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1.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 147: 106785, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135306

RESUMO

The gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus is a highly diverse group of lizards (280 + species), which covers an expansive geographic range. Although this genus has been the focus of many taxonomic and molecular systematic studies, species on the Southeast Asian island of Borneo have remained understudied, leading to an unclear evolutionary history with cascading effects on taxonomy and biogeographic inferences. We assembled the most comprehensive multilocus Bornean dataset (one mitochondrial and three nuclear loci) that included 129 novel sequences and representatives from each known Cyrtodactylus species on the island to validate taxonomic status, assess species diversity, and elucidate biogeographic patterns. Our results uncovered a high proportion of cryptic diversity and revealed numerous taxonomic complications, especially within the C. consobrinus, C. malayanus, and C. pubisulcus groups. Comparisons of pairwise genetic distances and a preliminary species delimitation analysis using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method demonstrated that some wide-ranging species on Borneo likely comprise multiple distinct and deeply divergent lineages, each with more restricted distributional ranges. We also tested the prevailing biogeographic hypothesis of a single invasion from Borneo into the Philippines. Our analyses revealed that Philippine taxa were not monophyletic, but were likely derived from multiple separate invasions into the geopolitical areas comprising the Philippines. Although our investigation of Bornean Cyrtodactylus is the most comprehensive to-date, it highlights the need for expanded taxonomic sampling and suggests that our knowledge of the evolutionary history, systematics, and biogeography of Bornean Cyrtodactylus is far from complete.

2.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 146: 106731, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904508

RESUMO

Recent phylogenetic studies of gekkonid lizards have revealed unexpected, widespread paraphyly and polyphyly among genera, unclear generic boundaries, and a tendency towards the nesting of taxa exhibiting specialized, apomorphic morphologies within geographically widespread "generalist" clades. This is especially true in Australasia, where monophyly of Gekko proper has been questioned with respect to phenotypically ornate flap-legged geckos of the genus Luperosaurus, the Philippine false geckos of the genus Pseudogekko, and even the elaborately "derived" parachute geckos of the genus Ptychozoon. Here we employ sequence capture targeting 5060 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) to infer phylogenomic relationships among 42 representative ingroup gekkonine lizard taxa. We analyze multiple datasets of varying degrees of completeness (10, 50, 75, 95, and 100 percent complete with 4715, 4051, 3376, 2366, and 772 UCEs, respectively) using concatenated maximum likelihood and multispecies coalescent methods. Our sampling scheme addresses four persistent systematic questions in this group: (1) Are Luperosaurus and Ptychozoon monophyletic, and are any of these named species truly nested within Gekko? (2) Are prior phylogenetic estimates of Sulawesi's L. iskandari as the sister taxon to Melanesian G. vittatus supported by our genome-scale dataset? (3) Is the high-elevation L. gulat of Palawan Island correctly placed within Gekko? (4) And, finally, where do the enigmatic taxa P. rhacophorus and L. browni fall in a higher-level gekkonid phylogeny? We resolve these issues; confirm with strong support some previously inferred findings (placement of Ptychozoon taxa within Gekko; the sister taxon relationship between L. iskandari and G. vittatus); resolve the systematic position of unplaced taxa (L. gulat, and L. browni); and transfer L. iskandari, L. gulat, L. browni, and all members of the genus Ptychozoon to the genus Gekko. Our unexpected and novel systematic inference of the placement of Ptychozoon rhacophorus suggests that this species is not grouped with Ptychozoon or even Luperosaurus (as previously expected) but may, in fact, be most closely related to several Indochinese species of Gekko. With our resolved and strongly supported phylogeny, we present a new classification emphasizing the most inclusive, original generic name (Gekko) for these ~60 taxa, arranged into seven subgenera.

