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1.
N C Med J ; 82(4): 229-238, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decision makers face challenges in estimating local risk for child maltreatment and how best to prioritize which factors to intervene upon. METHODS: Using US Census and survey data for all US counties (N = 3141), we derived US county profiles characterized by the severity of child maltreatment risk factors observed at the county level, such as parental health, health care access, and economic distress. We estimated how five child maltreatment outcomes would vary across the profiles for North Carolina counties (n = 100): total maltreatment reports (including unsubstantiated and substantiated), substantiated neglect, substantiated abuse, whether services were received, and reported child's race/ethnicity. RESULTS: We derived three profiles of county-level child maltreatment risk: high, moderate, and low risk, denoting that predicted risk factors means within profiles were all high, moderate, or low levels compared to counties in other profiles. One risk factor did not follow this pattern: the drug overdose death rate. It was highest in the moderate-risk profile instead of the high-risk profile, as would have been consistent with other factor levels. Moderate-risk counties had the highest predicted rate of child maltreatment reports, with over 20 more reports per 10,000 residents compared to low-risk counties (95% CI, 1.38, 38.86). LIMITATIONS: We included only factors for which aggregate, county-level estimates were available, thus limiting inclusion of all relevant factors. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest the need for increased family-based services and interventions that reduce risk factors such as economic distress and drug overdose deaths. We discuss the implications for tailoring county efforts to prevent child maltreatment.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Censos , Criança , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
2.
Fam Syst Health ; 39(1): 7-18, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: For implementation of an evidence-based program to be effective, efficient, and equitable across diverse populations, we propose that researchers adopt a systems approach that is often absent in efficacy studies. To this end, we describe how a computer-based monitoring system can support the delivery of the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a parent-focused evidence-based prevention program for divorcing parents. METHOD: We present NBP from a novel systems approach that incorporates social system informatics and engineering, both necessary when utilizing feedback loops, ubiquitous in implementation research and practice. Examples of two methodological challenges are presented: how to monitor implementation, and how to provide feedback by evaluating system-level changes due to implementation. RESULTS: We introduce and relate systems concepts to these two methodologic issues that are at the center of implementation methods. We explore how these system-level feedback loops address effectiveness, efficiency, and equity principles. These key principles are provided for designing an automated, low-burden, low-intrusive measurement system to aid fidelity monitoring and feedback that can be used in practice. DISCUSSION: As the COVID-19 pandemic now demands fewer face-to-face delivery systems, their replacement with more virtual systems for parent training interventions requires constructing new implementation measurement systems based on social system informatics approaches. These approaches include the automatic monitoring of quality and fidelity in parent training interventions. Finally, we present parallels of producing generalizable and local knowledge bridging systems science and engineering method. This comparison improves our understanding of system-level changes, facilitates a program's implementation, and produces knowledge for the field. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Informática Aplicada à Saúde dos Consumidores , Divórcio , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Adulto , COVID-19 , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Educação Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245920, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507985

RESUMO

Between January 2016 and June 2020, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration rapidly distributed $7.5 billion in response to the U.S. opioid crisis. These funds are designed to increase access to medications for addiction treatment, reduce unmet treatment need, reduce overdose death rates, and provide and sustain effective prevention, treatment and recovery activities. It is unclear whether or not the services developed using these funds will be sustained beyond the start-up period. Based on 34 (64%) State Opioid Response (SOR) applications, we assessed the states' sustainability plans focusing on potential funding sources, policies, and quality monitoring. We found variable commitment to sustainability across response plans with less than half the states adequately describing sustainability plans. States with higher proportions of opioid prescribing, opioid misuse, and poverty had somewhat higher scores on sustainment. A text mining/machine learning approach automatically rated sustainability in SOR applications with an 82% accuracy compared to human ratings. Because life saving evidence-based programs and services may be lost, intentional commitment to sustainment beyond the bolus of start-up funding is essential.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Epidemia de Opioides , Políticas , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos , United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
4.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 47(2): 220-228, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054435

