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1.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806244

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This cross-sectional study examined the associations of demographic, structural and psychological factors with distinct typologies of polysubstance use in sexual minority men (SMM) living with HIV who use methamphetamine. METHODS: In total, 161 SMM living with HIV who reported methamphetamine use in the past 3 months were recruited in San Francisco from 2013 to 2017 for a randomised controlled trial. A latent class analysis was conducted by leveraging baseline measures of self-reported use of 15 substances in the past 3 months as well as validated screening measures of hazardous alcohol and cannabis use. Correlates of latent class membership were examined using a three-step categorical latent variable logistic regression. RESULTS: Four typologies of substance use were identified: (i) methamphetamine use only (43%); (ii) methamphetamine and crack-cocaine use (22%); (iii) party and play use-methamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate and amyl nitrites (i.e. poppers) with erectile dysfunction drugs (31%); and (iv) high polysubstance use (4%). SMM of colour and those with a history of incarceration were more commonly classified as engaging in methamphetamine and crack-cocaine use compared to party and play use. Men with higher sexual compulsivity scores were more commonly classified as engaging in party and play use and polysubstance use. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial heterogeneity in polysubstance use patterns among SMM living with HIV who use methamphetamine. This will inform the development of tailored substance use interventions addressing the unique needs of SMM of colour and targeting sexual compulsivity as a prominent comorbidity for some men.

2.
Prev Sci ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626327

RESUMO

As part of the Global Smart Drinking Goals campaign launched in 2018 in 6 "City Pilots" around the world, the Businesses That Care (BTC; Empresas Que se Cuidan in Spanish) prevention system was developed and implemented in Zacatecas, Mexico. BTC is a private business sector adaptation of the Communities That Care prevention system. BTC is designed to address underage alcohol use through a combination of a company-led prevention system, an adapted family-based prevention program with parents employed at participating companies, and environmental prevention strategies for company employees. BTC was designed to be congruent with other health and safety efforts in the region (e.g., media campaign, road safety, and school prevention efforts). This study presents the feasibility and adoption of the BTC system in Zacatecas. Process implementation measures indicated successful participant recruitment, retention, and adherence to intervention protocols. The first 4 stages of BTC implementation were completed within 14 months, with Stage 5 being interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. BTC Prevention Committee members, made up of employees from BTC participating companies, received 9 out of 10 BTC trainings/workshops during this time. Results provide evidence of the acceptability and feasibility for private companies to implement a prevention system approach for reducing youth alcohol use.

3.
Prev Sci ; 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626326

RESUMO

Underage drinking represents a major global health problem. Given the crisis that underage drinking represents, Tomando Buenas Decisiones, a family-based prevention program, was adapted and piloted in Mexico based on the existing Guiding Good Choices program. Although family-based interventions in the USA are promising for preventing underage drinking, little is known about how adapted versions of these interventions may work in low-middle income countries, such as in Latin America. The present study examined whether baseline individual, familial, and cultural factors predict participants' engagement and attendance in an adapted program for preventing underage drinking in Zacatecas, Mexico. The study was conducted with a sample of 178 parents who participated in the adapted program and were employed at local private companies. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze (a) change in engagement, (b) predictors of engagement, and (c) predictors of attendance. Results indicated that perceived engagement evidenced a significant linear increase throughout the intervention. Participants' familism values, such as perceived family as referents and family support, at baseline predicted both initial levels of and change in engagement. Perceived familial obligation also predicted change in engagement. Attendance was negatively predicted by male gender, by perceived stress, and by perceived familial obligations among women only. Poor family management, and perceived familial obligations among men, positively predicted attendance. Our findings have important implications for the conceptualization of engagement and attendance in family-based preventive interventions for underage drinking among Hispanics. Researchers interested in implementing interventions in Latin America can use these findings to better comprehend how and for whom adapted family-based preventive interventions work.