3.
Zootaxa ; 4638(2): zootaxa.4638.2.1, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712473

RESUMO

An integrative taxonomic analysis of the Ptychozoon lionotum group across its range in Indochina and Sundaland recovers P. lionotum sensu lato Annandale, 1905 as paraphyletic with respect to P. popaense Grismer, Wood, Thura, Grismer, Brown, Stuart, 2018a and composed of four allopatric, genetically divergent, ND2 mitochondrial lineages. Multivariate and univariate analyses of continuous and discrete morphological and color pattern characters statistically and discretely diagnose each lineage from one another and together, with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, provide the foundation for the recognition of each lineage as a new species-hypotheses corroborated with a Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent species delimitation analysis. Ptychozoon cicakterbang sp. nov. ranges throughout Peninsular Malaysia to Pulau Natuna Besar, Indonesia; P. kabkaebin sp. nov. is endemic to northern and central Laos; and P. tokehos sp. nov. ranges from southern Thailand south of the Isthmus of Kra northward to Chiang Mai, fringing the Chao Phraya Basin and ranging southward through Cambodia to southern Vietnam. Ptychozoon lionotum sensu stricto ranges from northwestern Laos through southern Myanmar to eastern India. The phylogeographic structure within each species varies considerably with P. lionotum s.s. showing no genetic divergence across its 1,100 km range compared to P. cicakterbang sp. nov. showing upwards of 8.2% sequence divergence between syntopic individuals. Significant phylogeographic structure exists within P. tokehos sp. nov. and increased sampling throughout Thailand may require additional taxonomic changes within this species.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia , Teorema de Bayes , Variação Genética , Indochina
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(41): 20382-20387, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548391

RESUMO

Biodiversity loss is one major outcome of human-mediated ecosystem disturbance. One way that humans have triggered wildlife declines is by transporting disease-causing agents to remote areas of the world. Amphibians have been hit particularly hard by disease due in part to a globally distributed pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]). Prior research has revealed important insights into the biology and distribution of Bd; however, there are still many outstanding questions in this system. Although we know that there are multiple divergent lineages of Bd that differ in pathogenicity, we know little about how these lineages are distributed around the world and where lineages may be coming into contact. Here, we implement a custom genotyping method for a global set of Bd samples. This method is optimized to amplify and sequence degraded DNA from noninvasive skin swab samples. We describe a divergent lineage of Bd, which we call BdASIA3, that appears to be widespread in Southeast Asia. This lineage co-occurs with the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) in multiple localities. Additionally, we shed light on the global distribution of BdGPL and highlight the expanded range of another lineage, BdCAPE. Finally, we argue that more monitoring needs to take place where Bd lineages are coming into contact and where we know little about Bd lineage diversity. Monitoring need not use expensive or difficult field techniques but can use archived swab samples to further explore the history-and predict the future impacts-of this devastating pathogen.

5.
Evolution ; 73(6): 1151-1167, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017301

RESUMO

A primary goal of biogeography is to understand how large-scale environmental processes, like climate change, affect diversification. One often-invoked but seldom tested process is the "species-pump" model, in which repeated bouts of cospeciation are driven by oscillating climate-induced habitat connectivity cycles. For example, over the past three million years, the landscape of the Philippine Islands has repeatedly coalesced and fragmented due to sea-level changes associated with glacial cycles. This repeated climate-driven vicariance has been proposed as a model of speciation across evolutionary lineages codistributed throughout the islands. This model predicts speciation times that are temporally clustered around the times when interglacial rises in sea level fragmented the islands. To test this prediction, we collected comparative genomic data from 16 pairs of insular gecko populations. We analyze these data in a full-likelihood, Bayesian model-choice framework to test for shared divergence times among the pairs. Our results provide support against the species-pump model prediction in favor of an alternative interpretation, namely that each pair of gecko populations diverged independently. These results suggest the repeated bouts of climate-driven landscape fragmentation have not been an important mechanism of speciation for gekkonid lizards across the Philippine Archipelago.

6.
Zootaxa ; 4514(2): 202-214, 2018 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486214

RESUMO

A molecular phylogenetic analysis of Parachute Geckos (Genus Ptychozoon Kuhl van Hasselt, 1822) based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 indicates that a newly discovered population from the Mt. Popa volcano-a habitat island in the northern portion of the Bago Yoma mountains, Myanmar-is a new species, P. popaense sp. nov. This species is part of a clade that contains P. bannanense Wang, Wang, Liu, 2016 and P. lionotum Annandale, 1905 of Indochina. Ptychozoon popaense sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to its sister species P. lionotum  which manifests considerable geographic substructuring of genetic variation but differs from the nominate taxon by an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 16.0-17.1% and by discrete differences in morphology and color pattern. This discovery highlights the unique, insular nature of the Bago Yoma mountains of the Ayeyarwady Basin, which support other endemic gekkonids. It also underscores the growing diversity in this highly derived clade of cryptic, parachuting, geckos characterized by highly divergent genetic lineages, which may indicate the presence of additional, unrecognized species.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Filogenia , Animais , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Mianmar
7.
PeerJ ; 6: e5575, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258710