RESUMO

Background: A cascade of care (CoC) model may improve understanding of gaps in addiction treatment availability and quality over current single measure methods. Despite increased funding, opioid overdose rates remain high. Therefore, it is critical to understand where the health-care system is failing to provide appropriate care for people with opioid use disorder (OUD) diagnoses, and to assess disparities in receipt of medication for OUD (MOUD).Objective: Using a CoC framework, assess treatment quality and outcomes for OUD in the Florida Medicaid population in 2017/2018 by demographics and primary vs. secondary diagnosis.Methods: Data from Florida Medicaid claims for 2017 and 2018 were used to calculate the number of enrollees who were diagnosed, began MOUD, were retained on medication for a minimum of 180 days, and who died.Results: Only 28% of those diagnosed with OUD began treatment with an FDA approved MOUD (buprenorphine, methadone, or injectable naltrexone). Once on medication, 38% of newly diagnosed enrollees were retained in treatment for180 days. Those who remained on MOUD for 180 days had a hazard ratio of death of 0.226 (95% CI = 0.174 to 0.294) compared to those that did not initiate MOUD, a reduction in mortality from 10% without MOUD to 2% with MOUD.Conclusions: Initiating medication after OUD diagnosis offers the greatest opportunity for intervention to reduce overdose deaths, though efforts to increase retention are also warranted. Analyzing claims data with CoC identifies system functioning for specific populations, and suggests policies and clinical pathways to target for improvement.

5.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 15(1): 84, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US 21st Century Cures Act provided $7.5 billion in grant funding to states and territories for evidence-based responses to the opioid epidemic. Currently, little is known about optimal strategies for sustaining these programs beyond this start-up funding. METHODS: Using an inductive, conventional content analysis, we conducted key informant interviews with former and current state leaders (n = 16) about barriers/facilitators to sustainment and strategies for sustaining time-limited grants. RESULTS: Financing and reimbursement, service integration, and workforce capacity were the most cited barriers to sustainment. Status in state government structure, public support, and spending flexibility were noted as key facilitators. Effective levers to increase chances for sustainment included strong partnerships with other state agencies, workforce and credentialing changes, and marshalling advocacy through public awareness campaigns. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the strategies that leaders have successfully used to sustain programs in the past can inform how to continue future time-limited, grant-funded initiatives.

6.
Am Psychol ; 75(8): 1080-1092, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252946

RESUMO

U.S. health care systems are tasked with alleviating the burden of mental health, but are frequently underprepared and lack workforce and resource capacity to deliver services to all in need. Digital mental health interventions (DMHIs) can increase access to evidence-based mental health care. However, DMHIs commonly do not fit into the day-to-day activities of the people who engage with them, resulting in a research-to-practice gap for DMHI implementation. For health care settings, differences between digital and traditional mental health services make alignment and integration challenging. Specialized attention is needed to improve the implementation of DMHIs in health care settings so that these services yield high uptake, engagement, and sustainment. The purpose of this article is to enhance efforts to integrate DMHIs in health care settings by proposing implementation strategies, selected and operationalized based on the discrete strategies established in the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change project, that align to DMHI-specific barriers in these settings. Guidance is offered in how these strategies can be applied to DMHI implementation across four phases commonly distinguished in implementation science using the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment Framework. Next steps to advance research in this area and improve the research-to-practice gap for implementing DMHIs are recommended. Applying implementation strategies to DMHI implementation will enable psychologists to systematically evaluate this process, which can yield an enhanced understanding of the factors that facilitate implementation success and improve the translation of DMHIs from controlled trials to real-world settings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e16802, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent depression carries a high burden of disease worldwide, but access to care for this population is limited. Prevention is one solution to curtail the negative consequences of adolescent depression. Internet interventions to prevent adolescent depression can overcome barriers to access, but few studies examine long-term outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study compares CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training), an internet-based intervention, to a general health education active control for depression onset at 12 and 24 months in adolescents presenting to primary care settings. METHODS: A 2-site randomized trial, blinded to the principal investigators and assessors, was conducted comparing Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training to health education to prevent depressive episodes in 369 adolescents (193 youths were randomly assigned to Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training and 176 to health education) with subthreshold depressive symptoms or prior depressive episodes. Participants were recruited from primary care settings in the United States. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a depressive episode, determined by the Depression Symptom Rating. The secondary outcome was functioning, measured by the Global Assessment Scale. RESULTS: In intention-to-treat analyses, the adjusted hazard ratio favoring Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training for first depressive episode was not statistically significant at 12 months (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.42-1.40, P=.39) and 24 months (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.52-1.47, P=.61). Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training provided preventive benefit for first depressive episode for those with mild hopelessness or at least moderate paternal monitoring at baseline. Global Assessment Scale scores improved comparably in both groups (intention-to-treat). CONCLUSIONS: A technology-based intervention for adolescent depression prevention implemented in primary care did not have additional benefit at 12 or 24 months. Further research is necessary to determine whether internet interventions have long-term benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01893749; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01893749.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2022532, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084901

