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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2351: 165-179, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382189

RESUMO

Targeted chromatin capture (T2C) is a 3C-based method and is used to study the 3D chromatin organization, interactomes and structural changes associated with gene regulation, progression through the cell cycle, and cell survival and development. Low input targeted chromatin capture (low-T2C) is an optimized version of the T2C protocol for low numbers of cells. Here, we describe the protocol for low-T2C, including all experimental steps and bioinformatics tools in detail.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Cromatina/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Biblioteca Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Blood Adv ; 5(9): 2339-2349, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938942

RESUMO

The BCL11A gene encodes a transcriptional repressor with essential functions in multiple tissues during human development. Haploinsufficiency for BCL11A causes Dias-Logan syndrome (OMIM 617101), an intellectual developmental disorder with hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH). Due to the severe phenotype, disease-causing variants in BCL11A occur de novo. We describe a patient with a de novo heterozygous variant, c.1453G>T, in the BCL11A gene, resulting in truncation of the BCL11A-XL protein (p.Glu485X). The truncated protein lacks the 3 C-terminal DNA-binding zinc fingers and the nuclear localization signal, rendering it inactive. The patient displayed high fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels (12.1-18.7% of total hemoglobin), in contrast to the parents who had HbF levels of 0.3%. We used cultures of patient-derived erythroid progenitors to determine changes in gene expression and chromatin accessibility. In addition, we investigated DNA methylation of the promoters of the γ-globin genes HBG1 and HBG2. HUDEP1 and HUDEP2 cells were used as models for fetal and adult human erythropoiesis, respectively. Similar to HUDEP1 cells, the patient's cells displayed Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin (ATAC) peaks at the HBG1/2 promoters and significant expression of HBG1/2 genes. In contrast, HBG1/2 promoter methylation and genome-wide gene expression profiling were consistent with normal adult erythropoiesis. We conclude that HPFH is the major erythroid phenotype of constitutive BCL11A haploinsufficiency. Given the essential functions of BCL11A in other hematopoietic lineages and the neuronal system, erythroid-specific targeting of the BCL11A gene has been proposed for reactivation of γ-globin expression in ß-hemoglobinopathy patients. Our data strongly support this approach.


Assuntos
Haploinsuficiência , Proteínas Nucleares , Adulto , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
3.
Neuro Oncol ; 23(9): 1547-1559, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival in patients with IDH1/2-mutant (mt) anaplastic astrocytomas is highly variable. We have used the prospective phase 3 CATNON trial to identify molecular factors related to outcome in IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytoma patients. METHODS: The CATNON trial randomized 751 adult patients with newly diagnosed 1p/19q non-codeleted anaplastic glioma to 59.4 Gy radiotherapy +/- concurrent and/or adjuvant temozolomide. The presence of necrosis and/or microvascular proliferation was scored at central pathology review. Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip arrays were used for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and the determination of copy number variations (CNV). Two DNA methylation-based tumor classifiers were used for risk stratification. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed using 1 of the 2 glioma-tailored NGS panels. The primary endpoint was overall survival measured from the date of randomization. RESULTS: Full analysis (genome-wide DNA methylation and NGS) was successfully performed on 654 tumors. Of these, 432 tumors were IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytomas. Both epigenetic classifiers identified poor prognosis patients that partially overlapped. A predictive prognostic Cox proportional hazard model identified that independent prognostic factors for IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytoma patients included; age, mini-mental state examination score, treatment with concurrent and/or adjuvant temozolomide, the epigenetic classifiers, PDGFRA amplification, CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion, PI3K mutations, and total CNV load. Independent recursive partitioning analysis highlights the importance of these factors for patient prognostication. CONCLUSION: Both clinical and molecular factors identify IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytoma patients with worse outcome. These results will further refine the current WHO criteria for glioma classification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA , Glioma/genética , Glioma/terapia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Deleção de Sequência
4.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289106

