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1.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 1755-1767, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914685

RESUMO

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit reduced exercise capacity, poor physical function and symptoms of fatigue. The mechanisms that contribute to this are not clearly defined but may involve reductions in mitochondrial function, mass and biogenesis. Here we report on the effect of non-dialysis dependent CKD (NDD-CKD) on mitochondrial mass and basal expression of transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis compared to a healthy control cohort (HC). In addition, we sought to investigate the effect of a 12-week exercise-training programme on these aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in a NDD-CKD cohort.For the comparison between NDD-CKD and HC populations, skeletal muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis (VL) of n=16 non-dialysis dependent CKD patient's stage 3b-5 (NDD-CKD) and n=16 healthy controls matched for age, gender and physical activity (HC). To investigate the effect of exercise training, VL biopsies were collected from n=17 NDD-CKD patients before and after a 12-week exercise intervention that was comprised of aerobic exercise (AE) or a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training (CE). Mitochondrial mass was analysed by citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial protein content by Porin expression, whilst the expression of transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were quantified by real-time qPCR. NDD-CKD patients exhibited a significant reduction in mitochondrial mass when compared to HC, coupled to a reduction in PGC-1α, NRF-1, Nrf2, TFam, mfn2 and SOD1/2 gene expression. 12-weeks of exercise training resulted in a significant increase in PGC-1α expression in both groups, with no further changes seen across indicators of mitochondrial biogenesis. No significant changes in mitochondrial mass were observed in response to either exercise programme. NDD-CKD patients exhibit reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial mass and gene expression of transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis compared to HC. These reductions were not restored following 12-weeks of exercise training implying exercise resistance in this cohort. The reasons for this lack of improvement are currently unknown and require further investigation, as reversing the dysregulation of these processes in NDD-CKD may provide a therapeutic opportunity to improve muscle fatigue and dysfunction in this population.

2.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13242, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895492

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a disorder of immune regulation, manifested by fever, pancytopenia, hyperferritiniemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and extensive hemophagocytosis involving the bone marrow and spleen. HLH can occur in adults with an underlying hematopoietic malignancy, or with systemic infections. HLH following stem cell transplant is unusual, and the diagnosis may be challenging particularly because the diagnostic criteria in the HLH-2004 guidelines overlap with common post-transplant complications such as engraftment syndrome, graft vs host disease, and infections. HLH is commonly triggered by viral, bacterial and, less commonly, parasitic infections. Following HSCT, patients with latent Toxoplasma infection may develop systemic disease secondary to reactivation, and rarely this may lead to a HLH-physiology, with a very high mortality rate. Herein we describe the successful management of disseminated toxoplasmosis associated with life-threating HLH using tocilizumab and antimicrobial therapy.

3.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838614

RESUMO

Adolescence is a critical time of physiological, cognitive, and social development. It is also a time of increased risk-taking and vulnerability for psychopathology. White matter (WM) changes during adolescence have been better elucidated in the last decade, but how WM is impacted by psychopathology during this time remains unclear. Here, we examined the link between WM microstructure and psychopathology during adolescence. Twenty youth diagnosed with affective, attentional, and behavioral disorders (clinical sample), and 20 age-matched controls were recruited to examine group differences in WM microstructure, attentional control, and the link between them. The main results showed that clinical sample had relatively lower attentional control and fractional anisotropy (FA) in WM throughout the brain: two association tracts were identified, and many differences were found in areas rich in callosal and projection fibers. Moreover, increased FA was positively associated with attention performance in the clinical sample in structures supporting ventral WM pathways, whereas a similar link was identified in controls in dorsal WM association fibers. Overall, these results support a model of general impairment in WM microstructure combined with reliance on altered, perhaps less efficient, pathways for attentional control in youth with affective, attentional, and behavioral disorders.