4.
Health Promot Int ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297814

RESUMO

Substance use and violence are serious problems affecting Brazilian youth, prompting local authorities to invest in adapting and implementing evidence-based prevention programs developed abroad. To ensure that interventions are effective, valid and reliable measures of risk factors for substance use and violence are needed. We conducted a pilot examination of the measurement properties of risk factors in the Communities That Care Youth Survey (CTCYS), a school-based survey developed in the United States. The Brazilian-adapted CTCYS included 25 risk factors as well as measures of substance use and antisocial behaviors. The survey was translated into Brazilian Portuguese and adapted for use in Brazil, incorporating suggestions from local experts. The survey was administered to 926 students in one Brazilian community. Results indicate that scale internal consistency was acceptable for all but two scales: (i) Academic Failure and (ii) Rebelliousness. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested good model fit for most measurement models albeit with minor modifications for most scales. Findings from this pilot study provide a foundation for the use of the CTCYS in Brazil to assess community levels of adolescent risk and evaluate prevention programs.

5.
Am J Crim Justice ; : 1-23, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248324

RESUMO

On September 20, 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico as a Category 4 hurricane with sustained winds of 155 miles per hour and torrential rains that ravaged the United States territory. In the midst of the crisis, several hundred thousand Maria survivors boarded humanitarian flights and cruise ships, seeking refuge on the United States mainland. More than three years later, tens of thousands of post-Maria migrants remain on the mainland as long-term emigres. In this article, we lay the theoretical/conceptual groundwork for researchers and practitioners interested in understanding the experiences of post-Maria migrants. Specifically, we aim to assist readers in thinking deeply about: [1] why many Puerto Ricans relocated, [2] the experiences of post-Maria migrants en movimiento, and [3] how such experiences shape their lives, behavior, and well-being. In understanding the experiences of post-Maria migrants, several theories/constructs emerge as especially salient. These include "push and pull" models, cultural stress theory and its transnational variants, the concept of crisis migration, and models of cumulative risk. We provide a succinct overview of each of these theories/constructs and describe the broad perspectives that serve as a foundational or orienting paradigm for our work (i.e., the life course perspective, the strengths perspective, and an ecodevelopmental framework). Finally, we provide illustrations of how these theories/concepts apply to emerging data from the Adelante Boricua study, an ongoing research project with post-Maria migrant youth and their parents, supported by funding from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities.

6.
J Prim Prev ; 42(5): 441-457, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189718

RESUMO

Reducing youth alcohol use is a public health priority that can be addressed by implementing evidence-based preventive interventions (EBPIs) with high fidelity. However, when EBPIs are delivered in a new geographical setting, lack of contextual fit might interfere with expected effects. The purpose of our study was to understand the contextual fit of the family preventive program, Guiding Good Choices (GGC), to inform its future adaptation in Zacatecas, Mexico. Four focus groups were conducted with parents of children aged 9-14 years (N = 43) from four private companies. After transcribing audiotaped sessions, we used a general inductive approach to obtain codes and derive themes. Parents expressed a high level of interest in program content, highlighting its potential to decrease underage drinking in Mexico. Surface-structure modifications of program audiovisual materials (e.g., new videos with Mexican actors and locations) and delivery methods were recommended by parents to maximize participant acceptability and engagement. Participant definitions of family and perception of family dynamics both support the cultural relevance of the program modules and activities related to this content. Underage drinking was acknowledged by parents as a major problem in Zacatecas. Our findings suggest a need for incorporating an extra session that focuses on addressing low alcohol literacy levels and parents' positive alcohol expectancies. Machismo was not considered a cultural factor that could affect attendance and program activities. In fact, we observed an opportunity to use local masculinity to ensure practice of parental skills at home. Due to the needs expressed by participants and the apparent compatibility and fit of the curriculum contents with the new context, we conclude that GGC could be an adequate EBPI for preventing underage drinking in Mexico.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Criança , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pais
7.
Int J Intercult Relat ; 80: 217-230, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33456095

RESUMO

During the last four years, xenophobic rhetoric directed toward Latino immigrants in U.S. media outlets and political forums has greatly increased. Using a general inductive approach, this qualitative study examined the forms of cultural stress, with a focus on discrimination and xenophobia, experienced by Latino adolescents in urban U.S. settings in 2018 and 2019. Six focus groups were conducted in Miami and Los Angeles (three groups per city) with first- and second-generation tenth-grade Latino students (n = 34). The following four themes emerged from the data: perceived discrimination from other Latino subgroups (in-group discrimination), perceived discrimination from non-Latino groups (out-group discrimination), internalization of stressors and discrimination experienced by participants' parents, and the current U.S. political rhetoric surrounding immigration. Understanding cultural stress among Latino adolescents provides valuable insight for future interventions to offset negative health outcomes associated with cultural stress.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435524

