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1.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of conventional radiography, ldCT, and MRI in the diagnosis of sacroiliitis in suspected axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). METHODS: Patients presenting with > 3 months chronic back pain were assessed by axSpA-experienced rheumatologists and diagnosed as axSpA or not; axSpA patients were then considered nr-axSpA or AS using plain radiography. Non-axSpA patients were recruited as controls, and divided into non-inflammatory and inflammatory groups on the basis of inflammatory back pain and/or CRP/ESR elevation. Clinical variables, pelvic radiography, sacroiliac joint (SIJ) ldCT, and SIJ MRI were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 121 patients were included and had SIJ radiography and ldCT, of whom 71 additionally had an SIJ MRI. These included 23 non-inflammatory controls, 21 inflammatory controls, 32 nr-axSpA cases, and 45 AS cases. Fourteen of 32 (44%) nr-axSpA patients had positive ldCT scans, 21/24 (88%) had MRI-BMO, and 11/24 (46%) had MRI-structural lesions. ldCT had high specificity with only 1/23 (4%) non-inflammatory controls being positive. MRI-BMO had the highest sensitivity for nr-axSpA, but compared with ldCT lower specificity, with 5/15 (33%) of non-inflammatory controls being positive, and similar sensitivity for AS (20/22 (91%) vs 44/44 for ldCT). CONCLUSIONS: ldCT identifies evidence of radiographic change in a significant proportion of nr-axSpA cases and is highly specific for axSpA. MRI-BMO lesions are more sensitive than either conventional radiography or MRI-structural assessment for axSpA. The relative position of these imaging modalities in screening for axSpA needs to be reconsidered, also taking into account the costs involved.Key Points• ldCT is more sensitive for erosions or sclerosis in axSpA than plain radiography, with 44% of patients with nr-axSpA having evidence of AS-related sacroiliac joint changes on ldCT.• MRI-structural lesions are no more sensitive but are less specific for AS than ldCT.• MRI-BMO is the most sensitive test for nr-axSpA of the modalities tested but is less specific for axSpA than for ldCT.

2.
J Card Surg ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) continues to be among the most common birth defects, affecting an estimated 40 000 births annually in the United States. The most common complication of CHD is heart failure. With improved medical management and surgical outcomes, survival for complex congenital heart defects has dramatically improved, but consequentially there are more adults with CHD than children with CHD. Due to longer-term sequelae of CHD, surgical and medical treatment previously thought to be curative is now realized at best to be palliative, and there is a considerable burden of CHD-related heart failure. Stem cell therapy as an adjunct to current surgical and medical strategies is being explored in an effort to ameliorate CHD-related heart failure. This review aims to explore the current literature with regard to stem cell therapy for CHD as well as ongoing trials. METHODS: A MEDLINE (Ovid), MEDLINE (Pubmed), and clinicaltrials.gov search were performed using the medical subject headings congenital heart defects combined with hematopoietic stem cells, stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), cell- or tissue-based therapy, or MSC transplantation. Articles must have been published after 2010. RESULTS: Twenty three articles and 9 ongoing trials met all inclusion criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Areas of interest include myocardiocyte regeneration, tissue graft development to minimize reoperations, and methods of stem cell delivery. While several small trials are showing promise, it is too soon to make definitive statements about the future of stem cell therapies in this field.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4955, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672989

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that shows one of the highest mortality rates among rheumatic diseases. We perform a large genome-wide association study (GWAS), and meta-analysis with previous GWASs, in 26,679 individuals and identify 27 independent genome-wide associated signals, including 13 new risk loci. The novel associations nearly double the number of genome-wide hits reported for SSc thus far. We define 95% credible sets of less than 5 likely causal variants in 12 loci. Additionally, we identify specific SSc subtype-associated signals. Functional analysis of high-priority variants shows the potential function of SSc signals, with the identification of 43 robust target genes through HiChIP. Our results point towards molecular pathways potentially involved in vasculopathy and fibrosis, two main hallmarks in SSc, and highlight the spectrum of critical cell types for the disease. This work supports a better understanding of the genetic basis of SSc and provides directions for future functional experiments.