4.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of conventional radiography, ldCT, and MRI in the diagnosis of sacroiliitis in suspected axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). METHODS: Patients presenting with > 3 months chronic back pain were assessed by axSpA-experienced rheumatologists and diagnosed as axSpA or not; axSpA patients were then considered nr-axSpA or AS using plain radiography. Non-axSpA patients were recruited as controls, and divided into non-inflammatory and inflammatory groups on the basis of inflammatory back pain and/or CRP/ESR elevation. Clinical variables, pelvic radiography, sacroiliac joint (SIJ) ldCT, and SIJ MRI were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 121 patients were included and had SIJ radiography and ldCT, of whom 71 additionally had an SIJ MRI. These included 23 non-inflammatory controls, 21 inflammatory controls, 32 nr-axSpA cases, and 45 AS cases. Fourteen of 32 (44%) nr-axSpA patients had positive ldCT scans, 21/24 (88%) had MRI-BMO, and 11/24 (46%) had MRI-structural lesions. ldCT had high specificity with only 1/23 (4%) non-inflammatory controls being positive. MRI-BMO had the highest sensitivity for nr-axSpA, but compared with ldCT lower specificity, with 5/15 (33%) of non-inflammatory controls being positive, and similar sensitivity for AS (20/22 (91%) vs 44/44 for ldCT). CONCLUSIONS: ldCT identifies evidence of radiographic change in a significant proportion of nr-axSpA cases and is highly specific for axSpA. MRI-BMO lesions are more sensitive than either conventional radiography or MRI-structural assessment for axSpA. The relative position of these imaging modalities in screening for axSpA needs to be reconsidered, also taking into account the costs involved.Key Points• ldCT is more sensitive for erosions or sclerosis in axSpA than plain radiography, with 44% of patients with nr-axSpA having evidence of AS-related sacroiliac joint changes on ldCT.• MRI-structural lesions are no more sensitive but are less specific for AS than ldCT.• MRI-BMO is the most sensitive test for nr-axSpA of the modalities tested but is less specific for axSpA than for ldCT.

5.
J Biol Chem ; 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852738

RESUMO

Dent disease 1 (DD1) is caused by mutations in the CLCN5 gene encoding a voltage-gated electrogenic nCl-/H+ exchanger ClC-5. Using ion-selective microelectrodes and Xenopus oocytes, here we studied Cl-/H+ coupling properties of WT ClC-5 and four DD1-associated variants (S244L, R345W, Q629*, and T657S), along with trafficking and localization of ClC-5. WT ClC-5 had a 2Cl-/H+ exchange ratio at a Vh of +40 mV with a [Cl-]out of 104 mM, but the transport direction did not reverse with a [Cl-]out of 5 mM, indicating that ClC-5-mediated exchange of two Cl- out for one H+ in is not permissible. We hypothesized that ClC-5 and H+-ATPase are functionally coupled during H+-ATPase-mediated endosomal acidification, crucial for ClC-5 activation by depolarizing endosomes. ClC-5 transport that provides three net negative charges appeared self-inhibitory because of ClC-5's voltage-gated properties, but shunt conductance facilitated further H+-ATPase-mediated endosomal acidification. Thus, an on-and-off "burst" of ClC-5 activity was crucial for preventing Cl- exit from endosomes. The subcellular distribution of the ClC-5:S244L variant was comparable to that of WT ClC-5, but the variant had a much slower Cl- and H+ transport and displayed an altered stoichiometry of 1.6:1. The ClC-5:R345W variant exhibited slightly higher Cl-/H+ transport than ClC-5:S244L, but co-localized with early endosomes, suggesting decreased ClC-5:R345W membrane trafficking is perhaps in a fully functional form. The truncated ClC-5:Q629* variant displayed the lowest Cl-/H+ exchange and was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and cis-Golgi, but not in early endosomes, suggesting the nonsense mutation affects ClC-5 maturation and trafficking.