RESUMO

As the identification and targeting of salient risk factors for adolescent substance use become more widely used globally, an essential question arises as to whether U.S.-based cut points in the distributions of these risk factors that identify "high" risk can be used validly in other countries as well. This study examined proportions of youth at "high" risk using different empirically derived cut points in the distributions of 18 measured risk factors. Data were obtained from large-scale samples of adolescents in Colombia and the United States. Results indicated that significant (p < 0.05) differences in the proportions of "high" risk youth were found in 38.9% of risk factors for 6th graders, 61.1% for 8th graders, and 66.6% for 10th graders. Colombian-based cut points for determining the proportion of Colombian youth at "high" risk were preferable to U.S.-based cut points in almost all comparisons that exhibited a significant difference. Our findings suggest that observed differences were related to the type of risk factor (e.g., drug specific vs. non-drug specific). Findings from this study demonstrate the need for collecting large-scale national data on risk factors for adolescent substance use and developing country-specific cut points based on the distributions of these measures to avoid misidentification of youth at "high" risk.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
9.
Health Promot Int ; 36(2): 417-429, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830230

RESUMO

Many effective community health service delivery systems implemented in the USA assess risk and protective factors (RPFs) for youth problem behaviors in a community, and report these data back to local coalitions for prevention planning. This study examined whether community prevention coalitions in Chile and Colombia perceived these reports of RPFs-based on the results of the Communities That Care Youth Survey-to be understandable, valid, useful, and worth disseminating. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data collected from 7 focus groups with 75 coalition members. Results indicated heterogeneity between and within coalitions in terms of participants' understanding of RPFs. However, most participants found reports of RPFs to be easy to understand, thorough, 'true' to their communities, and useful for diagnosing and prioritizing needs, action planning, and mobilizing others in their communities. Findings suggest the viability of preventive systems that rely on community-level RPF data, for use in Latin America.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Fatores de Proteção , Adolescente , Chile , Colômbia , Humanos , Medicina Preventiva , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Sch Health ; 90(12): 1004-1018, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Student-teacher relationships are associated with the social and emotional climate of a school, a key domain of the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model. Few interventions target student-teacher relationships during the critical transition to high school, or incorporate strategies for enhancing equitable relationships. We conducted a mixed-methods feasibility study of a student-teacher relationship intervention, called Equity-Explicit Establish-Maintain-Restore (E-EMR). METHODS: We tested whether students (N = 133) whose teachers received E-EMR training demonstrated improved relationship quality, school belonging, motivation, behavior, and academic outcomes from pre- to post-test, and whether these differences were moderated by race. We also examined how teachers (N = 16) integrated a focus on equity into their implementation of the intervention. RESULTS: Relative to white students, students of the color showed greater improvement on belongingness, behavior, motivation, and GPA. Teachers described how they incorporated a focus on race/ethnicity, culture, and bias into E-EMR practices, and situated their relationships with students within the contexts of their own identity, the classroom/school context, and broader systems of power and privilege. CONCLUSIONS: We provide preliminary evidence for E-EMR to change teacher practice and reduce educational disparities for students of color. We discuss implications for other school-based interventions to integrate an equity-explicit focus into program content and evaluation.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Professores Escolares , Estudantes , Adolescente , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
Adicciones ; 32(2): 105-115, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627727

RESUMO

Communities That Care (CTC) is a prevention system aimed at reducing antisocial behaviors in adolescents. In Colombia, this system has been developed and adapted under the name of Comunidades Que se Cuidan (CQC). Successful implementation of CQC depends on valid associations between measured risk and protective factors (RPFs) for substance use and substance use outcomes. This study assessed these associations using large-scale, school-based surveys of Colombian youth. A cross-sectional analysis was performed. Data from 23 communities in Colombia were collected between 2012 and 2016 from young people (N = 50,946) aged 10 to 19 years. Dichotomous alcohol, cigarette, cannabis, and other illegal drug use outcomes were assessed for past 30-day, past-year, and lifetime use. Logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender, and age by RPF, and gender by RPF interactions, were performed for each RPF. All the associations of the 14 RPF evaluated were statistically significant (p<,001). Regarding observed effect sizes, 3.0% were considered very small (0.70 ≥ OR ≤ 1.43), 51.7% small (0.70 ≥ OR ≥ 1.43), 42.6% medium (0.40 ≥ OR ≥ 2.48) and 7.1% large (0.23 ≥ OR ≥ 4.27). Significant main effects for age and gender, and their interactions with RPFs were found for most RPFs. Findings from this study demonstrate the viability of RPFs for adolescent substance use as focal points for intervention planning, development, and evaluation of community-based prevention systems like CQC that rely on epidemiologic data for local decision making.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 32(2): 105-115, 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192779