RESUMO

Importance: Suicide has been a leading manner of death for US Air Force personnel in recent years. Universal prevention programs that reduce suicidal thoughts and behaviors in military populations have not been identified. Objectives: To determine whether the Wingman-Connect program for Airmen-in-training reduces suicidal ideation, depression, and occupational problems compared with a stress management program and to test the underlying network health model positing that cohesive, healthy units are protective against suicidal ideation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted from October 2017 to October 2019 and compared classes of personnel followed up for 6 months. The setting was a US Air Force technical training school, with participants studied to their first base assignment, whether US or international. Participants in 216 classes were randomized, with an 84% retention rate. Data analysis was performed from November 2019 to May 2020. Interventions: The Wingman-Connect program used group skill building for cohesion, shared purpose, and managing career and personal stressors (3 blocks of 2 hours each). Stress management training covered cognitive and behavioral strategies (2 hours). Both conditions had a 1-hour booster session, plus text messages. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were scores on the suicidal ideation and depression scales of the Computerized Adaptive Test for Mental Health and self-reports of military occupational impairment. Class network protective factors hypothesized to mediate the effect of Wingman-Connect were assessed with 4 measures: cohesion assessed perceptions that classmates cooperate, work well together, and support each other; morale was measured with a single item used in other studies with military samples; healthy class norms assessed perceptions of behaviors supported by classmates; and bonds to classmates were assessed by asking each participant to name classmates whom they respect and would choose to spend time with. Results: A total of 215 classes including 1485 individuals (1222 men [82.3%]; mean [SD] age, 20.9 [3.1] years) participated; 748 individuals were enrolled in the Wingman-Connect program and 737 individuals were enrolled in the stress management program. At 1 month, the Wingman-Connect group reported lower suicidal ideation severity (effect size [ES], -0.23; 95% CI, -0.39 to -0.09; P = .001) and depression symptoms (ES, -0.24; 95% CI, -0.41 to -0.08; P = .002) and fewer occupational problems (ES, -0.14; 95% CI, -0.31 to -0.02; P = .02). At 6 months, the Wingman-Connect group reported lower depression symptoms (ES, -0.16; 95% CI, -0.34 to -0.02; P = .03), whereas the difference in suicidal ideation severity was not significant (ES, -0.13; 95% CI, -0.29 to 0.01; P = .06). The number needed to treat to produce 1 fewer participant with elevated depression at either follow-up point was 21. The benefits of the training on occupational problems did not extend past 1 month. The Wingman-Connect program strengthened cohesive, healthy class units, which helped reduce suicidal ideation severity (estimate, -0.035; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.01; P = .02) and depression symptom scores (estimate, -0.039; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.01; P = .02) at 1 month. Conclusions and Relevance: Wingman-Connect is the first universal prevention program to reduce suicidal ideation and depression symptoms in a general Air Force population. Group training that builds cohesive, healthy military units is promising for upstream suicide prevention and may be essential for ecological validity. Extension of the program to the operational Air Force is recommended for maintaining continuity and testing the prevention impact on suicidal behavior. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04067401.