4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diverse evidence including clinical, genetic and microbiome studies support a major role of the gut microbiome in the common immune-mediated arthropathy, ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We set out to (1) further define the key microbial characteristics driving disease, and (2) examine the effects of tumour necrosis factor-inhibitor (TNFi) therapy upon the microbiome. METHODS: The stools from a case-control cohort of 250 Han-Chinese subjects underwent shotgun metagenomic sequencing. All subjects were genotyped using the Illumina CoreExome SNP microarray. RESULTS: Previous reports of gut dysbiosis in AS were reconfirmed and several notable bacterial species and functional categories were differentially abundant. TNFi therapy was correlated with a restoration the perturbed microbiome observed in untreated AS cases to that of healthy controls, including several important bacterial species that have been previously associated with AS and other related diseases. Enrichment of bacterial peptides homologous to HLA-B27-presented epitopes was observed in the stools of patients with AS, suggesting that either HLA-B27 fails to clear these or that they are involved in driving HLA-B27-associated immune reactions. TNFi therapy largely restored the perturbed microbiome observed in untreated AS cases to that of healthy controls, including several important bacterial species that have been previously associated with AS and other related diseases. TNFi therapy of patients with AS was also associated with a reduction of potentially arthritogenic bacterial peptides, relative to untreated patients. CONCLUSION: These findings emphasise the key role that the gut microbiome plays in driving the pathogenesis of AS and highlight potential therapeutic and/or preventative targets.

5.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525280

RESUMO

Novel anabolic drug targets are needed to treat osteoporosis. Having established a large national cohort with unexplained high bone mass (HBM), we aimed to identify a novel monogenic cause of HBM and provide insight into a regulatory pathway potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention. We investigated a pedigree with unexplained HBM in whom previous sequencing had excluded known causes of monogenic HBM. Whole exome sequencing identified a rare (minor allele frequency 0.0023), highly evolutionarily conserved missense mutation in SMAD9 (c.65T>C, p.Leu22Pro) segregating with HBM in this autosomal dominant family. The same mutation was identified in another two unrelated individuals both with HBM. In silico protein modeling predicts the mutation severely disrupts the MH1 DNA-binding domain of SMAD9. Affected individuals have bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores +3 to +5, mandible enlargement, a broad frame, torus palatinus/mandibularis, pes planus, increased shoe size, and a tendency to sink when swimming. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measurement demonstrates increased trabecular volumetric BMD and increased cortical thickness conferring greater predicted bone strength; bone turnover markers are low/normal. Notably, fractures and nerve compression are not found. Both genome-wide and gene-based association testing involving estimated BMD measured at the heel in 362,924 white British subjects from the UK Biobank Study showed strong associations with SMAD9 (PGWAS = 6 × 10-16 ; PGENE = 8 × 10-17 ). Furthermore, we found Smad9 to be highly expressed in both murine cortical bone-derived osteocytes and skeletal elements of zebrafish larvae. Our findings support SMAD9 as a novel HBM gene and a potential novel osteoanabolic target for osteoporosis therapeutics. SMAD9 is thought to inhibit bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-dependent target gene transcription to reduce osteoblast activity. Thus, we hypothesize SMAD9 c.65T>C is a loss-of-function mutation reducing BMP inhibition. Lowering SMAD9 as a potential novel anabolic mechanism for osteoporosis therapeutics warrants further investigation. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increase blood pressure and potentially cardiovascular burden, which may limit their use in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Our objective was to determine the association of NSAID use with incident hypertension in a longitudinal AS cohort. METHODS: Adults with AS were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of patient outcomes and examined every 4-6 months. Hypertension was defined by patient-reported hypertension; anti-hypertensive medication use; or, on two consecutive visits, systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic ≥90 mm Hg. Continuous NSAID use was dichotomized based on the validated NSAID index. We assessed the association of NSAID use as a time-varying exposure with the incidence of hypertension using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Of the 1282 patients in the cohort, 628 patients without baseline hypertension had at least one year of follow up, and were included in the analysis. Of these, 72% were male, the mean age at baseline was 39 ± 13 years, and 200 used NSAIDs continuously. On follow-up, 129 developed incident hypertension. After controlling for other variables, continuous NSAID use was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.12 for incident hypertension (95% CI, 1.04-1.20), compared to non-continuous or no use. The association did not differ in subgroups defined by age, body mass index, biologic use, or disease activity. CONCLUSION: In our prospective, longitudinal AS cohort, continuous NSAID use was associated with a 12% increased risk for the development of incident hypertension, as compared to non-continuous or no NSAID use.