RESUMO

Communities That Care (CTC) es un sistema preventivo que busca disminuir comportamientos problemáticos en adolescentes. En Colombia, este sistema ha sido adaptado bajo el nombre de Comunidades Que se Cuidan (CQC). Este estudio validó las asociaciones entre los factores de riesgo y protección (FRP) para el uso de sustancias psicoactivas (SPA) medidos por CQC y las prevalencias de consumo de estas en adolescentes colombianos. Entre 2012 y 2016, se aplicó una encuesta a gran escala en jóvenes de 10 a 19 años (N = 50,946) pertenecientes a 23 comunidades de Colombia. Se analizó de forma transversal la asociación entre los FRP con el consumo de alcohol, cigarrillo, marihuana y otras drogas ilegales en los últimos 30 días, año y alguna vez en la vida. Se realizaron regresiones logísticas, ajustando por edad, sexo y sus interacciones con cada FRP. Todas las asociaciones de los 14 FRP evaluados fueron significativas (p < .001). De los efectos observados, 3,0% se consideraron efectos muy pequeños (0,70 ≤ OR ≤ 1,43), 51,7% pequeños (0,70 ≥ OR ≥ 1,43), 42,6% medianos (0,40 ≥ OR ≥ 2,48) y 7,1% grandes (0,23 ≥ OR ≥ 4,27). Se encontraron asociaciones significativas para edad, sexo y sus interacciones con los FRP para la mayoría de FRP. Los hallazgos demuestran la validez de los FRP estudiados para la planificación, el desarrollo y la evaluación futura de sistemas preventivos comunitarios como CQC, los cuales se basan en datos epidemiológicos para la toma de decisiones locales


Communities That Care (CTC) is a prevention system aimed at reducing antisocial behaviors in adolescents. In Colombia, this system has been developed and adapted under the name of Comunidades Que se Cuidan (CQC). Successful implementation of CQC depends on valid associations between measured risk and protective factors (RPFs) for substance use and substance use outcomes. This study assessed these associations using large-scale, school-based surveys of Colombian youth. A cross-sectional analysis was performed. Data from 23 communities in Colombia were collected between 2012 and 2016 from young people (N = 50,946) aged 10 to 19 years. Dichotomous alcohol, cigarette, cannabis, and other illegal drug use outcomes were assessed for past 30-day, past-year, and lifetime use. Logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, gender, and age by RPF, and gender by RPF interactions, were performed for each RPF. All the associations of the 14 RPF evaluated were statistically significant (p < .001). Regarding observed effect sizes, 3.0% were considered very small (0.70 ≥ OR ≤ 1.43), 51.7% small (0.70 ≥ OR ≥ 1.43), 42.6% medium (0.40 ≥ OR ≥ 2.48) and 7.1% large (0.23 ≥ OR ≥ 4.27). Significant main effects for age and gender, and their interactions with RPFs were found for most RPFs. Findings from this study demonstrate the viability of RPFs for adolescent substance use as focal points for intervention planning, development, and evaluation of community-based prevention systems like CQC that rely on epidemiologic data for local decision making


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Prevalência
13.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; 18(2): 368-381, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746651

RESUMO

The growing use of evidence-based preventive interventions for youth substance use in Latin American countries has prompted governments, researchers, and practitioners to ask if communities are ready for implementing these interventions, especially in light of the elevated costs and long-term commitment necessary for successful implementation. This study explores the construct validity of a measure of community readiness for prevention, using confirmatory factor and latent profile analyses of 7 measures theorized to be indicators of community readiness for implementing preventive interventions for youth substance use. Data were obtained from 211 community leaders in 16 communities in Colombia. Results indicate that community readiness can be represented as a unidimensional construct with multiple profiles of varying levels of readiness. Findings suggest community readiness can be measured adequately as a latent construct and that its indicators can be used diagnostically to assess areas where readiness could be improved for better implementation of evidence-based preventive interventions.