Assuntos
Militares/psicologia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Ensino/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Ocupacional/complicações , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Autorrelato , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Prev Sci ; 21(8): 1059-1064, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040271

RESUMO

Decision-makers need to consider a range of factors when selecting evidence-based programs (EBPs) for implementation, which can be especially challenging when addressing complex issues such as child maltreatment prevention. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) frameworks and tools are useful for evaluating such complex decisions. We describe the development and testing of the first MCDA tool to compare EBPs for child neglect prevention. To develop the tool, we engaged stakeholders (n = 8) to define the problem and identify 13 criteria and associated weights. In a pilot study, we tested the MCDA tool with decision-makers (n = 11) who were asked to rank three evidence-based child neglect prevention interventions both with and without the tool. The MCDA's weighted sum intervention ranking differed from the ranking without the tool in the majority of the sample (55%). Decision-makers provided guidance on criteria that should be clarified or added, resulting in 16 criteria in an iterated tool. The most frequent criterion suggestions related to community acceptance of the intervention, health equity, implementation supports, and sustainability. Decision-maker feedback guided user interface refinements. The MCDA tool was generally well accepted by decision-makers due to their trust in the stakeholder engagement process. More research is needed to understand the acceptability of MCDA approaches in additional contexts and whether EBPs adopted with decision support have different population health impacts compared with EBPs adopted without support. MCDA tools could facilitate evidence-based responses to federal policy and funding opportunities such as the Families First Preventive Services Act.

10.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 71, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhancing the sustainability of evidence-based prevention programs for mental and behavioral health requires tools for measuring both sustainability determinants and sustainment outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop the Sustainment Measurement System Scale (SMSS) and to assess its reliability and construct validity for measuring both determinants and outcomes of efforts to sustain prevention programs and initiatives. METHODS: A 42-item scale comprised of items identified from qualitative data collected from 45 representatives of 10 programs and 8 SAMHSA program officers was administered to 186 representatives of 145 programs funded by 7 SAMHSA prevention grant initiatives. Cronbach's alphas were used to determine inter-item reliability. Convergent validity was assessed by comparisons of a global measure of sustainment with current SAMHSA-funding status and continued operation in the same form. Discriminant validity was assessed by comparisons of sustainability determinants with whether or not the program had undergone adaptations. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a 35-item model fit to the data. Cronbach's alpha was .84 for the sustainment outcome construct and ranged from .70 to .93 for the sustainability determinant constructs. All of the determinant constructs were significantly associated with sustainment outcome individual and global measures for the entire sample (p < 0.01 to 0.001) and for community-based programs and programs with a substance abuse focus (p < 0.05 to 0.001). Convergent validity was supported by significant associations between the global sustainment measure and current SAMHSA funding status and continued operation in the same form (p < 0.001). Four of the sustainability determinant constructs (responsive to community needs; coalitions, partnerships, and networks; organizational staff capability; and evaluation, feedback, and program outcomes) were also significantly associated with current SAMHSA funding status (p < 0.5 to 0.01). With the exception of organizational staff capability, all sustainability determinants were unrelated to program adaptation as predicted. CONCLUSIONS: The SMSS demonstrated good reliability and convergent and discriminant validity in assessing likelihood of sustainment of SAMHSA funded prevention programs and initiatives. The measure demonstrates potential in identifying predictors of program sustainment and as a tool for enhancing the likelihood of successful sustainment through ongoing evaluation and feedback.