RESUMO

A phylogenetic taxonomy of species in the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group from the Ayeyarwady Basin of Myanmar is constructed based on color pattern, morphology, and molecular systematic analyses using the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2. Newly collected samples from the type locality of C. peguensis and other localities indicate that this clade is endemic to central Myanmar and contains at least seven species, four of which are undescribed. Three species, including C. peguensis occur in the low hills of the Bago Yoma Range within the central portion of the Ayeyarwady Basin. Two of these, C. myintkyawthurai sp. nov. from the northern and central Bago Yoma and C. meersi sp. nov. which is syntopic with C. peguensis in the southern Bago Yoma are described herein. As more lowland hilly areas bordering, and within the Ayeyarwady Basin are surveyed, more new species of this group are likely to be discovered. These discoveries continue the recent surge of descriptions of new species of Cyrtodactylus that are being discovered in Myanmar.

8.
Acta Parasitol ; 63(3): 474-478, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975644

RESUMO

Aplectana samarensis sp. nov. (Ascaridida, Cosmocercidae) from the intestines of Limnonectes magnus (Anura, Dicroglossidae) is described and illustrated. Aplectana samarensis sp. nov. represents the 53rd species assigned to the genus and the 6th species reported from the Oriental region. It is easily separated from the 5 species previously reported from the region by the presence of a gubernaculum and the distribution pattern of male caudal papillae: A. macintoshii has an irregular pattern, no precloacal papillae in rows; both A. akhrami and A. dubrajpuri lack a gubernaculum; A. duttaphryni has 3 pairs of precloacal papillae forming 2 rows; A. ranae has 7 pairs of precloacal papillae forming 2 rows; A. samarensis sp. nov. has 4 pairs of precloacal papillae in 2 rows. In addition to the new species, individuals of Falcaustra dubia and Pseudoacanthocephalus bufonis as well as cestode plerocercoids were also found.


Assuntos
Anuros/parasitologia , Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridídios/classificação , Animais , Ascaridídios/anatomia & histologia , Ascaridídios/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Feminino , Intestinos/parasitologia , Ilhas , Masculino , Filipinas
9.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 127: 1010-1019, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030179

RESUMO

The family Rhacophoridae is one of the most diverse amphibian families in Asia, for which taxonomic understanding is rapidly-expanding, with new species being described steadily, and at increasingly finer genetic resolution. Distance-based methods frequently have been used to justify or at least to bolster the recognition of new species, particularly in complexes of "cryptic" species where obvious morphological differentiation does not accompany speciation. However, there is no universally-accepted threshold to distinguish intra- from interspecific genetic divergence. Moreover, indiscriminant use of divergence thresholds to delimit species can result in over- or underestimation of species diversity. To explore the range of variation in application of divergence scales, and to provide a family-wide assessment of species-level diversity in Old-World treefrogs (family Rhacophoridae), we assembled the most comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny to date, including all 18 genera and approximately 247 described species (∼60% coverage). We then used the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method to obtain different species-delimitation schemes over a range of prior intraspecific divergence limits to assess the consistency of divergence thresholds used to demarcate current species boundaries. The species-rich phylogeny was able to identify a number of taxonomic errors, namely the incorrect generic placement of Chiromantis inexpectatus, which we now move to the genus Feihyla, and the specific identity of Rhacophorus bipunctatus from Peninsular Malaysia, which we tentatively reassign to R. rhodopus. The ABGD analysis demonstrated overlap between intra- and interspecific divergence limits: genetic thresholds used in some studies to synonymize taxa have frequently been used in other studies to justify the recognition of new species. This analysis also highlighted numerous groups that could potentially be split or lumped, which we earmark for future examination. Our large-scale and en bloc approach to species-level phylogenetic systematics contributes to the resolution of taxonomic uncertainties, reveals possible new species, and identifies numerous groups that require critical examination. Overall, we demonstrate that the taxonomy and evolutionary history of Old-World tree frogs are far from resolved, stable or adequately characterized at the level of genus, species, and/or population.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Loci Gênicos , Filogenia , Incerteza , Animais , Ásia , Teorema de Bayes , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Funções Verossimilhança , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Zootaxa ; 4370(1): 23-44, 2018 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29689853