14.
ACS Chem Biol ; 14(10): 2305-2314, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545595

RESUMO

Virulence in the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies in part on the efficient functioning of two LuxI/R dependent quorum sensing (QS) cascades, namely, the LasI/R and RhlI/R systems that generate and respond to N-(3-oxo)-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone, respectively. The two acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthases, LasI and RhlI, use 3-oxododecanoyl-ACP and butyryl-ACP, respectively, as the acyl-substrates to generate the corresponding autoinducer signals for the bacterium. Although AHL synthases represent excellent targets for developing QS modulators in P. aeruginosa, and in other related bacteria, the identification of potent and signal synthase specific inhibitors has represented a significant technical challenge. In the current study, we sought to test the utility of AHL analogs as potential modulators of an AHL synthase and selected RhlI in P. aeruginosa as an initial target. We systematically varied the chemical functionalities of the AHL headgroup, acyl chain tail, and head-to-tail linkage to construct a small library of signal analogs and evaluated them for RhlI modulatory activity. Although the native N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone did not inhibit RhlI, we discovered that several of our long-chain, unsubstituted acyl-d-homoserine lactones and acyl-d-homocysteine thiolactones inhibited while a few of the 3-oxoacyl-chain counterparts activated the enzyme. Additional mechanistic investigations with acyl-substrate analogs and docking experiments with AHL analogs revealed two distinct inhibitor and activator binding pockets in the enzyme. This study provides the first evidence of the yet untapped potential of AHL analogs as signal synthase modulators of QS pathways.


Assuntos
Acil-Butirolactonas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Ligases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Acil-Butirolactonas/química , Acil-Butirolactonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Ligases/química , Ligases/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Inorg Chem ; 58(12): 8130-8139, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124666

RESUMO

An investigation of supramolecular phenomena involving zerovalent transition metal complexes was facilitated by the production of the ditopic isocyanide ligand 1,3-bis( p-isocyanophenyl)urea, which was synthesized via substoichiometric phosgenation of 4-isocyanophenylamine and used to coordinate group VI metal carbonyl fragments. The resulting binuclear organometallic complexes were observed to pack into ladder-like anisotropic arrays in the solid state. Crystallographic and computational evidence suggests that this packing motif can be attributed to a combination of intermolecular π-π and urea-π interactions. Similar to other N, N'-diarylureas bearing electron-withdrawing groups, 1,3-bis( p-isocyanophenyl)urea and the organometallic complexes prepared therefrom also exhibit an affinity toward anion binding in nonaqueous solution. Equilibrium constants ( K) for the formation of host-guest complexes between the organometallic derivatives of 1,3-bis( p-isocyanophenyl)urea and chloride, nitrate, and acetate anions exceed 103, 104, and 105 M-1, respectively.

16.
Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun ; 74(Pt 9): 1259-1262, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225112

RESUMO

Deprotonation of the methyl-ene group in bis-(3,5-diiso-propyl-pyrazol-1-yl)methane with nBuLi and reaction with carbon dioxide yields lithium bis-(3,5-diiso-propyl-pyrazol-1-yl)acetate (1). Treatment of 1 with ZnCl2 results in the com-pound bis-[bis-(3,5-diiso-propyl-pyrazol-1-yl)acetato]-zinc(II), [Zn(C20H31N4O2)2] (2), whose structure has monoclinic (P21/c) symmetry. The ZnII ion resides on an inversion center and is coordinated by two bis-(3,5-diiso-propyl-pyrazol-1-yl)acetate (bdippza) ligands. Each ligand facially coordinates the zinc center via κ3N,N',O coordination modes to form a distorted octa-hedral complex with four pyrazole N atoms in the basal plane and two carboxyl-ate O atoms in the axial sites.