11.
Sex Res Social Policy ; 17(3): 378-388, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884583

RESUMO

Little is known about how to best implement eHealth HIV interventions for adolescent men who have sex with men (AMSM) in real-world settings. In response, our current study describes formative implementation research with community-based organizations (CBOs) in preparation for future implementation of the SMART Program, a stepped-care package of three interventions adapted for AMSM. In-depth interviews focusing on eHealth implementation were conducted with a convenience sample of 12 stakeholders from nine CBOs that actively implemented sexual-minority-focused HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Qualitative analysis was conducted using Dedoose to identify salient themes. Most programs implemented at the CBOs engaged adult MSM for HIV prevention, but CBOs reported less experience with outreach of AMSM for HIV prevention. While comfortable with and skilled at implementing traditional in-person HIV prevention programs, interviewees reported that eHealth programs fell outside of their organizations' technical capacities. They suggested specific strategies to facilitate successful implementation of SMART and other eHealth programs, including technical-capacity-building at CBOs, better training of staff, and partnering with a national coordinating center that provides support for the technology. Overall, the CBOs reported enthusiasm for the SMART Program and thought it an efficient way to bridge their current gaps in online programming and lack of AMSM HIV prevention strategies.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237269, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine which county-level social, economic, demographic, epidemiologic and access to care factors are associated with Latino/non-Latino White disparities in prevalence of diagnosed HIV infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used 2016 county-level prevalence rates of diagnosed HIV infection rates for Latinos and non-Latino Whites obtained from the National HIV Surveillance System and factors obtained from multiple publicly available datasets. We used mixed effects Poisson modeling of observed HIV prevalence at the county-level to identify county-level factors that explained homogeneous effects across race/ethnicity and differential effects for Latinos and NL-Whites. Overall, the median Latinos disparity in HIV prevalence is 2.4; 94% of the counties have higher rates for Latinos than non-Latinos, and one-quarter of the counties' disparities exceeded 10. Of the 41 county-level factors examined, 24 showed significant effect modification when examined individually. In multi-variable modeling, 11 county-level factors were found that significantly affected disparities. Factors that increased disparity with higher, compared to lower values included proportion of HIV diagnoses due to injection drug use, percent Latino living in poverty, percent not English proficient, and percent Puerto Rican. Latino disparities increased with decreasing percent severe housing, drug overdose mortality rate, percent rural, female prevalence rate, social association rate, percent change in Latino population, and Latino to NL-White proportion of the population. These factors while significant had minimal effects on diminishing disparity, but did substantially reduce the variance in disparity rates. CONCLUSIONS: Large differences in HIV prevalence rates persist across almost all counties even after controlling for county-level factors. Counties that are more rural, have fewer Latinos, or have lower NL-White prevalence rates tend to have higher disparities. There is also higher disparity when community risk is low.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cidades , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Implement Sci Commun ; 1(1): 57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835224

RESUMO

Background: Though clinical practice guidelines are available, the diagnosis of pediatric hypertension (HTN) is often missed. Management may not follow guidelines due to the measurement challenges in children, complexity of interpreting youth blood pressure standards that are dependent on height, age, and sex, familiarity with diagnostic criteria, and variable comfort with management of pediatric HTN among providers. Evidence suggests that wide adoption and adherence to pediatric HTN guidelines would result in lower cardiovascular disease and kidney damage in adulthood. The proposed project will develop an implementation strategy package to increase adherence to clinical practice guidelines for pediatric HTN within safety-net community health centers (CHCs). The centerpiece of which is a provider-facing population panel management (PPM) tool and point-of-care clinical decision support (CDS). Prior research indicates that multiple discrete implementation strategies (e.g., stakeholder involvement, readiness planning, training, ongoing audit and feedback) are needed to institute practice- and provider-level adoption of such tools. Methods: Using participatory research methods involving stakeholders from a practice-based research network of CHCs, with input from scientific advisors, the project aims to (1) employ user-centered design methods to tailor an existing CDS tool for use at the point of care and optimize cohort management with a PPM tool to support adherence to the latest pediatric HTN guidelines, and (2) use a stakeholder-driven method for selecting implementation strategies that support tool adoption and increase guideline-adherent physician behaviors. Multilevel process evaluation using surveys and key informant interview data will assess the acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, cost, and feasibility of the PPM tool and its multicomponent implementation strategy package. Usability testing will be conducted with the PPM tool to iteratively refine features and ensure proper functionality. Discussion: The proposed research has the potential to improve identification, diagnosis, and management of HTN in primary care settings for high-risk youth by assisting healthcare providers in implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' 2017 guidelines using an EHR-integrated PPM tool with CDS. Should the strategy package for PPM tool adoption be successful for pediatric HTN, findings will be translatable to other settings and PPM of other chronic cardiovascular conditions affecting overall population health.