7.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541656

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate inpatient mortality after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation compared with medical management (MM) in patients with hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). METHODS: Patients with cirrhosis admitted with HRS between 2005 and 2014 were identified using associated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes in the National Inpatient Sample (n = 153,112). Non-TIPS candidates and patients with parenchymal renal disease were excluded (n = 73,454). The remaining admissions were assigned to groups of TIPS (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code 39.1; n = 971) or MM (n = 78,687). Inpatient mortality was analyzed by treatment type and patient gender using χ2 tests. Logistic regression was performed to control for baseline differences in patient demographics, comorbid disease, and pretreatment mortality risk. RESULTS: Baseline patient demographics were similar. Patients treated medically had higher baseline disease severity (median mortality risk score, 8.3 with MM versus 6.1 with TIPS; P < .01). Inpatient mortality was strongly modified by patient gender. TIPS creation conferred inpatient mortality benefit in men (28% of the MM group versus 10% of the TIPS group, P < .01) independent of all covariates (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.78; P < .01). Women treated with TIPS creation experienced no mortality benefit (29% MM versus 32% TIPS; odds ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-3.23; P = .23). CONCLUSIONS: TIPS creation is associated with reduced inpatient mortality in men, but not women, admitted with HRS. Drivers of this gender-based disparity are currently unclear and warrant focused investigation.

9.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268507

RESUMO

Importance: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European populations have identified more than 100 schizophrenia-associated loci. A schizophrenia GWAS in a unique Indian population offers novel findings. Objective: To discover and functionally evaluate genetic loci for schizophrenia in a GWAS of a unique Indian population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This GWAS included a sample of affected individuals, family members, and unrelated cases and controls. Three thousand ninety-two individuals were recruited and diagnostically ascertained via medical records, hospitals, clinics, and clinical networks in Chennai and surrounding regions. Affected participants fulfilled DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. Unrelated control participants had no personal or family history of psychotic disorder. Recruitment, genotyping, and analysis occurred in consecutive phases beginning January 1, 2001. Recruitment was completed on February 28, 2018, and genotyping and analysis are ongoing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression with schizophrenia. Results: The study population included 1321 participants with schizophrenia, 885 family controls, and 886 unrelated controls. Among participants with schizophrenia, mean (SD) age was 39.1 (11.4) years, and 52.7% were male. This sample demonstrated uniform ethnicity, a degree of inbreeding, and negligible rates of substance abuse. A novel genome-wide significant association was observed between schizophrenia and a chromosome 8q24.3 locus (rs10866912, allele A; odds ratio [OR], 1.27 [95% CI, 1.17-1.38]; P = 4.35 × 10-8) that attracted support in the schizophrenia Psychiatric Genomics Consortium 2 data (rs10866912, allele A; OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.02-1.06]; P = 7.56 × 10-4). This locus has undergone natural selection, with the risk allele A declining in frequency from India (approximately 72%) to Europe (approximately 43%). rs10866912 directly modifies the abundance of the nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase gene (NAPRT1) transcript in brain cortex (normalized effect size, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0; P = 5.8 × 10-13). NAPRT1 encodes a key enzyme for niacin metabolism. In Indian lymphoblastoid cell lines, (risk) allele A of rs10866912 was associated with NAPRT1 downregulation (AA: 0.74, n = 21; CC: 1.56, n = 17; P = .004). Preliminary zebrafish data further suggest that partial loss of function of NAPRT1 leads to abnormal brain development. Conclusions and Relevance: Bioinformatic analyses and cellular and zebrafish gene expression studies implicate NAPRT1 as a novel susceptibility gene. Given this gene's role in niacin metabolism and the evidence for niacin deficiency provoking schizophrenialike symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases such as pellagra and Hartnup disease, these results suggest that the rs10866912 genotype and niacin status may have implications for schizophrenia susceptibility and treatment.

