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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210069

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to conduct in-depth individual interviews with 30 African American adolescents with overweight and obesity and their families (caregiver/adolescent dyads) to gain a better understanding of how to integrate stress and coping essential elements into an existing family-based health promotion program for weight loss. Interview data from 30 African American adolescents with overweight and obesity (Mage = 15.30 ± 2.18; MBMI%-ile = 96.7 ± 3.90) were transcribed and coded for themes using inductive and deductive approaches by two independent coders. Inter-rater reliability was acceptable (r = 0.70-0.80) and discrepancies were resolved to 100% agreement. The themes were guided by the Relapse Prevention Model, which focuses on assessing barriers of overall coping capacity in high stress situations that may undermine health behavior change (physical activity, diet, weight loss). Prominent themes included feeling stressed primarily in response to relationship conflicts within the family and among peers, school responsibilities, and negative emotions (anxiety, depression, anger). A mix of themes emerged related to coping strategies ranging from cognitive reframing and distraction to avoidant coping. Recommendations for future programs include addressing sources of stress and providing supportive resources, as well as embracing broader systems such as neighborhoods and communities. Implications for future intervention studies are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Dieta/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Programas de Redução de Peso
2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063799

RESUMO

Few studies have integrated positive parenting and motivational strategies to address dietary outcomes such as frequency of family mealtime. The Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss trial was a randomized group cohort trial (n = 241 dyads) testing the efficacy of integrating a motivational plus family weight loss (M + FWL) intervention for healthy eating and weight loss in overweight and obese African American adolescents. The current study tested the interaction of parenting styles (responsiveness, demandingness) and parental feeding practices (restriction, concern about child's weight, pressure to eat) and the FIT intervention on frequency of family mealtime over 16 weeks. Multilevel modeling demonstrated significant interactions between the group-based treatment and responsiveness (p = 0.018) and demandingness (p = 0.010) on family mealtime. For the group-based M + FWL intervention, increased responsiveness and reduced demandingness were associated with increased frequency of family mealtime from baseline to 16 weeks. There was also a negative association between parental restriction and frequency of family mealtime, but a positive association between parental concerns about their adolescent's weight and frequency of mealtime. These findings are the first to demonstrate that an authoritative or nurturing parenting style moderated intervention effects for improving the frequency of family mealtime in overweight and obese African American adolescents.


Assuntos
Terapia Familiar/métodos , Refeições/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Análise Multinível , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
3.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(4): 376-382, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African American women participate in less physical activity (PA), have higher rates of chronic disease, and report higher perceived stress relative to other race and sex demographic groups. PURPOSE: Based on the stress-buffering hypothesis, this study tested the hypothesis that social support would buffer the negative effects of perceived stress on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) under high, but not low, perceived stress. METHODS: Participants were 143 African American women (mean [M] age = 43.94, standard deviation [SD] = 8.62; M body mass index = 37.94, SD = 8.11) enrolled in the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss Trial. Average daily minutes of MVPA were obtained via 7 day accelerometer estimates at baseline and 8 and 16 weeks. RESULTS: A multilevel growth model demonstrated a significant three-way interaction between stress, social support, and time (B = -0.31, standard error [SE] = 0.14, p = .03). Simple slopes analyses revealed that, at baseline, among participants with high social support (+1 SD), stress was positively associated with greater MVPA (B = 0.49, SE = 0.18, p = .008), whereas among participants with low social support (-1 SD), stress was not significantly associated with MVPA (B = -0.04, SE = 0.14, p = .81). However, at 8 and 16 weeks, stress was not significantly associated with MVPA for either high or low support groups. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the importance of integrating constructs of stress and social support into future physical activity intervention programs for African American women and the need to evaluate changes in stress and social support longitudinally.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899280

RESUMO

(1) Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation (SED) and weight-related outcomes in youth, controlling for weight-related behaviors. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood SED, weight status, and fat mass in a diverse sample of youth, before and after controlling for physical activity and diet. (2) Methods: The sample included 828 youth from the Transitions and Activity Changes in Kids study. Neighborhood SED was expressed as an index score at the census tract of residence. Height, weight, and body composition were measured and used to calculate fat mass index (FMI) and weight status. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (min/h) were measured via accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed via the Block Food Screener for Kids. Multilevel regression models were employed to examine these relationships. (3) Results: Neighborhood SED was significantly associated with FMI and weight status before and after controlling for MVPA, sedentary behavior, and diet. Notably, youth residing in the most deprived neighborhoods had significantly higher FMI and were 30% more likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 1.03-1.65). (4) Conclusions: Greater neighborhood SED was consistently and significantly associated with higher fat mass index and increased likelihood of overweight/obesity among youth.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Características de Residência , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Pesos e Medidas
5.
Eval Program Plann ; 77: 101718, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539644

