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1.
Vet Pathol ; 56(6): 921-931, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526112

RESUMO

Infection due to Entamoeba spp. is known to cause serious disease in primates (Entamoeba histolytica) and snakes (Entamoeba invadens), but there are no detailed descriptions of the pathology associated with Entamoeba spp. infection in amphibians. In 2014, an outbreak of entamoebiasis associated with a novel species of Entamoeba induced clinical illness and poor body condition in free-ranging cane toads in Australia's Northern Territory. Here, we describe the gross pathology, histology, and clinical pathology linked to the outbreak. The study compared 25 toads with invasive entamoebiasis, defined as histologically visible amoebas within tissue, and 12 toads without invasive entamoebiasis. Grossly, affected toads had mild to marked congestion of colonic serosal vasculature, with variable thickening of the intestinal wall and serosanguineous to hemorrhagic colonic content. Histologically, invasive entamoebiasis manifested primarily as moderate to severe, variably hyperplastic to ulcerative colitis. The small intestine was affected in 10 of 25 toads, and 5 of 25 toads also had gastric lesions. Amoebas consistent in morphology with Entamoeba sp. were commonly intermingled with mucosal epithelium, frequently along the basement membrane, with deeper invasion into the superficial lamina propria in only 5 toads. Toads with invasive entamoebiasis had neutrophilia, monocytosis, and lymphopenia, and thus elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios, suggestive of an inflammatory and/or stress leukogram.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13965, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562362

RESUMO

Initial research on the spread of cane toads (Rhinella marina) through tropical Australia reported a high incidence of spinal arthritis (spondylosis) in toads at the invasion front (where toads disperse rapidly), but not in areas colonized earlier (where toads are more sedentary). The idea that spondylosis was a cost of rapid dispersal was challenged by wider spatial sampling which linked rates of spondylosis to hot (tropical) climates rather than to dispersal rates. Here, the authors of these competing interpretations collaborate to reinterpret the data. Our reanalysis supports both previous hypotheses; rates of spondylosis are higher in populations established by fast-dispersing toads, and are higher in tropical than in temperate environments; they are also higher in larger toads. The functional reason for climatic effects is unclear, but might involve effects on the soil-living bacteria involved in the induction of spondylosis; and/or may reflect higher movement (as opposed to dispersal) or more pronounced dry-season aggregation rates of toads in tropical conditions.

3.
J Behav Med ; 42(4): 691-701, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367934

RESUMO

The primary objective of the current study was to examine the perspective of firearm stakeholders, including firearm safety course instructors, members of law enforcement, and firearm retailers, with regard to the implementation of an evidence-based approach to firearm safety promotion, the Firearm Safety Check, as a universal suicide prevention strategy in pediatric primary care. Twelve firearm stakeholders participated in semi-structured interviews. Using an integrated analytic approach, several themes emerged from the interviews. With regard to acceptability of the intervention, participants generally found counseling caregivers to store firearms safely and the provision of firearm locking mechanisms to be acceptable, but expressed concern about screening for firearm ownership in health systems. Participants identified distinct roles of responsibility for firearm advocacy groups, firearm owners, healthcare clinicians, and caregivers with regard to the promotion and execution of safe firearm storage. Participants called for partnerships between healthcare systems and firearm stakeholders, and also identified potential threats to these partnerships, including lack of trust firearm owners may have in health systems and the government. Finally, participants suggested strategies for preventing firearm-related suicides. Findings support a growing body of literature suggesting the value in researchers, health systems, and firearm stakeholders partnering around a shared agenda of firearm safety promotion as a strategy to prevent suicide.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(9): 1770-1771, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441753

RESUMO

Cane toads, an invasive species in Australia, are resistant to fungal pathogens affecting frogs worldwide (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). From toad skin swabs, we detected higher proportions of bacteria with antifungal properties in Queensland, where toad and pathogen distributions overlap, than in other sites. This finding suggests that site-specific pathogen pressures help shape skin microbial communities.

5.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-18, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237808

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify barriers to treatment seeking and service utilization among previously deployed Army soldiers who recently experienced a suicidal crisis. Confidential interviews were conducted on a psychiatric inpatient unit with 12 Army soldiers with a deployment history following a suicidal crisis. Qualitative analysis focused on statements coded as "barriers to seeking help" and "explicit recommendations." Suicidal Army soldiers with a deployment history experienced different barriers to seeking help, including stigma and logistical challenges (e.g., long wait times for appointments). Negative and positive perceptions of support were reported for various resources - for example, family, crisis hotlines, chaplains, and command. Suicidal Army soldiers, interviewed in this study, experienced a number of challenges and frustrations associated with various helping resources. This study highlights the need for greater attention toward understanding these challenges and subsequently addressing them through appropriate resource allocation and additional training for those working directly with Army soldiers at risk for suicide.