11.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 133, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159831

RESUMO

Advances in genomic technology have enabled a greater understanding of the genetics of common immune-mediated diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and psoriasis. The substantial overlap in genetically identified pathogenic pathways has been demonstrated between these diseases. However, to date, gene discovery approaches have only mapped a minority of the heritability of these common diseases, and most disease-associated variants have been found to be non-coding, suggesting mechanisms of disease-association through transcriptional regulatory effects.Epigenetics is a major interface between genetic and environmental modifiers of disease and strongly influence transcription. DNA methylation is a well-characterised epigenetic mechanism, and a highly stable epigenetic marker, that is implicated in disease pathogenesis. DNA methylation is an under-investigated area in immune-mediated diseases, and many studies in the field are affected by experimental design limitations, related to study design, technical limitations of the methylation typing methods employed, and statistical issues. This has resulted in both sparsity of investigations into disease-related changes in DNA methylation, a paucity of robust findings, and difficulties comparing studies in the same disease.In this review, we cover the basics of DNA methylation establishment and control, and the methods used to examine it. We examine the current state of DNA methylation studies in AS, IBD and psoriasis; the limitations of previous studies; and the best practices for DNA methylation studies. The purpose of this review is to assist with proper experimental design and consistency of approach in future studies to enable a better understanding of the functional role of DNA methylation in immune-mediated disease.

12.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 113, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122250

RESUMO

The original version of this article [1] unfortunately included an error to an author's name. Author Maja Di Rocco was erroneously presented as Maja DiRocco.The correct author name has been included in the author list of this Correction article and is already updated in the original article.

13.
Semin Intervent Radiol ; 36(2): 126-132, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123385

RESUMO

Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a ubiquitous procedure, and a broadly recognized alternative to surgical interventions for symptomatic leiomyomata when uterine preservation is desired. Aside from postembolization syndrome (typically considered an expected feature of recovery), the most frequently described complications are temporary or permanent amenorrhea and lingering vaginal discharge. Less frequently described complications include fibroid expulsion (FE), protracted or refractory pain, infection, urinary retention, and access-related injuries. Reported rates of transcervical FE vary in the literature from 3 to 50% but are most often quoted to be around 5 to 15%. Certain features predispose a patient to FE, including size and location of the tumor, with pedunculated submucosal, submucosal, and transmural lesions considered to be "high risk." While the optimal management of FE has not been definitively determined, high rates of nonoperative management of FE are noted in the literature. This article describes a case in which a fibroid was expulsed following UAE, as well as the management of the complication. A literature review and recommendations for the management of FE is also given.

14.
Front Immunol ; 10: 795, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068931

RESUMO

Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a common chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a high prevalence of autoantibodies and lymphocyte-mediated exocrine gland damage. To enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the progression of the disease and to discover potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of pSS, we applied RNA sequencing to compare the gene expression patterns in minor salivary glands between pSS patients and non-pSS. A total of 293 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in pSS vs. non-pSS (FDR < 0.05, fold changes > 2). Of these DEGs, 285 (97.26%) were up-regulated, with most being involved in immune system activation, especially in the formation of the immunological synapse. Significantly elevated CCL19/CCR7 expression in the salivary gland was found to be related to anti-Sjögren's syndrome-related antigen A (SSA) antibody and IgG levels in pSS patients, which was further confirmed in a larger cohort. Up-regulated gene expression showed strong discriminatory accuracy in identifying pSS with area under the curve of 0.98 using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. In conclusion, gene expression changes in pSS include strong markers of immunological activation and have good discriminatory power in identifying patients with pSS.

15.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(10): 1642-1650, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HLA alleles affect susceptibility to more than 100 diseases, but the mechanisms that account for these genotype-disease associations are largely unknown. HLA alleles strongly influence predisposition to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both AS and RA patients have discrete intestinal and fecal microbiome signatures. Whether these changes are the cause or consequence of the diseases themselves is unclear. To distinguish these possibilities, we examined the effect of HLA-B27 and HLA-DRB1 RA risk alleles on the composition of the intestinal microbiome in healthy individuals. METHODS: Five hundred sixty-eight stool and biopsy samples from 6 intestinal sites were collected from 107 healthy unrelated subjects, and stool samples were collected from 696 twin pairs from the TwinsUK cohort. Microbiome profiling was performed using sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial marker gene. All subjects were genotyped using the Illumina CoreExome SNP microarray, and HLA genotypes were imputed from these data. RESULTS: Associations were observed between the overall microbial composition and both the HLA-B27 genotype and the HLA-DRB1 RA risk allele (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.00001, respectively). These associations were replicated using the stool samples from the TwinsUK cohort (P = 0.023 and P = 0.033, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study shows that the changes in intestinal microbiome composition seen in AS and RA are at least partially due to effects of HLA-B27 and HLA-DRB1 on the gut microbiome. These findings support the hypothesis that HLA alleles operate to cause or increase the risk of these diseases through interaction with the intestinal microbiome and suggest that therapies targeting the microbiome may be effective in preventing or treating these diseases.

