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1.
J Sch Health ; 89(11): 865-873, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigate the moderated association of school connectedness and alcohol expectancies with adolescent drinking. METHODS: Two large community samples were obtained with 2 repeated attempted censuses of all students attending a large suburban school district. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed substance use, alcohol expectancies, and school connectedness. We used logistic regression analyses on the training sample and confirmed with Bayesian test intervals with the test sample. RESULTS: Party related alcohol expectancies and school connectedness interacted in their explanatory association with recent drinking and binging, such that school connectedness had a protective association only for youth with lower positive expectancies. These findings were the result of pre-planned exploratory analysis, which were confirmed with out-of-sample test data. CONCLUSIONS: The potential benefits for student health behaviors resulting from improved school connectedness may be dependent on at least one dimension of alcohol expectancies, at the individual level.

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 963-969, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723318

RESUMO

Some of the most widely studied variants in psychiatric genetics include variable number tandem repeat variants (VNTRs) in SLC6A3, DRD4, SLC6A4, and MAOA. While initial findings suggested large effects, their importance with respect to psychiatric phenotypes is the subject of much debate with broadly conflicting results. Despite broad interest, these loci remain absent from the largest available samples, such as the UK Biobank, limiting researchers' ability to test these contentious hypotheses rigorously in large samples. Here, using two independent reference datasets, we report out-of-sample imputation accuracy estimates of >0.96 for all four VNTR variants and one modifying SNP, depending on the reference and target dataset. We describe the imputation procedures of these candidate variants in 486,551 UK Biobank individuals, and have made the imputed variant data available to UK Biobank researchers. This resource, provided to the scientific community, will allow the most rigorous tests to-date of the roles of these variants in behavioral and psychiatric phenotypes.

3.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206442, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383806

RESUMO

Externalizing problems (EP), including rule-breaking, aggression, and criminal involvement, are highly prevalent during adolescence, but the adult outcomes of adolescents exhibiting EP are characterized by heterogeneity. Although many youths' EP subside after adolescence, others' persists into adulthood. Characterizing the development of severe EP is essential to prevention and intervention efforts. Multiple predictors of adult antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and legal outcomes of a large sample (N = 1205) of clinically- or legally-ascertained adolescents (ages 12-19 years) with severe EP were examined. Many psychosocial predictors hypothesized to predict persistence of EP demonstrated zero-order associations with adult outcomes, but accounted for little unique variation after accounting for baseline conduct disorder symptoms (CD) and demographic factors. Baseline measures of intelligence, which explained independent variation in legal outcomes, provided the only consistent exception to this pattern, though future work is needed to parse these effects from those of socioeconomic factors. CD severity during adolescence is a parsimonious index of liability for persistence of EP into adulthood that explains outcome variance above and beyond all other demographic and psychosocial predictors in this sample.

4.
Addiction ; 113(11): 2107-2115, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adolescents with conduct and substance use problems are at increased risk for premature mortality, but the extent to which these risk factors reflect family- or individual-level differences and account for shared or unique variance is unknown. This study examined common and independent contributions to mortality hazard in adolescents ascertained for conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorder (SUD), their siblings and community controls, hypothesizing that individual differences in CD and SUD severity would explain unique variation in mortality risk beyond that due to clinical/control status and demographic factors. DESIGN: Mortality analysis in a prospective study (Genetics of Antisocial Drug Dependence Study) that began in 1993. SETTING: Multi-site sample recruited in San Diego, California and Denver, Colorado, USA. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1463 clinical probands were recruited through the juvenile correctional system, court-mandated substance abuse treatment programs and correctional schools, along with 1399 of their siblings, and 904 controls. MEASUREMENTS: Mortality and cause-of-death were assessed via National Death Index search (released October, 2017). FINDINGS: There were 104 deaths documented among 3766 (1168 female) adolescents and young adults (average age 16.79 years at assessment, 32.69 years at death/censoring). Mortality hazard for clinical probands and their siblings was 4.99 times greater than that of controls (95% confidence interval = 2.40-10.40; P < 0.001). After accounting for demographic characteristics, site, clinical status, familial dependence and shared contributions of CD and SUD, CD independently predicted mortality hazard, whereas SUD severity did not. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, youth with conduct and substance use disorders and their siblings face far greater risk of premature death than demographically similar community controls. In contrast to substance use disorder severity, conduct disorder is a robust predictor of unique variance in all-cause mortality hazard beyond other risk factors.