14.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 47(5): 844-851, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715431

RESUMO

With new tools from artificial intelligence and new perspectives on personalizing interventions, we could revolutionize the way mental health services are delivered and achieve major gains in improving the public's mental health. We examine Dr. Bickman's vision around these technological and paradigm changes that would usher in major scientific, workforce training, and societal cultural changes. We argue that additional efforts in research evaluations in implementation have the potential to scale up and adapt existing interventions and scale them out to diverse populations and service systems. The next stage of this work involves testing the effectiveness of personalized interventions that are preferred by the public and integrating these choices into sustainable service systems. We note cautions on the delivery of these programs as automated algorithmic recommendations are heretofore foreign to humans.

15.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581000

RESUMO

CONTEXT: More than 4 decades of research indicate that parenting interventions are effective at preventing and treating mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. Pediatric primary care is a viable setting for delivery of these interventions. OBJECTIVE: Previous meta-analyses have shown that behavioral interventions in primary care can improve clinical outcomes, but few reviews have been focused specifically on the implementation of parenting interventions in primary care. We aimed to fill this gap. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed 6532 unique peer-reviewed articles published in PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycInfo. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were included if at least part of the intervention was delivered in or through primary care; parenting was targeted; and child-specific mental, emotional, and behavioral health outcomes were reported. DATA EXTRACTION: Articles were reviewed in Covidence by 2 trained coders, with a third coder arbitrating discrepancies. RESULTS: In our review of 40 studies, most studies were coded as a primary. Few researchers collected implementation outcomes, particularly those at the service delivery system level. LIMITATIONS: Including only published articles could have resulted in underrepresentation of implementation-related data. CONCLUSIONS: Parenting interventions delivered and implemented with fidelity in pediatric primary care could result in positive and equitable impacts on mental, emotional, and behavioral health outcomes for both parents and their children. Future research on the implementation strategies that can support adoption and sustained delivery of parenting interventions in primary care is needed if the field is to achieve population-level impact.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/terapia , Poder Familiar , Pais/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 257, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although some advances have been made in recent years, the lack of measures remains a major challenge in the field of implementation research. This results in frequent adaptation of implementation measures for different contexts-including different types of respondents or professional roles-than those for which they were originally developed and validated. The psychometric properties of these adapted measures are often not rigorously evaluated or reported. In this study, we examined the internal consistency, factor structure, and structural invariance of four well-validated measures of inner setting factors across four groups of respondents. The items in these measures were adapted as part of an evaluation of a large-scale organizational change in a rehabilitation hospital, which involved transitioning to a new building and a new model of patient care, facilitated by a significant redesign of patient care and research spaces. METHODS: Items were tailored for the context and perspective of different respondent groups and shortened for pragmatism. Confirmatory factor analysis was then used to test study hypotheses related to fit, internal consistency, and invariance across groups. RESULTS: The survey was administered to approximately 1208 employees; 785 responded (65% response rate) across the roles of clinician, researcher, leader, support staff, or dual clinician and researcher. For each of the four scales, confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated adequate fit that largely replicated the original measure. However, a few items loaded poorly and were removed from the final models. Internal consistencies of the final scales were acceptable. For scales that were administered to multiple professional roles, factor structures were not statistically different across groups, indicating structural invariance. CONCLUSIONS: The four inner setting measures were robust for use in this new context and across the multiple stakeholder groups surveyed. Shortening these measures did not significantly impair their measurement properties; however, as this study was cross sectional, future studies are required to evaluate the predictive validity and test-retest reliability of these measures. The successful use of adapted measures across contexts, across and between respondent groups, and with fewer items is encouraging, given the current emphasis on designing pragmatic implementation measures.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Papel Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Inovação Organizacional , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
AIDS Behav ; 24(6): 1903-1911, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845078