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) are key immune modulators and are able to mount immune responses or tolerance. DC differentiation and activation imply a plethora of molecular and cellular responses, including transcriptional changes. PU.1 is a highly expressed transcription factor in DCs and coordinates relevant aspects of DC biology. Due to their role as immune regulators, DCs pose as a promising immunotherapy tool. However, some of their functional features, such as survival, activation, or migration, are compromised due to the limitations to simulate in vitro the physiologic DC differentiation process. A better knowledge of transcriptional programs would allow the identification of potential targets for manipulation with the aim of obtaining "qualified" DCs for immunotherapy purposes. Most of the current knowledge regarding DC biology derives from studies using mouse models, which not always find a parallel in human. In the present study, we dissect the PU.1 transcriptional regulome and interactome in mouse and human DCs, in the steady state or LPS activated. The PU.1 transcriptional regulome was identified by performing PU.1 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing and pairing these data with RNAsequencing data. The PU.1 interactome was identified by performing PU.1 immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Our results portray PU.1 as a pivotal factor that plays an important role in the regulation of genes required for proper DC activation and function, and assures the repression of nonlineage genes. The interspecies differences between human and mouse DCs are surprisingly substantial, highlighting the need to study the biology of human DCs.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1999, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013853

RESUMO

Transcriptomics can be combined with TRA and TRB clonotype analysis at the single cell level. The aim of this study was to validate this approach on the ICELL8 Single-Cell system and to evaluate its usefulness to analyse clinical paucicellular samples. For this purpose, we carefully selected T cell lines with defined TRA/TRB clonotypes as well as clinical samples enriched for CD3+ T cells that possess a complex TCR repertoire. Low cell numbers of the different samples were dispensed in a chip on the ICELL8 Single-Cell System. Two sequencing libraries were generated from each single cell cDNA preparation, one for the TRA/TRB repertoire and one for the 5' ends of transcripts, and subsequently sequenced. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the cell lines on average express 2,268 unique genes/cell and T cells of clinical samples 770 unique genes/cell. The expected combined TRA/TRB clonotype was determined for on average 71% of the cells of the cell lines. In the clinical samples the TRA/TRB repertoire was more complex than those of the cell lines. Furthermore, the TRB clonotype distribution of the clinical samples was positively correlated to frequencies of TCRVß families in CD3+ T cells obtained by a flow cytometry-based approach (Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient 0.81, P = 6.49 * 10-7). Combined analyses showed that transcriptome-based cell type-specific clusters in clinical samples corresponded to clinical features such as CMV status. In conclusion, we showed that the ICELL8 Single-Cell System enabled combined interrogation of both TRA/TRB repertoire and transcriptome of paucicellular clinical samples. This opens the way to study the response of single T cells within heterogeneous samples for both their transcriptome and TRA/TRB clonotypes in disease or upon treatment.


Assuntos
Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Clonais , Biologia Computacional , Citometria de Fluxo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Análise de Célula Única
6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(15): 2535-2550, 2020 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628253

RESUMO

The transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding protein 2 (ZEB2) controls embryonic and adult cell fate decisions and cellular maturation in many stem/progenitor cell types. Defects in these processes in specific cell types underlie several aspects of Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MOWS), which is caused by ZEB2 haplo-insufficiency. Human ZEB2, like mouse Zeb2, is located on chromosome 2 downstream of a ±3.5 Mb-long gene-desert, lacking any protein-coding gene. Using temporal targeted chromatin capture (T2C), we show major chromatin structural changes based on mapping in-cis proximities between the ZEB2 promoter and this gene desert during neural differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells, including at early neuroprogenitor cell (NPC)/rosette state, where ZEB2 mRNA levels increase significantly. Combining T2C with histone-3 acetylation mapping, we identified three novel candidate enhancers about 500 kb upstream of the ZEB2 transcription start site. Functional luciferase-based assays in heterologous cells and NPCs reveal co-operation between these three enhancers. This study is the first to document in-cis Regulatory Elements located in ZEB2's gene desert. The results further show the usability of T2C for future studies of ZEB2 REs in differentiation and maturation of multiple cell types and the molecular characterization of newly identified MOWS patients that lack mutations in ZEB2 protein-coding exons.