5.
Addiction ; 113(11): 2073-2086, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances among adolescents and young adults. Earlier age at cannabis initiation is linked to adverse life outcomes, including multi-substance use and dependence. This study estimated the heritability of age at first cannabis use and identified associations with genetic variants. METHODS: A twin-based heritability analysis using 8055 twins from three cohorts was performed. We then carried out a genome-wide association meta-analysis of age at first cannabis use in a discovery sample of 24 953 individuals from nine European, North American and Australian cohorts, and a replication sample of 3735 individuals. RESULTS: The twin-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 19-60%]. Shared and unique environmental factors explained 39% (95% CI = 20-56%) and 22% (95% CI = 16-29%). The genome-wide association meta-analysis identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 16 within the calcium-transporting ATPase gene (ATP2C2) at P < 5E-08. All five SNPs are in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r2  > 0.8), with the strongest association at the intronic variant rs1574587 (P = 4.09E-09). Gene-based tests of association identified the ATP2C2 gene on 16q24.1 (P = 1.33e-06). Although the five SNPs and ATP2C2 did not replicate, ATP2C2 has been associated with cocaine dependence in a previous study. ATP2B2, which is a member of the same calcium signalling pathway, has been associated previously with opioid dependence. SNP-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was non-significant. CONCLUSION: Age at cannabis initiation appears to be moderately heritable in western countries, and individual differences in onset can be explained by separate but correlated genetic liabilities. The significant association between age of initiation and ATP2C2 is consistent with the role of calcium signalling mechanisms in substance use disorders.

6.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 32(5): 517-527, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963874

RESUMO

Positive alcohol expectancies (PAE) and associating with drinking peers are reliable predictors of adolescent alcohol use. Knowledge of when and for whom these risk factors are most influential could enhance intervention effectiveness. Reciprocal relations between PAE and adolescent and peer alcohol use were examined between the ages of 13 and 18 in a sample (N = 566; 50% female) from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), as well as sex differences in these associations. Associating with drinking peers prospectively predicted more frequent alcohol use for both sexes, although peer socialization was evident earlier for girls compared with boys. Higher PAE influenced later drinking in mid-adolescence, from age 14 to 16, for boys only. PAE influenced peer group selection for both sexes, although the influence was evident earlier in boys than girls. The relative impact of environmental risk factors for problematic alcohol use may vary over time and across developmental periods. These results suggest that prevention and treatment efforts for adolescent drinking can be improved by targeting age-appropriate risk factors. Early adolescent interventions may be best served by minimizing involvement with drinking peers and correcting normative beliefs of peer use. Among adolescent girls, early interventions focused on reducing peer influence may be most effective. Prevention and treatment programs aimed at addressing PAE would likely prove more effective for boys in mid- to late adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record

7.
Am J Addict ; 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The acquired preparedness model (APM) integrates personality trait research and psychosocial learning, which are theorized to ultimately increase risk for problematic substance use outcomes. METHODS: The present study uses the APM to examine the potential mediational role of positive and negative expectancies on the relationship between impulsivity and two marijuana outcomes (ie, frequency of use and marijuana use disorder [MUD] symptom count) among an at-risk sample of young adults with history of antisocial behavior and substance use in adolescence and their siblings (n = 312). RESULTS: Results suggest a significant indirect effect of sensation seeking on recent marijuana use through positive marijuana expectancies. There also was a significant indirect effect of sensation seeking on past-year MUD symptoms through positive expectancies. No significant indirect effects through negative expectancies were found for either outcome. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with the APM and suggest that higher sensation seeking is related to increased positive beliefs about marijuana outcomes, which is related to higher marijuana use and more MUD symptoms. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that positive expectancies are an important risk factor for marijuana use and misuse, particularly for at-risk individuals with elevated rates of sensation seeking. Positive marijuana expectancies may be important to address in interventions for at-risk individuals. (Am J Addict 2018;XX:1-6).

8.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 32: 8-15, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706313

RESUMO

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is designed to be the largest study of brain development and child health in the United States, performing comprehensive assessments of 11,500 children repeatedly for 10 years. An endeavor of this magnitude requires an organized framework of governance and communication that promotes collaborative decision-making and dissemination of information. The ABCD consortium structure, built upon the Matrix Management approach of organizational theory, facilitates the integration of input from all institutions, numerous internal workgroups and committees, federal partners, and external advisory groups to make use of a broad range of expertise to ensure the study's success.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cognição/fisiologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adolescente , Comunicação , Humanos
9.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 68: 52-60, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco and alcohol often are used simultaneously by young adults, and their co-use is associated with greater health consequences than from single use. Social media platforms offer low cost and highly accessible channels to reach and engage young people in substance use interventions. The current trial seeks to compare the Facebook Tobacco Status Project (TSP) smoking cessation intervention to an intervention targeting both tobacco use and heavy episodic drinking (TSP + ALC) among young adults who use both substances. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial will evaluate the feasibility and initial efficacy of TSP + ALC compared to TSP with 225 US young adult smokers reporting heavy drinking. Participants will be recruited online and randomized to one of two conditions (TSP or TSP + ALC), both with assignment to a Facebook group tailored to readiness to quit smoking. Groups will receive a 90-day intervention including daily Facebook postings and weekly live counseling sessions. The TSP + ALC group will include content related to alcohol use. All participants will be offered a 2-week introductory supply of nicotine patch. Participants will complete baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month online assessments of substance use and other health risk behaviors. The primary efficacy outcome is biochemically-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence. Secondary outcomes include alcohol and tobacco use, combined use, and thoughts about each substance. DISCUSSION: This trial examines an innovative and scalable approach to engaging young adults online in tobacco and alcohol use treatment. Study findings will inform digital health interventions and best practices for treating multiple substance use in young adults.