16.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 98, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP; OMIM#135100) is an ultra-rare, severely disabling genetic disease characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification (HO) in muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and aponeuroses often preceded by painful, recurrent soft tissue swelling (flare-ups). The formation of HO leads to progressive disability, severe functional limitations in joint mobility, and to a shortened life-span. In this prospective natural history study, we describe the baseline, cross-sectional disease phenotype of 114 individuals with FOP. METHODS: All subjects underwent protocol-specified baseline assessments to determine their disease status. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using linear regression in which functional evaluations (Cumulative Analogue Joint Involvement Scale [CAJIS] and the FOP-Physical Function Questionnaire [FOP-PFQ]) and the burden of HO as measured by low-dose whole body CT (volume of HO and number of body regions with HO) were assessed. RESULTS: Findings from 114 subjects (age range 4 to 56 years) were evaluated. While subject age was significantly (p < 0.0001) correlated with increased CAJIS (r = 0.66) and FOP-PFQ scores (r = 0.41), the estimated mean increases per year (based on cross-sectional average changes over time) were small (0.47 units and 1.2%, respectively). There was also a significant (p < 0.0001) correlation between baseline age and HO volume (r = 0.56), with an estimated mean increase of 25,574 mm3/year. There were significant (p < 0.0001) correlations between the objective assessment of HO volume and clinical assessments of CAJIS (r = 0.57) and FOP-PFQ (r = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data, functional and physical disability as assessed by CAJIS and the FOP-PFQ increased over time. Although longitudinal data are not yet available, the cross-sectional analyses suggest that CAJIS and FOP-PFQ are not sensitive to detect substantial progression over a 1- to 2-year period. Future evaluation of longitudinal data will test this hypothesis. The statistically significant correlations between HO volume and the functional endpoints, and the estimated average annual increase in total HO volume, suggest that the formation of new HO will be measurable over the relative short-term course of a clinical trial, and represents an endpoint that is clinically meaningful to patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study ( NCT02322255 ) was first posted on 23 December, 2014.


Assuntos
Miosite Ossificante/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ossificação Heterotópica/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The genetic component of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) development is ~90%. Of the known heritability, ~20% is explained by HLA-B27, and 113 identified AS-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) account for ~7.4%. The objectives were to construct a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using currently known genome-wide susceptibility SNP, and to evaluate its predictive ability for AS in the Norwegian population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). METHODS: AS cases (n = 164) and controls (n = 49,032) were from the second (1995-1997) and third (2006-2008) waves of the HUNT study, to which the entire adult population of the northern region of Trøndelag was invited. A wGRS based on 110 SNP weighted by published OR for AS was constructed, representing each person's carriage of all risk variants. Logistic regression models including the wGRS alone or in combination with HLA-B27 carrier state and other adjustment variables (sex, age, smoking, body mass index, and hypertension) were developed. Discrimination among models was compared using area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The wGRS was associated with AS (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1), but showed low discrimination (AUC 0.62, 95% CI 0.58-0.67). HLA-B27 was significantly associated with AS (OR 50, 95% CI 32-81), showing high discrimination (AUC 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.90). Combining the wGRS and HLA-B27 improved prediction (AUC 0.90, 95% CI 0.87-0.92; p < 0.001 vs wGRS alone, p < 0.01 vs HLA-B27 alone). Further inclusion of adjustment variables gave a small improvement (AUC 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Prediction in a population-based setting based on all currently known AS susceptibility SNP was better than HLA-B27 carrier state alone, although the improvement was small and of uncertain clinical value.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(16): 8418-8427, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945704