7.
Cell Rep ; 31(7): 107647, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433956

RESUMO

The NIPBL/MAU2 heterodimer loads cohesin onto chromatin. Mutations in NIPBL account for most cases of the rare developmental disorder Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Here we report a MAU2 variant causing CdLS, a deletion of seven amino acids that impairs the interaction between MAU2 and the NIPBL N terminus. Investigating this interaction, we discovered that MAU2 and the NIPBL N terminus are largely dispensable for normal cohesin and NIPBL function in cells with a NIPBL early truncating mutation. Despite a predicted fatal outcome of an out-of-frame single nucleotide duplication in NIPBL, engineered in two different cell lines, alternative translation initiation yields a form of NIPBL missing N-terminal residues. This form cannot interact with MAU2, but binds DNA and mediates cohesin loading. Altogether, our work reveals that cohesin loading can occur independently of functional NIPBL/MAU2 complexes and highlights a novel mechanism protective against out-of-frame mutations that is potentially relevant for other genetic conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Síndrome de Cornélia de Lange/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos
8.
Front Genet ; 11: 337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425970

RESUMO

Telomeres are important for maintaining genomic stability. Telomere length has been associated with aging, disease, and mortality and is highly heritable (∼82%). In this study, we aimed to identify rare genetic variants associated with telomere length using whole-exome sequence data. We studied 1,303 participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF) study, 1,259 of the Rotterdam Study (RS), and 674 of the British Heart Foundation Family Heart Study (BHF-FHS). We conducted two analyses, first we analyzed the family-based ERF study and used the RS and BHF-FHS for replication. Second, we combined the summary data of the three studies in a meta-analysis. Telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in blood. We identified nine rare variants significantly associated with telomere length (p-value < 1.42 × 10-7, minor allele frequency of 0.2-0.5%) in the ERF study. Eight of these variants (in C11orf65, ACAT1, NPAT, ATM, KDELC2, and EXPH5) were located on chromosome 11q22.3 that contains ATM, a gene involved in telomere maintenance. Although we were unable to replicate the variants in the RS and BHF-FHS (p-value ≥ 0.21), segregation analysis showed that all variants segregate with shorter telomere length in a family. In the meta-analysis of all studies, a nominally significant association with LTL was observed with a rare variant in RPL8 (p-value = 1.48 × 10-6), which has previously been associated with age. Additionally, a novel rare variant in the known RTEL1 locus showed suggestive evidence for association (p-value = 1.18 × 10-4) with LTL. To conclude, we identified novel rare variants associated with telomere length. Larger samples size are needed to confirm these findings and to identify additional variants.

9.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(5): 534-545, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367046

RESUMO

Following implantation, the naive pluripotent epiblast of the mouse blastocyst generates a rosette, undergoes lumenogenesis and forms the primed pluripotent egg cylinder, which is able to generate the embryonic tissues. How pluripotency progression and morphogenesis are linked and whether intermediate pluripotent states exist remain controversial. We identify here a rosette pluripotent state defined by the co-expression of naive factors with the transcription factor OTX2. Downregulation of blastocyst WNT signals drives the transition into rosette pluripotency by inducing OTX2. The rosette then activates MEK signals that induce lumenogenesis and drive progression to primed pluripotency. Consequently, combined WNT and MEK inhibition supports rosette-like stem cells, a self-renewing naive-primed intermediate. Rosette-like stem cells erase constitutive heterochromatin marks and display a primed chromatin landscape, with bivalently marked primed pluripotency genes. Nonetheless, WNT induces reversion to naive pluripotency. The rosette is therefore a reversible pluripotent intermediate whereby control over both pluripotency progression and morphogenesis pivots from WNT to MEK signals.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Embrionárias/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Camadas Germinativas/metabolismo , Camadas Germinativas/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo
10.
Birth Defects Res ; 112(9): 670-687, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients born with esophageal atresia (EA) have a higher incidence of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), suggestive of a relationship. A shared etiology makes sense from a developmental perspective as both affected structures are foregut derived. A genetic component has been described for both conditions as single entities and EA and IHPS are variable components in several monogenetic syndromes. We hypothesized that defects disturbing foregut morphogenesis are responsible for this combination of malformations. METHODS: We investigated the genetic variation of 15 patients with both EA and IHPS with unaffected parents using exome sequencing and SNP array-based genotyping, and compared the results to mouse transcriptome data of the developing foregut. RESULTS: We did not identify putatively deleterious de novo mutations or recessive variants. However, we detected rare inherited variants in EA or IHPS disease genes or in genes important in foregut morphogenesis, expressed at the proper developmental time-points. Two pathways were significantly enriched (p < 1 × 10-5 ): proliferation and differentiation of smooth muscle cells and self-renewal of satellite cells. CONCLUSIONS: None of our findings could fully explain the combination of abnormalities on its own, which makes complex inheritance the most plausible genetic explanation, most likely in combination with mechanical and/or environmental factors. As we did not find one defining monogenetic cause for the EA/IHPS phenotype, the impact of the corrective surgery could should be further investigated.