6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1902): 20190867, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088275

RESUMO

Many animals capable of deploying chemical defences are reluctant to use them, suggesting that synthesis of toxins imposes a substantial cost. Typically, such costs have been quantified by measuring the elevation in metabolic rate induced by toxin depletion (i.e. during replenishment of toxin stores). More generally, we might expect that toxin depletion will induce shifts in a broad suite of fitness-relevant traits. In cane toads ( Rhinella marina), toxic compounds that protect against predators and pathogens are stored in large parotoid (shoulder) glands. We used correlational and experimental approaches in field and laboratory settings to investigate impacts of toxin depletion on growth rate and behaviour in cane toads. In free-ranging toads, larger toxin stores were associated with smaller gonads and livers, suggesting energetic trade-offs between toxin production and both reproduction and energy metabolism. Experimental removal of toxin (by manually squeezing parotoid glands) reduced rates of growth in body mass in both captive and free-ranging toads. Radio tracking demonstrated that de-toxined toads dispersed more slowly than did control toads. Given that toxin stores in cane toads take several months to fully replenish, deploying toxin to repel a predator may impose a substantial cost, explaining why toads use toxin only as a final line of defence.

7.
Behav Ther ; 50(2): 446-458, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824258

RESUMO

Notwithstanding its empirical status and strong recommendation in clinical practice guidelines, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) continues to be delivered infrequently and with low fidelity on the clinical front lines. Recently, organized efforts and policies within the public sector to disseminate and implement CBT and other evidence-based psychotherapies have yielded encouraging results and provided optimism for bridging the research-to-practice-gap. Following from these efforts, the current article examines the initial impact and experience of the implementation of an individualized approach to CBT training and treatment within the Kaiser Permanente health care system. Initial training outcomes, including changes in general and specific competencies, were assessed using divergent assessment methods within the initial cohort of therapists undergoing training. Initial patient outcomes, including changes in depression and anxiety, were assessed among patients receiving treatment from therapists in training. Results revealed training in and implementation of CBT-D was associated with overall large improvements in therapist competencies and in clinically significant improvements in both depression and anxiety among patients. Findings from the initial phase of dissemination and implementation within a large private system provide support for, and extend recent findings related to, the feasibility and effectiveness of training in and implementation of CBT-D in a real-world context.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/normas , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Depressão/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol ; 331(4): 245-252, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873745

RESUMO

Dehydration is considered a physiological challenge, and many organisms live in environments that undergo periods of reduced water availability that can lead to dehydration. Recent studies have found a positive relationship between dehydration and innate immune function in animals adapted to xeric or semixeric environments. To explore the generality of this relationship, we examined the impact of dehydration on innate immune performance in water pythons (Liasis fuscus), a semiaquatic snake from the wet-dry tropics of Australia. We collected blood samples from male and female water pythons held in the laboratory without food and water for 4 weeks. We also collected blood from free-ranging snakes throughout the Austral dry-season. We evaluated plasma osmolality and innate immune function (agglutination, lysis, and bacterial-killing ability) and found that increased osmolality, whether manipulated in the laboratory or as a result of natural water limitation, resulted in enhanced aspects of innate immune performance. Counter-intuitively, snakes in the wild became more hydrated as the dry season progressed, suggesting the dehydrated snakes move to water sources periodically to rehydrate. Comparing our data with those from previous studies, we suspect species divergence in the level of dehydration (i.e., hyperosmolality) that triggers enhanced immune capabilities.

9.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(5): 812-821, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute alcohol consumption is associated with temporarily increased regional cerebral blood flow (CBF). The extent of this increase appears to be moderated by individual differences in the level of response (LR) to alcohol's subjective effects. The low LR phenotype is a known risk factor for the development of alcohol problems. This study investigates how the low LR phenotype relates to the relationship between alcohol-related changes in CBF and alcohol problems 5 years later. METHODS: Young adults (ages 18 to 25) were selected based on their LR to alcohol and underwent a neuroimaging protocol including arterial spin labeling and functional scans. These participants were recontacted ~5 years later and assessed on alcohol outcomes. A final sample of 107 subjects (54 low and 53 high LR subjects) was included in the analyses. Whole-brain analysis revealed 5 clusters of significant alcohol-induced, versus placebo-induced, CBF changes that were consistent with a previous report. Peak alcohol-placebo CBF response was extracted from these regions and, along with the LR group, submitted to a hierarchical linear regression predicting alcohol problems. Analyses controlled for age, sex, and baseline alcohol problems. RESULTS: In the regression analysis, greater alcohol-placebo CBF difference in the right middle/superior/inferior frontal gyri and bilateral anterior cingulate gyri clusters predicted greater future alcohol problems for the low LR group, whereas this relationship was not found to be significant in the high LR group. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a clinically important relationship between CBF and future alcohol problems, particularly in individuals with a low LR phenotype. These initial results help to elucidate the neurobiological pathways involved in the development of alcohol use disorders for individuals with low LR.