6.
J Card Surg ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) continues to be among the most common birth defects, affecting an estimated 40 000 births annually in the United States. The most common complication of CHD is heart failure. With improved medical management and surgical outcomes, survival for complex congenital heart defects has dramatically improved, but consequentially there are more adults with CHD than children with CHD. Due to longer-term sequelae of CHD, surgical and medical treatment previously thought to be curative is now realized at best to be palliative, and there is a considerable burden of CHD-related heart failure. Stem cell therapy as an adjunct to current surgical and medical strategies is being explored in an effort to ameliorate CHD-related heart failure. This review aims to explore the current literature with regard to stem cell therapy for CHD as well as ongoing trials. METHODS: A MEDLINE (Ovid), MEDLINE (Pubmed), and clinicaltrials.gov search were performed using the medical subject headings congenital heart defects combined with hematopoietic stem cells, stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), cell- or tissue-based therapy, or MSC transplantation. Articles must have been published after 2010. RESULTS: Twenty three articles and 9 ongoing trials met all inclusion criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Areas of interest include myocardiocyte regeneration, tissue graft development to minimize reoperations, and methods of stem cell delivery. While several small trials are showing promise, it is too soon to make definitive statements about the future of stem cell therapies in this field.

7.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709510

RESUMO

A continuous viral inactivation (CVI) chamber has been designed to operate with acceptable residence time distribution (RTD) characteristics. However, altering the CVI's geometry and operation to accommodate the scale was not obvious. In this work, we elucidate the influence of Dean vortices and leverage the transition into the weak turbulent regime to establish relationships between input variables and process outputs. This study was targeted to understand and quantify the impact of viscosity, Dean number, internal diameter, and path length on the RTD. When the Dean number exceeds 70, radial mixing generated by the Dean vortices began to consistently alter the axial dispersive effects experienced by the pulse injection. Increasing to a Dean number of >100, the axial dispersive effects were dominated by the Dean vortices which allowed the calculation of the minimum and maximum residence time to be generated. This work provides a method to calculate operational solutions for a tubular incubation reactor in terms of path length, internal diameter, flow rate, and target minimum and maximum residence time specifications that assures both viral residence times while also establishing criteria to maximize product quality during continuous operation.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4955, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672989

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that shows one of the highest mortality rates among rheumatic diseases. We perform a large genome-wide association study (GWAS), and meta-analysis with previous GWASs, in 26,679 individuals and identify 27 independent genome-wide associated signals, including 13 new risk loci. The novel associations nearly double the number of genome-wide hits reported for SSc thus far. We define 95% credible sets of less than 5 likely causal variants in 12 loci. Additionally, we identify specific SSc subtype-associated signals. Functional analysis of high-priority variants shows the potential function of SSc signals, with the identification of 43 robust target genes through HiChIP. Our results point towards molecular pathways potentially involved in vasculopathy and fibrosis, two main hallmarks in SSc, and highlight the spectrum of critical cell types for the disease. This work supports a better understanding of the genetic basis of SSc and provides directions for future functional experiments.

9.
Mol Biol Evol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693153

RESUMO

Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is a very common process in bacterial and archaeal evolution, playing an important role in the adaptation to new environments. In eukaryotes, its role and frequency remain highly debated, although recent research supports that gene transfer from bacteria to diverse eukaryotes may be much more common than previously appreciated. However, most of this research focused on animals and the true phylogenetic and functional impact of bacterial genes in less-studied microbial eukaryotic groups remains largely unknown. Here, we have analyzed transcriptome data from the deep-branching stramenopile Opalinidae, common members of frog gut microbiomes and distantly related to the well-known genus Blastocystis. Phylogenetic analyses suggest the early acquisition of several bacterial genes in a common ancestor of both lineages. Those LGTs most likely facilitated the adaptation of the free-living ancestor of the Opalinidae-Blastocystis symbiotic group to new niches in the oxygen-depleted animal gut environment.