RESUMO

The efficient oxidation of iodide and bromide at the aqueous solution-air interface of the ocean or of sea spray aerosol particles had been suggested to be related to their surface propensity. The ubiquitous presence of organic material at the ocean surface calls for an assessment of the impact of often surface-active organic compounds on the interfacial density of halide ions. We used in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a liquid micro-jet to obtain chemical composition information at aqueous solution-vapor interfaces from mixed aqueous solutions containing bromide or iodide and 1-butanol or butyric acid as organic surfactants. Core level spectra of Br 3d, Na 2s, C 1s and O 1s at ca. 160 eV kinetic energy and core level spectra of I 4d and O 1s at ca. 400 eV kinetic energy are compared for solutions with 1-butanol and butyric acid as a function of organic concentration. A simple model was developed to account for the attenuation of photoelectrons by the aliphatic carbon layer of the surfactants and for changing local density of bromide and iodide in response to the presence of the surfactants. We observed that 1-butanol increases the interfacial density of bromide by 25%, while butyric acid reduces it by 40%, both in comparison to the pure aqueous halide solution. Qualitatively similar behavior was observed for the case of iodide. Classical molecular dynamics simulations failed to reproduce the details of the response of the halide ions to the presence of the two organics. This is attributed to the lack of correct monovalent ion parameters at low concentration possibly leading to an overestimation of the halide ion concentration at the interface in absence of organics. The results clearly demonstrate that organic surfactants change the electrostatic interactions near the interface with headgroup specific effects. This has implications for halogen activation processes specifically when oxidants interact with halide ions at the aqueous solution-air interfaces of the ocean surface or sea spray aerosol particles.

19.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1008038, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946743

RESUMO

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a highly heritable immune-mediated arthritis common in Turkish and Iranian populations. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disease most common in people of Mediterranean origin. MEFV, an FMF-associated gene, is also a candidate gene for AS. We aimed to identify AS susceptibility loci and also examine the association between MEFV and AS in Turkish and Iranian cohorts. We performed genome-wide association studies in 1001 Turkish AS patients and 1011 Turkish controls, and 479 Iranian AS patients and 830 Iranian controls. Serum IL-1ß, IL-17 and IL-23 cytokine levels were quantified in Turkish samples. An association of major effect was observed with a novel rare coding variant in MEFV in the Turkish cohort (rs61752717, M694V, OR = 5.3, P = 7.63×10(-12)), Iranian cohort (OR = 2.9, P = 0.042), and combined dataset (OR = 5.1, P = 1.65×10(-13)). 99.6% of Turkish AS cases, and 96% of those carrying MEFV rs61752717 variants, did not have FMF. In Turkish subjects, the association of rs61752717 was particularly strong in HLA-B27-negative cases (OR = 7.8, P = 8.93×10(-15)), but also positive in HLA-B27-positive cases (OR = 4.3, P = 7.69×10(-8)). Serum IL-1ß, IL-17 and IL-23 levels were higher in AS cases than controls. Among AS cases, serum IL-1ß and IL-23 levels were increased in MEFV 694V carriers compared with non-carriers. Our data suggest that FMF and AS have overlapping aetiopathogenic mechanisms. Functionally important MEFV mutations, such as M694V, lead to dysregulated inflammasome function and excessive IL-1ß function. As IL-1 inhibition is effective in FMF, AS cases carrying FMF-associated MEFV variants may benefit from such therapy.


Assuntos
Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Pirina/genética , Espondilite Anquilosante/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígeno HLA-B27/genética , Antígeno HLA-B51/genética , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-23/sangue , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espondilite Anquilosante/imunologia , Turquia
20.
Papillomavirus Res ; 7: 132-134, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954690

RESUMO

Twin and family studies suggest that genetic factors play a role in cervical neoplasia susceptibility. Both rare high penetrant and common low penetrant host genetic variants have been shown to influence the risk of HPV persistence, and common variants have been shown to influence the risk of cervical neoplasia. The strongest associations with cervical neoplasia are with HLA genes, with associations having been demonstrated to both reduce and increase the risk of the disease. Fine-mapping using imputed amino-acid sequences of HLA-types has shown that the HLA associations are driven primarily by the HLA-B amino acid position 156 (B156), and HLA-DRB1 amino acid positions 13 and 71. This is informative about the types of peptides that may be useful for peptide vaccines. As cervical neoplasia is at least moderately heritable, genetics may be able to identify those at high or low disease risk. Using the findings of hundreds of disease-associated SNPs to calculate genetic risk scores, it has been shown that women with genetic risk scores in the bottom 10% of the population have very low risk of cervical neoplasia (<0.17%), whereas those in the top 5% have 22% risk of developing the disease. Further large scale genetic studies would be helpful to better define particularly the non-MHC component of genetic risk.

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