10.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(2)2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of computer-assisted forms of cognitive-behavior therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) and examine the role of clinician support and other factors that might affect outcomes. DATA SOURCES: Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus from their beginnings to July 18, 2016. Keywords were "randomized, controlled trials of computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy for depression" and "randomized, controlled trials of mobile apps for cognitive-behavior therapy of depression." STUDY SELECTION: Of 223 studies identified in the search, 183 were excluded yielding a sample of 40 randomized, controlled investigations of computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy (CCBT) for depression. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were abstracted independently by two authors, and consensus was reached by discussion with a third author. RESULTS: The overall mean effect size for CCBT compared to control conditions was g = 0.502, a moderately large effect. Studies that provided support from a clinician or other person yielded significantly larger effects (g = 0.673) than studies in which no support was provided (g = 0.239). Completion rate and study setting also influenced outcomes. Lower mean effect sizes were observed in studies with lower completion rates and in studies conducted in primary care practices. CONCLUSIONS: CCBT with a modest amount of support from a clinician or other helping person was found to be efficacious with relatively large mean effect sizes on measures of depressive symptoms. Self-guided CCBT for depression was considerably less effective. Future research should focus on enhancing the implementation of CCBT, including evaluating the amount and type of support needed for effective delivery, methods to improve engagement with computer-assisted therapies, and ways to improve treatment outcome in primary care settings.

11.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e025591, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782938

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are no evidence-based interventions that can be administered in hospital settings following a general hospital admission after a suicide attempt. AIM: To determine whether a safety planning intervention (SPI) with follow-up telephone support (SAFETEL) is feasible and acceptable to patients admitted to UK hospitals following a suicide attempt. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Three-phase development and feasibility study with embedded process evaluation. Phase I comprises tailoring an SPI with telephone follow-up originally designed for veterans in the USA, for use in the UK. Phase II involves piloting the intervention with patients (n=30) who have been hospitalised following a suicide attempt. Phase III is a feasibility randomised controlled trial of 120 patients who have been hospitalised following a suicide attempt with a 6-month follow-up. Phase III participants will be recruited from across four National Health Service hospitals in Scotland and randomised to receive either the SPI with telephone follow-up and treatment as usual (n=80) or treatment as usual only (n=40). The primary outcomes are feasibility outcomes and include the acceptability of the intervention to participants and intervention staff, the feasibility of delivery in this setting, recruitment, retention and intervention adherence as well as the feasibility of collecting the self-harm re-admission to hospital outcome data. Statistical analyses will include description of recruitment rates, intervention adherence/use, response rates and estimates of the primary outcome event rates, and intervention effect size (Phase III). Thematic analyses will be conducted on interview and focus group data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The East of Scotland Research Ethics Service (EoSRES) approved this study in March 2017 (GN17MH101 Ref: 17/ES/0036). The study results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. A participant summary paper will also be disseminated to patients, service providers and policy makers alongside the main publication. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN62181241.

12.
Acad Pediatr ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Promoting safe firearm storage in pediatric primary care is one way to address youth suicide by firearm. The study objective is to determine perspectives of primary care physicians (PCPs) and leaders of primary care practices regarding acceptability and use of screening, counseling, and firearm locks, three components of an adapted evidence-based intervention, the Firearm Safety Check. METHODS: In 2016, an online survey was conducted in two large United States health systems. PCPs (n = 204) and leaders (n = 57) from 83 clinics were invited to participate. Respondents included 71 clinics (86%), 103 PCPs (50%), and 40 leaders (70%). Main outcomes included acceptability (1-6 Likert with higher scores indicating better acceptability) and use of the three intervention components (1-4 Likert with higher scores indicating more use) measured by an adapted validated instrument. RESULTS: Analyses were conducted in 2017. PCP acceptability of screening (M = 4.28, SD = 1.12) and counseling (M = 4.56, SD = .89) were high while acceptability for firearm lock provision was more neutral (M = 3.78, SD = 1.16). Most PCPs endorsed sometimes screening (85%) and counseling (80%). Few PCPs offered firearm locks to caregivers (15%). Leaders reported consistent information. CONCLUSION: Acceptability of screening for firearms and safe storage counseling was high; both components were used commonly but not routinely. The acceptability of providing firearm locks was neutral and use was rarely endorsed. This study provides important insights about areas of focus for future implementation efforts from policy and research perspectives.