RESUMO

In 2019, the requisite biomedical and behavioral interventions to eliminate new HIV infections exist. "Ending the HIV Epidemic" now becomes primarily a challenge of will and implementation. This review maps the extent to which implementation research (IR) has been integrated into HIV research by reviewing the recent funding portfolio of the NIH. We searched NIH RePORTER for HIV and IR-related research projects funded from January 2013 to March 2018. The 4629 unique studies identified were screened using machine learning and manual methods. 216 abstracts met the eligibility criteria of HIV and IR. Key study characteristics were then abstracted. NIH currently funds HIV studies that are either formally IR (n = 109) or preparatory for IR (n = 107). Few (13%) projects mentioned a guiding implementation model, theory, or framework, and only 56% of all studies explicitly mentioned measuring an implementation outcome. Considering the study aims along an IR continuum, 18 (8%) studies examined barriers and facilitators, 43 (20%) developed implementation strategies, 46 (21%) piloted strategies, 73 (34%) tested a single strategy, and 35 (16%) compared strategies. A higher proportion of formal IR projects involved established interventions (e.g., integrated services) compared to newer interventions (e.g., pre-exposure prophylaxis). Prioritizing HIV-related IR in NIH and other federal funding opportunity announcements and expanded training in implementation science could have a substantial impact on ending the HIV pandemic. This review serves as a baseline by which to compare funding patterns and the sophistication of IR in HIV research over time.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Ciência da Implementação , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(1): 136-145, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764968

RESUMO

A large knowledge gap exists regarding the measurement of sustainability of evidence-based prevention programs for mental and behavioral health. We interviewed 45 representatives of 10 grantees and 9 program officers within 4 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration prevention grant initiatives to identify experiences with implementation and sustainability barriers and facilitators; what "sustainability" means and what it will take to sustain their programs; and which Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) elements are important for sustainability. Lists of sustainability determinants and outcomes were then compiled from each data set and compared with one another. Analysis of themes from interviews and free lists revealed considerable overlap between sustainability determinants and outcomes. Four sustainability elements were identified by all three data sets (ongoing coalitions, collaborations, and networks and partnerships; infrastructure and capacity to support sustainability; community need for program; and ongoing evaluation of performance and outcomes), and 11 elements were identified by two of three data sets (availability of funding; consistency with organizational culture; evidence of positive outcomes; development of a plan for implementation and sustainment; presence of a champion; institutionalization and integration of program; institutional support and commitment; community buy-in and support; program continuity; supportive leadership; and opportunities for staff training). All but one of the CFIR domain elements (pressure from other states, tribes, or communities) were endorsed as important to sustainability by 50% or more of participants. It may be more important to implement a standardized process of eliciting determinants and outcomes of sustainability than to implement a single standardized instrument.

19.
Am J Eval ; 40(3): 318-334, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885461

RESUMO

HIV continues to significantly impact the health of communities, particularly affecting racially and ethnically diverse men who have sex with men and transgender women. In response, health departments often fund a number of community organizations to provide each of these subgroups with comprehensive and culturally responsive services. To this point, evaluators have focused on individual interventions, but have largely overlooked the complex environment in which these interventions are implemented, including other programs funded to do similar work. The Evaluation Center was funded by the City of Chicago in 2015 to conduct a city-wide evaluation of all HIV prevention programming. This article will describe our novel approach to adapt the principles and methods of the Empowerment Evaluation approach, to effectively engage with 20 city-funded prevention programs to collect and synthesize multi-site evaluation data, and ultimately build capacity at these organizations to foster a learning-focused community.

20.
Psychol Assess ; 31(9): 1154-1167, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259571

RESUMO

Construct equivalence of measures across studies is necessary for synthesizing results when combining data in meta-analysis or integrative data analysis. We discuss several assumptions required for construct equivalence, and review methods using individual-level data and item response theory (IRT) analysis for detecting or adjusting for violations of these assumptions. We apply IRT to data from 7 measures of depressive symptoms for 4,283 youth from 16 randomized prevention trials. Findings indicate that these data violate assumptions of conditional independence. Bifactor IRT models find that depression measures contain substantial reporter variance, and indicate that a single common factor model would be substantially biased. Separate analyses of ratings by youth find stronger evidence for construct equivalence, but factor invariance across sex and age does not hold. We conclude that data synthesis studies employing measures of youth depression should analyze results separately by reporter, explore more complex approaches to integrate these different perspectives, and explore methods that adjust for sex and age differences in item functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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