By Wave IV, approximately one in six had experienced a parental incarceration; higher prevalence observed among black (26%) and Hispanic (20%) versus white (15%) respondents (p < 0.0001). Parental incarceration at any age was moderately to strongly associated with STI/HIV risk outcomes. In multivariable models, parental incarceration at age <8 years old (versus never) remained strongly associated with STI/HIV risk in both adolescence and adulthood, with strongest associations among non-whites. Among black participants, parental incarceration at <8 years old was associated with over double the odds of adulthood use of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.62, 3.95) and cocaine (AOR: 4.41, 95% CI: 2.05, 9.48). Delinquency, drug use, and mood disorders appeared to partially mediate the relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Children impacted by parental incarceration constitute priority populations for substance use and STI/HIV prevention and treatment. The unintended consequences of incarceration for children should be considered in decarceration discussions.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Pais , Prisioneiros , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , /estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 796, 2017 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29017527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ParentCorps is a family-centered enhancement to pre-kindergarten programming in elementary schools and early education centers. When implemented in high-poverty, urban elementary schools serving primarily Black and Latino children, it has been found to yield benefits in childhood across domains of academic achievement, behavior problems, and obesity. However, its long-term cost-effectiveness is unknown. METHODS: We determined the cost-effectiveness of ParentCorps in high-poverty, urban schools using a Markov Model projecting the long-term impact of ParentCorps compared to standard pre-kindergarten programming. We measured costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) resulting from the development of three disease states (i.e., drug abuse, obesity, and diabetes); from the health sequelae of these disease states; from graduation from high school; from interaction with the judiciary system; and opportunity costs of unemployment with a lifetime time horizon. The model was built, and analyses were performed in 2015-2016. RESULTS: ParentCorps was estimated to save $4387 per individual and increase each individual's quality adjusted life expectancy by 0.27 QALYs. These benefits were primarily due to the impact of ParentCorps on childhood obesity and the subsequent predicted prevention of diabetes, and ParentCorps' impact on childhood behavior problems and the subsequent predicted prevention of interaction with the judiciary system and unemployment. Results were robust on sensitivity analyses, with ParentCorps remaining cost saving and health generating under nearly all assumptions, except when schools had very small pre-kindergarten programs. CONCLUSIONS: Effective family-centered interventions early in life such as ParentCorps that impact academic, behavioral and health outcomes among children attending high-poverty, urban schools have the potential to result in longer-term health benefits and substantial cost savings.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/prevenção & controle , Família/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Sucesso Acadêmico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Prev Sci ; 18(6): 660-670, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28293777

RESUMO

A robust literature documents the impact of poverty on child development and lifelong health, well-being and productivity. Racial and ethnic minority children continue to bear the burden of poverty disproportionately. Evidence-based parenting interventions in early childhood have the potential to attenuate risk attributable to poverty and stress. To reduce racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in the USA, parenting interventions must be accessible, engaging, and effective for low-income families of color living in large urban centers. This paper describes the initial development of ParentCorps and ongoing improvements to realize that vision. Initial development focused on creating a parenting intervention that places culture at the center and effectively embedding it in schools. ParentCorps includes core components found in nearly all effective parenting interventions with a culturally informed approach to engaging families and supporting behavior change. As the intervention is implemented at scale in increasingly diverse communities, improvement efforts include augmenting professional development to increase racial consciousness among all staff (evaluators, coaches, and school-based facilitators) and applying an implementation science framework to study and more fully support schools' use of a package of engagement strategies.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Pais , Pobreza , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Características de Residência , População Urbana , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
J Pediatr Surg ; 44(10): 1869-76, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19853740

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Some have suggested that the criteria for weight loss surgery in adolescents be stricter than those currently recommended for adults by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The aim of the current study is to define the characteristics of adolescents who meet NIH consensus criteria for bariatric surgery in adults to determine their level of morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2000-2004, children designated as meeting NIH criteria were 13 to 17 years of age with (1) a body mass index >or=40 or (2) a body mass index >35, and one or more comorbidity. We contrasted surgery candidates with noncandidates. We examined items that comprise a screener for identifying children with special health care needs. The Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS) was used to assess child functioning. RESULTS: There were 134 children identified as candidates for bariatric surgery and 4736 noncandidates in the same age range. Candidates were more likely to have special health care needs (36% vs 23%) and more likely to have a CIS above 16 (34% vs 16%). Candidates for weight loss surgery were 2.36 times as likely to have a CIS score of 16 or higher and 1.87 times as likely to be identified as a child with special health care needs (P

Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/normas , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Seleção de Pacientes , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comorbidade , Feminino , Guias como Assunto/normas , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/normas , Obesidade Mórbida/classificação , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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