10.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 28(3): 215-223, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675299

RESUMO

Significant debate persists about posterior cruciate-retaining (CR) versus posterior cruciate-substituting (PS) implant design for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study sought to test the hypothesis that CR TKA will facilitate improved early functional outcomes in gait compared with PS TKA. Patients were randomized to either the CR or PS implant. Various patient-reported and surgeon-reported outcomes as well as gait analyses were obtained pre- and postoperatively. Patients undergoing PS TKA had higher University of California, Los Angeles activity scores at 12 months. No significant difference in spatiotemporal, kinematic, or kinetic parameters between groups was detected, but there was a trend toward quadriceps overuse gait pattern in the CR group. Patients undergoing TKA with a PS implant were more willing to engage in regular higher level physical activity. The CR implant may be a risk factor for quadriceps overuse gait pattern, while the PS implant may be protective against quadriceps overuse. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 28(3):215-223, 2019).


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Prótese do Joelho , Ligamento Cruzado Posterior , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
11.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682279

RESUMO

Discussion on exhaustion/senescence marker profiles on human T cells in BRGSF-A2 humanized mice and how they resemble those in human samples; describes how this model fits into the humanized-mouse research field.

12.
Eur Radiol ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728683

RESUMO

The original version of this article, published on 24 July 2014, unfortunately contained a mistake. In section "Discussion," a sentence was worded incorrectly.

13.
J Biopharm Stat ; : 1-18, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730441

RESUMO

Evaluating the association between diseases and the longitudinal pattern of pharmacological therapy has become increasingly important. However, in many longitudinal studies, self-reported medication usage data collected at patients' follow-up visits could be missing for various reasons. These pieces of missing or inaccurate/untenable information complicate determining the trajectory of medication use and its complete effects for patients. Although longitudinal models can deal with specific types of missing data, inappropriate handling of this issue can lead to a biased estimation of regression parameters especially when missing data mechanisms are complex and depend upon multiple sources of variation. We propose a latent class-based multiple imputation (MI) approach using a Bayesian quantile regression (BQR) that incorporates cluster of unobserved heterogeneity for medication usage data with intermittent missing values. Findings from our simulation study indicate that the proposed method performs better than traditional MI methods under certain scenarios of data distribution. We also demonstrate applications of the proposed method to data from the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) cohort when assessing an association between longitudinal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) usage and radiographic damage in AS, while the longitudinal NSAID index data are intermittently missing.

14.
J Gynecol Surg ; 35(5): 299-303, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602171

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate uterine-wall integrity 12 months after transcervical fibroid ablation (TFA) of uterine fibroids with the Sonata® system (Gynesonics Inc., Redwood City, CA). Materials and Methods: INTEGRITY is a secondary analysis of the FAST-EU clinical trial, a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter single-armed trial involving women with heavy menstrual bleeding secondary to fibroids who were treated at 7 academic and community hospitals in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Mexico with transcervical, intrauterine, ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (the Sonata system). TFA was performed on up to 5 fibroids per subject ranging from 1-5 cm in diameter as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All measurements and comparisons, including uterine-wall thicknesses were derived from baseline and 12-month MRI scans by an independent core MRI center. Scans were analyzed to assess preservation of uterine-wall integrity and reviewed for uterine-wall anomalies after TFA with the Sonata system. Results: Twenty-nine patients had baseline and 12-month MRI with contrast enhancement. Minimum uterine-wall thicknesses in all visible slices were >2.5 mm in diameter. No areas on MRI indicated any loss of uterine-wall integrity, compared with baseline imaging; comparison of baseline and postablation uterine-wall thicknesses revealed no significant changes. Conclusion: Transcervical fibroid ablation with the Sonata system was associated with preservation of uterine-wall integrity in this patient cohort.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603229