11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(1)2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877646

RESUMO

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers, and patients with distant metastases have dire outcomes. We observed previously that melanoma progression is driven by a high migratory potential of melanoma cells, which survive and proliferate under harsh environmental conditions. In this study, we report that CREPT (cell-cycle related and expression-elevated protein in tumor), an oncoprotein highly expressed in other cancers, is overexpressed in melanoma cells but not melanocytes. Overexpression of CREPT stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in several melanoma cell lines. Further, we show that CREPT enhances melanoma progression through upregulating and activating Ras homolog family member A (RhoA)-induced actin organization and focal adhesion assembly. Our study reveals a novel role of CREPT in promoting melanoma progression. Targeting CREPT may be a promising strategy for melanoma treatment.

12.
Mov Disord ; 33(11): 1814-1819, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic bases of PD in sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations remain poorly characterized, and analysis of SSA families with PD might lead to the discovery of novel disease-related genes. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical features and identify the disease-causing gene in a black South African family with 3 members affected by juvenile-onset parkinsonism and intellectual disability. METHODS: Clinical evaluation, neuroimaging studies, whole-exome sequencing, homozygosity mapping, two-point linkage analysis, and Sanger sequencing of candidate variants. RESULT: A homozygous 28-nucleotide frameshift deletion in the PTRHD1 coding region was identified in the 3 affected family members and linked to the disease with genome-wide significant evidence. PTRHD1 was recently nominated as the disease-causing gene in two Iranian families, each containing 2 siblings with similar phenotypes and homozygous missense mutations. CONCLUSION: Together with the previous reports, we provide conclusive evidence that loss-of-function mutations in PTRHD1 cause autosomal-recessive juvenile parkinsonism and intellectual disability. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/genética , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Masculino , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/complicações
13.
Front Genet ; 9: 420, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356672

RESUMO

Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an established heritable marker for subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we aim to identify rare variants with large effects driving differences in cIMT by performing genome-wide linkage analysis of individuals in the extremes of cIMT trait distribution (>90th percentile) in a large family-based study from a genetically isolated population in the Netherlands. Linked regions were subsequently explored by fine-mapping using exome sequencing. We observed significant evidence of linkage on chromosomes 2p16.3 [rs1017418, heterogeneity LOD (HLOD) = 3.35], 19q13.43 (rs3499, HLOD = 9.09), 20p13 (rs1434789, HLOD = 4.10), and 21q22.12 (rs2834949, HLOD = 3.59). Fine-mapping using exome sequencing data identified a non-coding variant (rs62165235) in PNPT1 gene under the linkage peak at chromosome 2 that is likely to have a regulatory function. The variant was associated with quantitative cIMT in the family-based study population (effect = 0.27, p-value = 0.013). Furthermore, we identified several genes under the linkage peak at chromosome 21 highly expressed in tissues relevant for atherosclerosis. To conclude, our linkage analysis identified four genomic regions significantly linked to cIMT. Further analyses are needed to demonstrate involvement of identified candidate genes in development of atherosclerosis.