RESUMO

We describe a new species of Cornufer, subgenus Batrachylodes, from high-elevation forests of New Britain Island in the Bismarck Archipelago of Eastern Melanesia. The new species, Cornufer exedrus sp. nov., is a biogeographically disjunct member of the Batrachylodes clade, representing the first record of the subgenus from outside of the Solomon Archipelago. The new species is a small terrestrial form from dense, closed-canopy forests above 1500 meters elevation in the Nakanai Mountains of eastern New Britain. It differs from its closest relatives, the other members of the subgenus Batrachylodes, on the basis of its minute body size, degree of digital disc expansion, reduced subdigital tuberculation, color pattern, and other traits related to its small size. We also provide a description of the new species' simple advertisement call. The diversity of ceratobatrachid frogs of the Bismarck Archipelago is most likely still underestimated despite several recent surveys. Our understanding of evolutionary trends and species boundaries in the subgenus Batrachylodes currently is hampered by lack of genetic samples and call recordings corresponding to voucher specimens of the endemic species of Bougainville Island.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Florestas , Ilhas , Melanesia , Reino Unido
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 124: 162-171, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29530499

RESUMO

Southeast Asia and southern China (SEA-SC) harbor a highly diverse and endemic flora and fauna that is under increasing threat. An understanding of the biogeographical history and drivers of this diversity is lacking, especially in some of the most diverse and threatened groups. The Asian leaf-litter frog genus Leptolalax Dubois 1980 is a forest-dependent genus distributed throughout SEA-SC, making it an ideal study group to examine specific biogeographic hypotheses. In addition, the diversity of this genus remains poorly understood, and the phylogenetic relationships among species of Leptolalax and closely related Leptobrachella Smith 1928 remain unclear. Herein, we evaluate species-level diversity based on 48 of the 53 described species from throughout the distribution of Leptolalax. Molecular analyses reveal many undescribed species, mostly in southern China and Indochina. Our well-resolved phylogeny based on multiple nuclear DNA markers shows that Leptolalax is not monophyletic with respect to Leptobrachella and, thus, we assign the former to being a junior synonym of the latter. Similarly, analyses reject monophyly of the two subgenera of Leptolalax. The diversification pattern of the group is complex, involving a high degree of sympatry and prevalence of microendemic species. Northern Sundaland (Borneo) and eastern Indochina (Vietnam) appear to have played pivotal roles as geographical centers of diversification, and paleoclimatic changes and tectonic movements seem to have driven the major divergence of clades. Analyses fail to reject an "upstream" colonization hypothesis, and, thus, the genus appears to have originated in Sundaland and then colonized mainland Asia. Our results reveal that both vicariance and dispersal are responsible for current distribution patterns in the genus.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Biodiversidade , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Filogeografia , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 285(1871)2018 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29343593

RESUMO

Regions with complex geological histories often have diverse and highly endemic biotas, yet inferring the ecological and historical processes shaping this relationship remains challenging. Here, in the context of the taxon cycle model of insular community assembly, we investigate patterns of lineage diversity and habitat usage in a newly characterized vertebrate radiation centred upon the world's most geologically complex insular region: island arcs spanning from the Philippines to Fiji. On island arcs taxa are ecologically widespread, and provide evidence to support one key prediction of the taxon cycle, specifically that interior habitats (lowland rainforests, montane habitats) are home to a greater number of older or relictual lineages than are peripheral habitats (coastal and open forests). On continental fringes, however, the clade shows a disjunct distribution away from lowland rainforest, occurring in coastal, open or montane habitats. These results are consistent with a role for biotic interactions in shaping disjunct distributions (a central tenant of the taxon cycle), but we find this pattern most strongly on continental fringes not islands. Our results also suggest that peripheral habitats on islands, and especially island arcs, may be important for persistence and diversification, not just dispersal and colonization. Finally, new phylogenetic evidence for subaerial island archipelagos (with an associated biota) east of present-day Wallace's Line since the Oligocene has important implications for understanding long-term biotic interchange and assembly across Asia and Australia.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Lagartos , Animais , Biota , Melanesia , Filipinas , Filogenia
13.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 121: 224-232, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987637