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle wasting is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD), characterized by the loss of muscle mass, strength and function, which significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in this population. Numerous complications associated with declining renal function and lifestyle activate catabolic pathways and impair muscle regeneration, resulting in substantial protein wasting. Evidence suggests that increasing skeletal muscle mass improves outcomes in CKD, making this a clinically important research focus. Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle wasting is not completely understood. It is widely recognized that microRNAs (miRNAs), a family of short non-coding RNAs, are pivotal in the regulation of skeletal muscle homoeostasis, with significant roles in regulating muscle growth, regeneration and metabolism. The abnormal expression of miRNAs in skeletal muscle during disease has been well described in cellular and animal models of muscle atrophy, and in recent years, the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of muscle atrophy in CKD has been demonstrated. As this exciting field evolves, there is emerging evidence for the involvement of miRNAs in a beneficial crosstalk system between skeletal muscle and other organs that may potentially limit the progression of CKD. In this article, we describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of muscle wasting and explore the contribution of miRNAs to the development of muscle wasting in CKD. We also discuss advances in our understanding of miRNAs in muscle-organ crosstalk and summarize miRNA-based therapeutics currently in clinical trials.

16.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606140

RESUMO

For 15 years, the eukaryote Tree of Life (eToL) has been divided into five to eight major groupings, known as 'supergroups'. However, the tree has been profoundly rearranged during this time. The new eToL results from the widespread application of phylogenomics and numerous discoveries of major lineages of eukaryotes, mostly free-living heterotrophic protists. The evidence that supports the tree has transitioned from a synthesis of molecular phylogenetics and biological characters to purely molecular phylogenetics. Most current supergroups lack defining morphological or cell-biological characteristics, making the supergroup label even more arbitrary than before. Going forward, the combination of traditional culturing with maturing culture-free approaches and phylogenomics should accelerate the process of completing and resolving the eToL at its deepest levels.

17.
Artif Intell Med ; 100: 101709, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607341

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease characterized by an unpredictable progressive decline in lung function. Natural history of IPF is unknown and the prediction of disease progression at the time of diagnosis is notoriously difficult. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has been used for the diagnosis of IPF, but not generally for monitoring purpose. The objective of this work is to develop a novel predictive model for the radiological progression pattern at voxel-wise level using only baseline HRCT scans. Mainly, there are two challenges: (a) obtaining a data set of features for region of interest (ROI) on baseline HRCT scans and their follow-up status; and (b) simultaneously selecting important features from high-dimensional space, and optimizing the prediction performance. We resolved the first challenge by implementing a study design and having an expert radiologist contour ROIs at baseline scans, depending on its progression status in follow-up visits. For the second challenge, we integrated the feature selection with prediction by developing an algorithm using a wrapper method that combines quantum particle swarm optimization to select a small number of features with random forest to classify early patterns of progression. We applied our proposed algorithm to analyze anonymized HRCT images from 50 IPF subjects from a multi-center clinical trial. We showed that it yields a parsimonious model with 81.8% sensitivity, 82.2% specificity and an overall accuracy rate of 82.1% at the ROI level. These results are superior to other popular feature selections and classification methods, in that our method produces higher accuracy in prediction of progression and more balanced sensitivity and specificity with a smaller number of selected features. Our work is the first approach to show that it is possible to use only baseline HRCT scans to predict progressive ROIs at 6 months to 1year follow-ups using artificial intelligence.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222835, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guyana expanded its HIV response in 2005 but the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections has not been characterized. METHODS: The 2011 Seroprevalence and Behavioral Epidemiology Risk Survey for HIV and STIs collected biologic specimens with demographic and behavioral data from a representative sample of Guyana military personnel. Diagnostics included commercial serum: HIV antibody; total antibody to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc); IgM anti-HBc; hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); anti-HBs; antibody to HCV with confirmatory testing; and HBV DNA sequencing with S gene fragment phylogenetic analysis. Chi-square, p-values and prevalence ratios determined statistical significance. RESULTS: Among 480 participants providing serologic specimens, 176 (36.7%) tested anti-HBc-positive. Overall, 19 (4.0%) participants tested HBsAg-positive; 17 (89.5%) of the HBsAg-positive participants also had detectable anti-HBc, including 1 (5.3%) IgM anti-HBc-positive male. Four (6.8%) females with available HBV testing were HBsAg-positive, all aged 23-29 years. Sixteen (16, 84.2%) HBsAg-positive participants had sufficient specimen for DNA testing. All 16 had detectable HBV DNA, 4 with viral load >2x104IU/ml. Sequencing found: 12 genotype (gt) A1 with 99.9% genetic identity between 1 IgM anti-HBc-positive and 1 anti-HBc-negative; 2 gtD1; and 2 with insufficient specimen. No statistically significant associations between risk factors and HBV infection were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Integrated HIV surveillance identified likely recent adult HBV transmission, current HBV infection among females of reproductive age, moderate HBV infection prevalence (all gtA1 and D1), no HCV infections and low HIV frequency among Guyana military personnel. Integrated HIV surveillance helped characterize HBV and HCV epidemiology, including probable recent transmission, prompting targeted responses to control ongoing HBV transmission and examination of hepatitis B vaccine policies.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567897