14.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(7): 597-608, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies do not carry mutations in known disease-causing genes. The aim of this study was to identify a novel gene implicated in the development of these disorders. METHODS: Our study was done in three stages. First, we did genome-wide linkage analysis of an Italian family with dominantly inherited Parkinson's disease to identify the disease locus. Second, we sequenced the candidate gene in an international multicentre series of unrelated probands who were diagnosed either clinically or pathologically with Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease dementia, or dementia with Lewy bodies. As a control, we used gene sequencing data from individuals with abdominal aortic aneurysms (who were not examined neurologically). Third, we enrolled an independent series of patients diagnosed clinically with Parkinson's disease and controls with no signs or family history of Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease dementia, or dementia with Lewy bodies from centres in Portugal, Sardinia, and Taiwan, and screened them for specific variants. We also did mRNA and brain pathology studies in three patients from the international multicentre series carrying disease-associated variants, and we did functional protein studies in in-vitro models, including neurons from induced pluripotent stem-like cells. FINDINGS: Molecular studies were done between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2017. In the initial kindred of ten affected Italian individuals (mean age of disease onset 59·8 years [SD 8·7]), we detected significant linkage of Parkinson's disease to chromosome 14 and nominated LRP10 as the disease-causing gene. Among the international series of 660 probands, we identified eight individuals (four with Parkinson's disease, two with Parkinson's disease dementia, and two with dementia with Lewy bodies) who carried different, rare, potentially pathogenic LRP10 variants; one carrier was found among 645 controls with abdominal aortic aneurysms. In the independent series, two of these eight variants were detected in three additional Parkinson's disease probands (two from Sardinia and one from Taiwan) but in none of the controls. Of the 11 probands from the international and independent cohorts with LRP10 variants, ten had a positive family history of disease and DNA was available from ten affected relatives (in seven of these families). The LRP10 variants were present in nine of these ten relatives, providing independent-albeit limited-evidence of co-segregation with disease. Post-mortem studies in three patients carrying distinct LRP10 variants showed severe Lewy body pathology. Of nine variants identified in total (one in the initial family and eight in stage 2), three severely affected LRP10 expression and mRNA stability (1424+5delG, 1424+5G→A, and Ala212Serfs*17, shown by cDNA analysis), four affected protein stability (Tyr307Asn, Gly603Arg, Arg235Cys, and Pro699Ser, shown by cycloheximide-chase experiments), and two affected protein localisation (Asn517del and Arg533Leu; shown by immunocytochemistry), pointing to loss of LRP10 function as a common pathogenic mechanism. INTERPRETATION: Our findings implicate LRP10 gene defects in the development of inherited forms of α-synucleinopathies. Future elucidation of the function of the LRP10 protein and pathways could offer novel insights into mechanisms, biomarkers, and therapeutic targets. FUNDING: Stichting ParkinsonFonds, Dorpmans-Wigmans Stichting, Erasmus Medical Center, ZonMw-Memorabel programme, EU Joint Programme Neurodegenerative Disease Research (JPND), Parkinson's UK, Avtal om Läkarutbildning och Forskning (ALF) and Parkinsonfonden (Sweden), Lijf and Leven foundation, and cross-border grant of Alzheimer Netherlands-Ligue Européene Contre la Maladie d'Alzheimer (LECMA).