13.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 154(5): 733-739, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384944

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A rapidly advancing digital technology in orthodontics is 3-dimensional (3D) modeling and printing, prompting a transition from a more traditional clinical workflow toward an almost exclusively digital format. There is limited literature on the accuracy of the 3D printed dental models. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of 2 types of 3D printing techniques. METHODS: Digital and alginate impressions of the oral environment were collected from 30 patients. Subsequently, digital impressions were used to print 3D models using digital light processing (DLP) and polyjet printing techniques, and alginate impressions were poured up in stone. Measurements for the 3 model types (digital, DLP, and polyjet) were compared with the stone models. Tooth measurements (first molar to first molar) included mesiodistal (crown width) and incisal/occlusal-gingival (crown height). Arch measurements included arch depth and intercanine and intermolar widths. Intraobserver reliability of the repeated measurement error was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficients were high for all recorded measurements, indicating that all measurements on all model types were highly reproducible. There were high degrees of agreement between all sets of models and all measurements, with the exception of the crown height measurements between the stone and DLP models, where the mean difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Both the DLP and polyjet printers produced clinically acceptable models and should be considered viable options for clinical application.


Assuntos
Técnica de Moldagem Odontológica , Modelos Dentários , Impressão Tridimensional , Alginatos , Materiais para Moldagem Odontológica , Ácido Glucurônico , Ácidos Hexurônicos , Humanos , Ortodontia/organização & administração , Fluxo de Trabalho
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the psychometric properties of the Columbia- Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) among a cohort of veterans identified to be at risk for suicide. METHOD: Convergent, divergent, and predictive validity of the C-SSRS were examined using secondary data from a study of veterans who presented to the psychiatric emergency room (n = 237). Data were collected 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months following emergency room discharge. RESULTS: Results demonstrated good evidence for convergent and divergent validity. Baseline intensity subscale scores predicted actual and interrupted attempts, and any behavior for all available data and for the subsample who had 6-month follow-up data, and also predicted preparatory behavior in the full sample. Baseline severity subscale scores predicted preparatory behavior and any behavior for the full sample and for those with 6 months of follow-up, and actual attempts for the full sample. Severity of ideation cutoff scores was significantly associated with actual attempts and any behavior in both samples. Adding a prior behavior criterion demonstrated similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that the C-SSRS is a psychometrically sound measure that can be used to augment suicide risk assessment with veterans who are already identified to be at risk for suicide.

15.
Neuroimage Clin ; 20: 1044-1052, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence and their interaction on cortical thickness, area and volume, as well as the potential interactive effects on cortical morphometry of HIV and methamphetamine with age. METHOD: T1-weighted structural images were obtained on a 3.0T General Electric MR750 scanner. Freesurfer v5.3.0 was used to derive cortical thickness, area and volume measures in thirty-four regions based on Desikan-Killiany atlas labels. RESULTS: Following correction for multiple statistical tests, HIV diagnosis was not significantly related to cortical thickness or area in any ROI, although smaller global cortical area and volume were seen in those with lower nadir CD4 count. HIV diagnosis, nevertheless, was associated with smaller mean cortical volumes in rostral middle frontal gyrus and in the inferior and superior parietal lobes. Methamphetamine dependence was significantly associated with thinner cortex especially in posterior cingulate gyrus, but was not associated with cortical area or volume following correction for multiple statistical tests. We found little evidence that methamphetamine dependence moderated differences in cortical area, volume or thickness for any ROI in the HIV seropositive group. Interactions with age revealed that HIV diagnosis attenuated the degree of age-related cortical thinning seen in non-infected individuals; intercepts indicated that young HIV seropositive individuals had thinner cortex than non-infected peers. CONCLUSIONS: Methamphetamine dependence does not appear to potentiate a reduction of cortical area, volume or thickness in HIV seropositive individuals. The finding of thinner cortex in young HIV seropositive individuals and the association between CD4 nadir and global cortical area and volume argue for prioritizing early antiretroviral treatment.