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Historically, hip precautions have been prescribed after total hip arthroplasty (THA) to limit certain motions felt to place the arthroplasty construct in a position at increased risk for dislocation. This study aimed to determine whether relaxed hip precautions after primary THA done via a posterolateral approach resulted in a higher early dislocation rate compared with standard hip precautions. METHODS: The hip precaution protocol was changed from standard to relaxed at our institution for all patients with THA in December 2016. One cohort had THA in the 18 months before the protocol change and had standard hip precautions, and the second cohort had THA in the 18 months after the protocol change and had relaxed precautions. We determined the early dislocation rate (within 3 months postoperatively) for both cohorts and controlled for selected demographic and surgical details. RESULTS: The standard precaution group included 597 primary THAs and the relaxed precaution group included 692 hips. No notable differences were found between the groups in terms of age at surgery, body mass index, sex, laterality, or diagnosis. Early dislocation occurred in seven hips (1.2%) in the standard precaution cohort and in nine hips (1.4%) in the relaxed precaution cohort. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.77). DISCUSSION: The results of our study suggest that well-trained, high-volume surgeons may potentially relax hip precautions prescribed to the patients after primary THA done via a posterolateral approach without subjecting patients to a markedly higher incidence of dislocation. However, unlike previous studies, this study controlled for femoral head size, which is a well-known confounder for dislocation risk.

20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diverse evidence including clinical, genetic and microbiome studies support a major role of the gut microbiome in the common immune-mediated arthropathy, ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We set out to (1) further define the key microbial characteristics driving disease, and (2) examine the effects of tumour necrosis factor-inhibitor (TNFi) therapy upon the microbiome. METHODS: The stools from a case-control cohort of 250 Han-Chinese subjects underwent shotgun metagenomic sequencing. All subjects were genotyped using the Illumina CoreExome SNP microarray. RESULTS: Previous reports of gut dysbiosis in AS were reconfirmed and several notable bacterial species and functional categories were differentially abundant. TNFi therapy was correlated with a restoration the perturbed microbiome observed in untreated AS cases to that of healthy controls, including several important bacterial species that have been previously associated with AS and other related diseases. Enrichment of bacterial peptides homologous to HLA-B27-presented epitopes was observed in the stools of patients with AS, suggesting that either HLA-B27 fails to clear these or that they are involved in driving HLA-B27-associated immune reactions. TNFi therapy largely restored the perturbed microbiome observed in untreated AS cases to that of healthy controls, including several important bacterial species that have been previously associated with AS and other related diseases. TNFi therapy of patients with AS was also associated with a reduction of potentially arthritogenic bacterial peptides, relative to untreated patients. CONCLUSION: These findings emphasise the key role that the gut microbiome plays in driving the pathogenesis of AS and highlight potential therapeutic and/or preventative targets.

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