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/genética , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Demência/genética , Família , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Itália , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Linhagem , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética
15.
Gastroenterology ; 155(1): 118-129.e6, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29601828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is an inherited congenital disorder characterized by absence of enteric ganglia in the distal part of the gut. Variants in ret proto-oncogene (RET) have been associated with up to 50% of familial and 35% of sporadic cases. We searched for variants that affect disease risk in a large, multigenerational family with history of HSCR in a linkage region previously associated with the disease (4q31.3-q32.3) and exome wide. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing analyses of a family in the Netherlands with 5 members diagnosed with HSCR and 2 members diagnosed with functional constipation. We initially focused on variants in genes located in 4q31.3-q32.3; however, we also performed an exome-wide analysis in which known HSCR or HSCR-associated gene variants predicted to be deleterious were prioritized for further analysis. Candidate genes were expressed in HEK293, COS-7, and Neuro-2a cells and analyzed by luciferase and immunoblot assays. Morpholinos were designed to target exons of candidate genes and injected into 1-cell stage zebrafish embryos. Embryos were allowed to develop and stained for enteric neurons. RESULTS: Within the linkage region, we identified 1 putative splice variant in the lipopolysaccharide responsive beige-like anchor protein gene (LRBA). Functional assays could not confirm its predicted effect on messenger RNA splicing or on expression of the mab-21 like 2 gene (MAB21L2), which is embedded in LRBA. Zebrafish that developed following injection of the lrba morpholino had a shortened body axis and subtle gut morphological defects, but no significant reduction in number of enteric neurons compared with controls. Outside the linkage region, members of 1 branch of the family carried a previously unidentified RET variant or an in-frame deletion in the glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor gene (GDNF), which encodes a ligand of RET. This deletion was located 6 base pairs before the last codon. We also found variants in the Indian hedgehog gene (IHH) and its mediator, the transcription factor GLI family zinc finger 3 (GLI3). When expressed in cells, the RET-P399L variant disrupted protein glycosylation and had altered phosphorylation following activation by GDNF. The deletion in GDNF prevented secretion of its gene product, reducing RET activation, and the IHH-Q51K variant reduced expression of the transcription factor GLI1. Injection of morpholinos that target ihh reduced the number of enteric neurons to 13% ± 1.4% of control zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS: In a study of a large family with history of HSCR, we identified variants in LRBA, RET, the gene encoding the RET ligand (GDNF), IHH, and a gene encoding a mediator of IHH signaling (GLI3). These variants altered functions of the gene products when expressed in cells and knockout of ihh reduced the number of enteric neurons in the zebrafish gut.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Proteína Gli3 com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Animais , Células COS , Chlorocebus aethiops , Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Morfolinos , Países Baixos , Linhagem , Isoformas de Proteínas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transdução de Sinais , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Nat Protoc ; 13(3): 459-477, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419817

RESUMO

Chromosome conformation capture (3C) and its derivatives (e.g., 4C, 5C and Hi-C) are used to analyze the 3D organization of genomes. We recently developed targeted chromatin capture (T2C), an inexpensive method for studying the 3D organization of genomes, interactomes and structural changes associated with gene regulation, the cell cycle, and cell survival and development. Here, we present the protocol for T2C based on capture, describing all experimental steps and bio-informatic tools in full detail. T2C offers high resolution, a large dynamic interaction frequency range and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Its resolution is determined by the resulting fragment size of the chosen restriction enzyme, which can lead to sub-kilobase-pair resolution. T2C's high coverage allows the identification of the interactome of each individual DNA fragment, which makes binning of reads (often used in other methods) basically unnecessary. Notably, T2C requires low sequencing efforts. T2C also allows multiplexing of samples for the direct comparison of multiple samples. It can be used to study topologically associating domains (TADs), determining their position, shape, boundaries, and intra- and inter-domain interactions, as well as the composition of aggregated loops, interactions between nucleosomes, individual transcription factor binding sites, and promoters and enhancers. T2C can be performed by any investigator with basic skills in molecular biology techniques in ∼7-8 d. Data analysis requires basic expertise in bioinformatics and in Linux and Python environments.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Animais , Cromatina/ultraestrutura , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genoma Humano/fisiologia , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos , Nucleossomos , Software
17.
Genet Med ; 20(5): 480-485, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121006

RESUMO

PurposeNoninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) using cell-free DNA in maternal blood is highly sensitive for detecting fetal trisomies 21, 18, and 13. Using a genome-wide approach, other chromosome anomalies can also be detected. We report on the origin, frequency, and clinical significance of these other chromosome aberrations found in pregnancies at risk for trisomy 21, 18, or 13.MethodsWhole-genome shallow massively parallel sequencing was used and all autosomes were analyzed.ResultsIn 78 of 2,527 cases (3.1%) NIPS was indicative of trisomy 21, 18, or 13, and in 41 (1.6%) of other chromosome aberrations. The latter were of fetal (n = 10), placental (n = 22), maternal (n = 1) or unknown (n = 7). One case lacked cytogenetic follow-up. Nine of the 10 fetal cases were associated with an abnormal phenotype. Thirteen of the 22 (59%) placental aberrations were associated with fetal congenital anomalies and/or poor fetal growth (

Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Testes Genéticos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Trissomia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Front Genet ; 8: 151, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29093733