16.
Arch Suicide Res ; : 1-21, 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suicide risk on college campuses remains a pervasive problem. Structural deficits in current clinical care models often result in sub-optimal treatment for suicidal students. This study reports on the feasibility, acceptability and utility of the Safety Planning Intervention (SPI), a brief, empirically-validated, clinician-administered suicide prevention intervention, in a university counseling center (UCC) setting. METHODS: Twelve university counseling center direct service staff completed a 2-hour training in SPI. Participants reported on suicide intervention practices, training needs, and confidence at baseline and 10 weeks post-training. Acceptability, utility, and frequency of SPI use were assessed at follow-up. RESULTS: All clinical staff attended the training and found it useful, reporting that confidence in managing suicide risk increased as a result. Two-thirds of staff implemented SPI least once. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that SPI is a feasible, acceptable, and useful suicide intervention tool for UCCs.

17.
J Circadian Rhythms ; 16: 4, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210564

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and depression across the world. This growing public health problem has produced an increasing socioeconomic burden to the populations of all affected countries. Despite an awareness by public health officials and medical researchers of the costs associated with these diseases, there still remain many aspects of how they develop that are not understood. In this article, we propose that the circadian clock could be a factor that coordinates both the neurobehavioral and metabolic processes that underlie depression and T2DM. We propose further that this perspective, one which emphasizes the regulatory effects of clock gene activity, may provide insights into how T2DM and depression interact with one another, and may thus open a new pathway for managing and treating these disorders.

18.
Schizophr Bull ; 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169884

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a complex, debilitating mental disorder characterized by wide-ranging symptoms including delusions, hallucinations (so-called positive symptoms), and impaired motor and speech/language production (so-called negative symptoms). Salience-monitoring theorists propose that abnormal functional communication between the salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN) begets positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, yet prior studies have predominately reported links between disrupted SN/DMN functional communication and positive symptoms. It remains unclear whether disrupted SN/DMN functional communication explains (1) solely positive symptoms or (2) both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. To address this question, we incorporate time-lag-shifted functional network connectivity (FNC) analyses that explored coherence of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal of 3 networks (anterior DMN, posterior DMN, and SN) with fixed time lags introduced between network time series (1 TR = 2 s; 2 TR = 4 s). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that severity of disordered thought and attentional deficits were negatively associated with 2 TR-shifted FNC between anterior DMN and posterior DMN. Meanwhile, severity of flat affect and bizarre behavior were positively associated with 1 TR-shifted FNC between anterior DMN and SN. These results provide support favoring the hypothesis that lagged SN/DMN functional communication is associated with both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

19.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 11(4): 1019-1030, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147828

RESUMO

Using a physically active video game presents an opportunity for a person to engage in exercise in the privacy of their own home, yet still receive some feedback on the quality of their exercise performance. The purpose of this project was to compare the physical activity between participating in a Zumba exercise class led by a human and using a Zumba video game. Eight women (33.0 ± 3.0 y, 34.8 ± 8.1 % body fat) who regularly participated in a Zumba exercise class were measured for heart rate, number of steps taken, and minutes of sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity while participating in a 60-minute human led Zumba exercise class (HZ) or while playing Zumba on the Xbox Kinect video game system (VZ). There were no differences between HZ or VZ (respectively) in light intensity (11.0 ± 7.3 vs. 11.9 ± 9.6 minutes) or moderate intensity (24.7 ± 7.1 vs. 27.6 ± 8.1 minutes) physical activity, or number of steps taken (5337 ± 899 vs. 5001 ± 1141). HZ resulted in less (P<0.05) sedentary time and more (P<0.05) vigorous intensity physical activity (22.0 ± 12.0 vs. 14.2 ± 12.8 minutes) and higher (P<0.05) average heart rates (149.0 ± 14.8 vs. 125.0 ± 10.9 beats/minute) than did VZ (respectively). The present data indicate that participating in Zumba led by a human or played as a video game can contribute to health promoting moderate intensity physical activity, but human led Zumba produces more vigorous intensity physical activity.

20.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-11, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are a common symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD). Sleep is highly regulated by circadian rhythms, controlled by circadian genes, that act through a series of feedback loops to regulate the sleep-wake cycle. OBJECTIVES: To the best of our knowledge, a systematic review regarding the core circadian genes and their role in MDD has not been published recently. Also, a review of these genes and their role in sleep disturbances in depressed individuals appears to have never been done. We decided to integrate both concepts into one comprehensive review. METHOD: The review was done using the appropriate search terms in the following search engines: OVID Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Pubmed. RESULTS: Based on the data reviewed, none of the circadian genes appear to be associated with MDD, but some are more promising than others. These genes are: CRY1, CRY2, PER2 and NPAS2. When investigating the role of circadian genes in sleep disturbances among individuals with MDD, the most promising candidate gene is TIMELESS. Although the results in this area are limited. CONCLUSION: Given the promising leads from this review, future studies should investigate circadian genes in sleep disturbances among the depressed population.

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