RESUMO

Currently, the genus Kurixalus comprises 14 species distributed in Southern, Southeast and East Asia. Because of their relatively low dispersal capability and intolerance of seawater, this group is ideal for the study of terrestrial range evolution, especially that portion of its range that extends into the island archipelagos of Southern Asia. We assembled a large dataset of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and estimated phylogeny by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, and we explored the history of each species via divergence-time estimation based on fossil-calibrations. A variety of ancestral-area reconstruction strategies were employed to estimate past changes of the species' geographical range, and to evaluate the impact of different abiotic barriers on range evolution. We found that frilled swamp treefrogs probably originated in Taiwan or South Vietnam in the Oligocene. Alternatively, the lineage leading to Kurixalus appendiculatus strongly supports a hypothesis of terrestrial connection between the Indian and Asian continents in the Oligocene. The outcome of both our divergence-time estimates and ancestral-area reconstruction suggests that the divergence between species from Indochina and Taiwan can probably be attributed to the opening of the South China Sea, approximately 33 million years ago. We could not find evidence for dispersal between mainland China and Taiwan Island. Formation of both Mekong and Red River valleys did not have any impact on Kurixalus species diversification. However, coincidence in timing of climate change and availability of plausible dispersal routes from the Oligocene to the middle Miocene, plausibly implied that Kurixalus diversification in Asia resulted from contemporaneous, climate-induced environmental upheaval (Late Oligocene Warming at 29 Ma; Mi-1 glaciation since 24.4-21.5 Ma; Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum at 14 Ma), which alternatively opened and closed dispersal routes.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Geografia , Filogenia , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Ásia , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fósseis , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 119: 144-150, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162550

RESUMO

The extraordinarily rich land vertebrate biodiversity of the Philippines includes at least 112 species of terrestrial snakes (74% of which are endemic to the archipelago) in 41 genera (12% endemic). Endemic Philippine snake genera include Cyclocorus (two species), Hemibungarus (three species), Hologerrhum (two species), Oxyrhabdium (two species), and Myersophis (monotypic). Although Hemibungarus and Oxyrhabdium have been included in previous species-level phylogenies, the affinities of the other three Philippine endemic genera are completely unknown. We generated novel DNA sequences for six species from four genera and analyzed these in conjunction with data from earlier studies to infer a phylogeny for the group containing Colubridae, Elapoidea (Elapidae + Lamprophiidae), and Homalopsidae. We present a novel phylogenetic result that strongly supports the existence of an entirely endemic Philippine radiation of elapoid snakes that originated 35-25 million years ago. We provide a revised, phylogeny-based classification to accommodate the new clade, transfer Cyclocorus, Hologerrhum, and Myersophis to Lamprophiidae, and provide the first estimate of the evolutionary relationships among these genera and the related Oxyrhabdium, setting the stage for future investigation of this entirely endemic, novel Philippine elapoid radiation.


Assuntos
Ilhas , Filogenia , Serpentes/fisiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Filipinas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Serpentes/genética , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Mol Ecol ; 26(20): 5435-5450, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28802073

RESUMO

Accurately delimiting species boundaries is a nontrivial undertaking that can have significant effects on downstream inferences. We compared the efficacy of commonly used species delimitation methods (SDMs) and a population genomics approach based on genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess lineage separation in the Malaysian Torrent Frog Complex currently recognized as a single species (Amolops larutensis). First, we used morphological, mitochondrial DNA and genomewide SNPs to identify putative species boundaries by implementing noncoalescent and coalescent-based SDMs (mPTP, iBPP, BFD*). We then tested the validity of putative boundaries by estimating spatiotemporal gene flow (fastsimcoal2, ABBA-BABA) to assess the extent of genetic isolation among putative species. Our results show that the A. larutensis complex runs the gamut of the speciation continuum from highly divergent, genetically isolated lineages (mean Fst  = 0.9) to differentiating populations involving recent gene flow (mean Fst  = 0.05; Nm  > 5). As expected, SDMs were effective at delimiting divergent lineages in the absence of gene flow but overestimated species in the presence of marked population structure and gene flow. However, using a population genomics approach and the concept of species as separately evolving metapopulation lineages as the only necessary property of a species, we were able to objectively elucidate cryptic species boundaries in the presence of past and present gene flow. This study does not discount the utility of SDMs but highlights the danger of violating model assumptions and the importance of carefully considering methods that appropriately fit the diversification history of a particular system.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Especiação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Ranidae/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Malásia , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ranidae/classificação
16.
Biol Lett ; 13(8)2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28794275

RESUMO

The interplay between range expansion and concomitant diversification is of fundamental interest to evolutionary biologists, particularly when linked to intercontinental dispersal and/or large scale extinctions. The evolutionary history of true frogs has been characterized by circumglobal range expansion. As a lineage that survived the Eocene-Oligocene extinction event (EOEE), the group provides an ideal system to test the prediction that range expansion triggers increased net diversification. We constructed the most densely sampled, time-calibrated phylogeny to date in order to: (i) characterize tempo and patterns of diversification; (ii) assess the impact of the EOEE; and (iii) test the hypothesis that range expansion was followed by increased net diversification. We show that late Eocene colonization of novel biogeographic regions was not affected by the EOEE and surprisingly, global expansion was not followed by increased net diversification. On the contrary, the diversification rate declined or did not shift following geographical expansion. Thus, the diversification history of true frogs contradicts the prevailing expectation that amphibian net diversification accelerated towards the present or increased following range expansion. Rather, our results demonstrate that despite their dynamic biogeographic history, true frogs diversified at a relatively constantly rate, even as they colonized the major land masses of Earth.