17.
Implement Sci ; 13(1): 116, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) is a widely used tool, but it has not been adapted and validated for use in schools, the most common setting where youth access behavioral health services. This study examined the factor structure, psychometric properties, and criterion-related validity of the school-adapted EBPAS in a sample of school-based behavioral health consultants. METHOD: A research team comprised of experts in implementation of evidence-based practices in schools along with the original developer adapted the EBPAS for the school setting. The adapted instrument was administered to a representative sample (n = 196) of school-based behavioral health consultants to assess the reliability and structural validity via a series of confirmatory factor analyses. RESULTS: The original EBPAS factor structure was confirmed, with the final model supporting four first-order factors that load onto a second-order factor capturing general attitudes toward evidence-based practice. Correlations among the subscales indicated both unique and shared variance. Correlations between EBPAS scores and consultant variables demonstrated differential criterion-related validity, with the total score and the Requirements and Openness subscales demonstrating the strongest correlations. CONCLUSIONS: The adapted EBPAS performed well when administered to behavioral health consultants operating in the educator sector, supporting the relevance of assessing attitudes in school settings. Potential directions for future research and applications of the EBPAS in schools and other service sectors are discussed.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Consultores , Atenção à Saúde , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
ACS Chem Biol ; 13(9): 2655-2662, 2018 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114353

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that coordinates the production of many virulence phenotypes at high population density via quorum sensing (QS). The LuxR-type receptor RhlR plays an important role in the P. aeruginosa QS process, and there is considerable interest in the development of chemical approaches to modulate the activity of this protein. RhlR is activated by a simple, low molecular weight N-acyl l-homoserine lactone signal, N-butanoyll-homoserine lactone (BHL). Despite the emerging prominence of RhlR in QS pathways, there has been limited exploration of the chemical features of the BHL scaffold that are critical to its function. In the current study, we sought to systematically delineate the structure-activity relationships (SARs) driving BHL activity for the first time. A focused library of BHL analogues was designed, synthesized, and evaluated in cell-based reporter gene assays for RhlR agonism and antagonism. These investigations allowed us to define a series of SARs for BHL-type ligands and identify structural motifs critical for both activation and inhibition of the RhlR receptor. Notably, we identified agonists that have ∼10-fold higher potencies in RhlR relative to BHL, are highly selective for RhlR agonism over LasR, and are active in the P. aeruginosa background. These compounds and the SARs reported herein should pave a route toward new chemical strategies to study RhlR in P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , 4-Butirolactona/química , 4-Butirolactona/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/agonistas , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia
19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(64): 8838-8841, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027952

RESUMO

Beta-ketoacyl-ACP utilizing enzymes in fatty acid, polyketide and acyl-homoserine lactone biosynthetic pathways are important targets for developing antimicrobial, anticancer and antiparasitic compounds. Published reports on successful isolation of beta-ketoacyl-ACPs in a laboratory remain scarce to date and thus most beta-ketoacyl-ACP utilizing enzymes are routinely characterized using small molecule substrates in lieu of the bonafide 3-oxoacyl-ACPs. We report the systematic investigation into the electronic, geometric and spatial aspects of beta-ketoacyl-chain recognition to develop 3-oxoacyl-ACP substrate mimics for two beta-ketoacyl-ACP utilizing quorum signal synthases.


Assuntos
Proteína de Transporte de Acila/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Ligases/química , Sondas Moleculares/química , Proteína de Transporte de Acila/síntese química , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Cinética , Ligases/antagonistas & inibidores , Sondas Moleculares/síntese química , Estrutura Molecular , Pantoea/enzimologia , Especificidade por Substrato , Yersinia pestis/enzimologia
20.
Child Youth Serv Rev ; 87: 9-16, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875523

RESUMO

Permanency is a key child welfare system goal for the children they serve. This study addresses three key research questions: (1) How do older youth in foster care define their personal permanency goals? (2) How much progress have these youth made in achieving their personal permanency goals and other aspects of relational permanency, and how does this vary by gender, race, and age? and (3) What transition-related outcomes are associated with relational permanency achievement? Surveys were conducted with 97 youth between the ages of 14 and 20 currently in care. Over three-fourths of participants had an informal/relational permanency goal; however, only 6.7% had achieved their goal. Of eight additional conceptualizations of relational permanency assessed, the one associated with achievement of the highest number of key transition outcomes was Sense of Family Belonging. The transition outcomes with the most associations with permanency achievement were physical health and mental health. Relational permanency is a highly personal part of the transition process for youth in care, warranting personalized supports to ensure individual youths' goals are being addressed in transition planning. Permanency achievement may also provide a foundation for supporting youth in achieving other key transition outcomes.

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