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep breathing disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and mortality. Although OSA is fairly heritable (~40%), there have been only few studies looking into the genetics of OSA. In the present study, we aimed to identify genetic variants associated with symptoms of sleep apnea by performing a whole-exome sequence meta-analysis of symptoms of sleep apnea in 1,475 individuals of European descent. We identified 17 rare genetic variants with at least suggestive evidence of significance. Replication in an independent dataset confirmed the association of a rare genetic variant (rs2229918; minor allele frequency = 0.3%) with symptoms of sleep apnea (p-valuemeta = 6.98 × 10-9, ßmeta = 0.99). Rs2229918 overlaps with the 3' untranslated regions of ERCC1 and CD3EAP genes on chromosome 19q13. Both genes are expressed in tissues in the neck area, such as the tongue, muscles, cartilage and the trachea. Further, CD3EAP is localized in the nucleus and mitochondria and involved in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha/nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway. Our results and biological functions of CD3EAP/ERCC1 genes suggest that the 19q13 locus is interesting for further OSA research.

19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(1): 123-129, 2017 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602422

RESUMO

Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a congenital disorder characterized by loss of smooth muscle contraction in the bladder and intestine. To date, three genes are known to be involved in MMIHS pathogenesis: ACTG2, MYH11, and LMOD1. However, for approximately 10% of affected individuals, the genetic cause of the disease is unknown, suggesting that other loci are most likely involved. Here, we report on three MMIHS-affected subjects from two consanguineous families with no variants in the known MMIHS-associated genes. By performing homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, we found homozygous variants in myosin light chain kinase (MYLK) in both families. We identified a 7 bp duplication (c.3838_3844dupGAAAGCG [p.Glu1282_Glyfs∗51]) in one family and a putative splice-site variant (c.3985+5C>A) in the other. Expression studies and splicing assays indicated that both variants affect normal MYLK expression. Because MYLK encodes an important kinase required for myosin activation and subsequent interaction with actin filaments, it is likely that in its absence, contraction of smooth muscle cells is impaired. The existence of a conditional-Mylk-knockout mouse model with severe gut dysmotility and abnormal function of the bladder supports the involvement of this gene in MMIHS pathogenesis. In aggregate, our findings implicate MYLK as a gene involved in the recessive form of MMIHS, confirming that this disease of the visceral organs is heterogeneous with a myopathic origin.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/enzimologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Colo/anormalidades , Genes Recessivos , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/enzimologia , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/genética , Mutação/genética , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/genética , Bexiga Urinária/anormalidades , Sequência de Bases , Colo/enzimologia , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Bexiga Urinária/enzimologia
20.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 48, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28274275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), which is congenital obstruction of the bowel, results from a failure of enteric nervous system (ENS) progenitors to migrate, proliferate, differentiate, or survive within the distal intestine. Previous studies that have searched for genes underlying HSCR have focused on ENS-related pathways and genes not fitting the current knowledge have thus often been ignored. We identify and validate novel HSCR genes using whole exome sequencing (WES), burden tests, in silico prediction, unbiased in vivo analyses of the mutated genes in zebrafish, and expression analyses in zebrafish, mouse, and human. RESULTS: We performed de novo mutation (DNM) screening on 24 HSCR trios. We identify 28 DNMs in 21 different genes. Eight of the DNMs we identified occur in RET, the main HSCR gene, and the remaining 20 DNMs reside in genes not reported in the ENS. Knockdown of all 12 genes with missense or loss-of-function DNMs showed that the orthologs of four genes (DENND3, NCLN, NUP98, and TBATA) are indispensable for ENS development in zebrafish, and these results were confirmed by CRISPR knockout. These genes are also expressed in human and mouse gut and/or ENS progenitors. Importantly, the encoded proteins are linked to neuronal processes shared by the central nervous system and the ENS. CONCLUSIONS: Our data open new fields of investigation into HSCR pathology and provide novel insights into the development of the ENS. Moreover, the study demonstrates that functional analyses of genes carrying DNMs are warranted to delineate the full genetic architecture of rare complex diseases.


Assuntos
Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Alelos , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo , Peixe-Zebra
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