RESUMO

Self-Determination Theory proposes that some people are motivated to initiate physical activity by externally-controlled reasons (e.g., physical appearance, approval from others), whereas others feel compelled by more autonomous sources of motivation (e.g., enjoyment, personal importance). This study used qualitative methods to examine whether individual differences in autonomous motivation offers a useful framework for developing targeted intervention programs for African American women. Focus groups (k = 6) were conducted to examine how different levels of autonomous motivation for physical activity related to differences in physical activity barriers and facilitators among African American women (N = 31). Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by independent raters (r = 0.70). QSR NVivo 11 was used to analyze data, and themes were identified separately for women with low, medium, or high autonomous motivation. Those with high autonomous motivation focused on themes of wanting novelty, excitement, and competition, whereas those with low autonomous motivation focused on themes of wanting instrumental support and financial incentives for increasing engagement in physical activity. Implications for developing physical activity intervention programs for African American women that are targeted toward differences in autonomous motivation are discussed.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Motivação , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento Competitivo , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 47, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although weight loss is an important primary outcome in obesity interventions, family-based interventions may have cascading ripple effects that extend to other aspects of health and well-being. Identifying these secondary benefits may be useful for understanding how to best engage underserved African American families in weight loss. The present research examines whether African American adolescents and parents perceive secondary benefits from participating in a family-based weight-loss intervention, including secondary health, social, or cognitive benefits. METHODS: Qualitative data were obtained from families participating in the group-based intervention of the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss trial. During the final week of the face-to-face motivational and family-based intervention program, families completed a guided open-ended group discussion about changes they experienced from participating (14 groups, N = 41 adolescents and 41 parents). Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by independent pairs of raters using both inductive and deductive approaches. Guided by the multi-theoretical framework for the FIT trial, some themes were determined prior to coding using a deductive approach, including: (a) health outcomes (e.g., monitoring strategies for diet and physical activity), (b) social outcomes (e.g., involvement in family support, group support, autonomy support, family bonding, positive communication) and (c) cognitive outcomes (e.g., expression of self-confidence through self-efficacy, self-regulation, establishment of long-term goals). In addition to these pre-determined themes, the coding process included an inductive assessment, allowing for unexpected themes to surface as well around positive self-talk, relapse prevention, and monitoring strategies for different types of weight-related behaviors. RESULTS: Across both adolescents and parents, the cognitive outcomes were the most frequently discussed outcomes, including self-regulation, monitoring strategies for diet, establishing long-term goals, and ultimate relapse prevention. Parents made a greater number of comments about the social outcomes, including family support, group support, self-efficacy, and family connectedness, whereas adolescents made a greater number of comments about positive family communication. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide preliminary support for the positive secondary effects of weight loss programs on improving both cognitive and social well-being in underserved African American adolescents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT01796067. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01796067?term=NCT01796067&rank=1 The trial was registered on February 21, 2013 and the first participant was enrolled July 12, 2013.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adolescente , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social
7.
J Affect Disord ; 227: 731-738, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179143

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to estimate the prevalence of depression at 4-week postpartum using the Edinburgh postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) in women who delivered in a public maternity hospital in Argentina. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was carried out from March to August 2016 in northwest Argentina. Eligibility included delivering a singleton live birth 28 weeks of gestational age or over, 18 years or older and resided within 1h from the maternity hospital. Women were excluded if they or their newborn were in the intensive care unit. We defined a positive screening as an EPDS score of 10 or higher or a positive response to item 10, which indicates thoughts of self-harm. RESULTS: A total of 587 women were enrolled and 539 women completed the home visit interview and the EPDS. A total of 167 (31.0%, 95% CI 27.1-35.1) mothers screened positive in the EPDS using a score ≥ 10 and 99 (18.4%, 95% CI 15.1-21.6%) using a score ≥ 13, which indicate increased severity of depressive symptoms. In both cases, the 23 (4.3%) women that responded as having thoughts of self-harm were included. CONCLUSION: Nearly a third of women who participated had depressive symptoms at four weeks postpartum in a public hospital in Tucumán, Argentina. Socio-demographic, particularly personal psychiatric history, factors and social and cultural influences can impact results. Our results highlight the need for improved screening and better diagnostic tool for women with postpartum depression in Argentina and to investigate the impact of postpartum depressive symptoms on women's health and their families.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , Argentina , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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