Assuntos
Ranidae , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Geografia
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 106: 28-43, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622725

RESUMO

The horned toad assemblage, genus Megophrys sensu lato, currently includes three groups previously recognized as the genera Atympanophrys, Xenophrys and Megophrys sensu stricto. The taxonomic status and species composition of the three groups remain controversial due to conflicting phenotypic analyses and insufficient phylogenetic reconstruction; likewise, the position of the monotypic Borneophrys remains uncertain with respect to the horned toads. Further, the diversity of the horned toads remains poorly understood, especially for widespread species. Herein, we evaluate species-level diversity based on 45 of the 57 described species from throughout southern China, Southeast Asia and the Himalayas using Bayesian inference trees and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) approach. We estimate the phylogeny using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. Analyses reveal statistically significant mito-nuclear discordance. All analyses resolve paraphyly for horned toads involving multiple strongly supported clades. These clades correspond with geography. We resurrect the genera Atympanophrys and Xenophrys from the synonymy of Megophrys to eliminate paraphyly of Megophrys s.l. and to account for the morphological, molecular and biogeographic differences among these groups, but we also provide an alternative option. Our study suggests that Borneophrys is junior synonym of Megophrys sensu stricto. We provide an estimation of timeframe for the horned toads. The mitochondrial and nuclear trees indicate the presence of many putative undescribed species. Widespread species, such as Xenophrys major and X. minor, likely have dramatically underestimated diversity. The integration of morphological and molecular evidence can validate this discovery. Montane forest dynamics appear to play a significant role in driving diversification of horned toads.


Assuntos
Anuros/classificação , Animais , Anuros/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Bufonidae/classificação , Bufonidae/genética , China , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/classificação , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Evolution ; 71(2): 475-488, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27886369

RESUMO

The microhylid frog genus Kaloula is an adaptive radiation spanning the edge of the Asian mainland and multiple adjacent island archipelagos, with much of the clade's diversity associated with an endemic Philippine radiation. Relationships among clades from the Philippines, however, remain unresolved. With ultraconserved element (UCE) and mitogenomic data, we identified highly supported differences in topology and areas of poor resolution, for each marker set. Using the UCE data, we then identified possible instances of contemporary hybridization, past introgression, and incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) within the Philippine Kaloula. Using a simulation approach, and an estimate of the Philippine Kaloula clade origin (12.7-21.0 mya), we demonstrate that an evolutionary history including inferred instances of hybridization, introgression, and ILS leads to phylogenetic reconstructions that show concordance with results from the observed mitogenome and UCE data. In the process of validating a complex evolutionary scenario in the Philippine Kaloula, we provide the first demonstration of the efficacy of UCE data for phylogenomic studies of anuran amphibians.


Assuntos
Anuros/genética , Especiação Genética , Genoma , Hibridização Genética , Filogenia , Animais , Núcleo Celular/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial , Filipinas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Zookeys ; (624): 1-132, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27833422

RESUMO

We summarize all available amphibian and reptile species distribution data from the northeast Mindanao faunal region, including small islands associated with this subcenter of endemic vertebrate biodiversity. Together with all publicly available historical information from biodiversity repositories, we present new data from several major herpetological surveys, including recently conducted inventories on four major mountains of northeast Mindanao, and adjacent islands of Camiguin Sur, Dinagat, and Siargao. We present species accounts for all taxa, comment on unresolved taxonomic problems, and provide revisions to outdated IUCN conservation status assessments in cases where our new data significantly alter earlier classification status summaries. Together, our comprehensive analysis of this fauna suggests that the greater Mindanao faunal region possesses distinct subcenters of amphibian and reptile species diversity, and that until this area is revisited and its fauna and actually studied, with on-the-ground field work including targeted surveys of species distributions coupled to the study their natural history, our understanding of the diversity and conservation status of southern Philippine herpetological fauna will remain incomplete. Nevertheless, the northeast Mindanao geographical area (Caraga Region) appears to have the highest herpetological species diversity (at least 126 species) of any comparably-sized Philippine faunal subregion.

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