10.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 32: 1-3, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496476

RESUMO

The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a longitudinal, observational study of over 10,000 youth recruited at 21 sites throughout the United States. Comprehensive biennial assessments and more limited interim assessments measure health, mental health, neurocognition, family, cultural and environmental variables, substance use, genetic and other biomarkers, and structural and functional brain development. Within this Special Issue, readers will find much information about the rationale and objectives of the study, the broad ranging assessment protocols and new as well as traditional methodologies applied at baseline, the recruitment and retention strategies, and the anticipated final composition of the cohort. Information is also provided about how the study is coordinated and conducted, how decisions are made, how data quality is monitored, and how ethical standards are protected. In this introduction we will focus instead on the position of the ABCD Study in the changing landscape of biomedical research.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
11.
J Res Adolesc ; 28(1): 154-156, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460352
12.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 32: 143-154, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716389

RESUMO

Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles. To illustrate, we will review the ABCD approach to three areas: (1) hazardous substance use; (2) neurological anomalies; and (3) imminent potential for self-harm or harm to others. Each ABCD site is responsible for implementing procedures consistent with these guidelines in accordance with their Institutional Review Board approved protocols, state regulations, and local resources. To assure that each site has related plans and resources in place, site emergency procedures manuals have been developed, documented and reviewed for adherence to ABCD guidelines. This article will describe the principles and process used to develop these ABCD bioethics and medical oversight guidelines, the concerns and options considered, and the resulting approaches advised to sites.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Bioética/tendências , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cognição/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 183: 25-33, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine if a substance use disorder (SUD), especially cannabis use disorder in adolescence, predicts future medical cannabis card status among high-risk youth. METHODS: Data collection occurred in Denver and San Diego. We recruited adolescents, with or at high risk for SUD and conduct problems (hereafter probands) and their siblings (n=654). Baseline (Wave 1) assessments took place between 1999 and 2008, and follow-up (Wave 2) took place between 2010 and 2013. In initial bivariate analyses, we examined whether baseline DSM-IV cannabis abuse/dependence (along with other potential predictors) was associated with possessing a medical cannabis card in young adulthood (Wave 2). Significant predictors were then included in a multiple binomial regression. Self-reported general physical health was also evaluated at both time points. Finally, within Wave 2, we tested whether card status was associated with concurrent substance dependence. RESULTS: About 16% of the sample self-reported having a medical cannabis card at follow-up. Though bivariate analyses demonstrated that multiple predictors were significantly associated with Wave 2 card status, in our multiple binomial regression only cannabis abuse/dependence and male sex remained significant. At Wave 2, those with a medical cannabis card were significantly more likely to endorse criteria for concurrent cannabis dependence. There was no significant difference in self-reported general physical health. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis abuse/dependence and male sex positively predicted future medical cannabis card holder status among a sample of high risk adolescents. Physicians conducting evaluations for medical cannabis cards should carefully evaluate and consider past and concurrent cannabis addiction.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Maconha Medicinal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , California/epidemiologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Arch Sex Behav ; 47(2): 529-536, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884246

RESUMO

Impulsivity is a personality-based risk factor that has been well studied in relation to risky sexual behavior. Recent conceptualizations of impulsivity have proposed multidimensional facets comprised of premeditation, perseverance, sensation seeking, negative urgency, and positive urgency (UPPS-P model). Prior studies have found that these facets are associated with risky sexual behavior in adolescent and college student samples, but no prior studies have evaluated them in clinical samples. The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits related to two different risky sexual behaviors in a clinical sample of at-risk young adults who had both conduct disorder and substance use disorder symptoms as adolescents (n = 529). Lack of premeditation was also tested as a moderator of the relationship between facets of impulsivity and both risky sex outcomes. Results demonstrated that sensation seeking, negative urgency, and positive urgency were correlated with risky sex behaviors. Additionally, multiple regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking was uniquely associated with the number of sexual partners in the past 5 years, whereas positive urgency was uniquely associated with unprotected sex while under the influence. Finally, a significant interaction between lack of premeditation and negative urgency suggests that at-risk young adults with both high negative urgency and lack of premeditation were the likeliest to have the most sexual partners in the past 5 years. This study adds to the current understanding of the relationship between reward- and affect-driven facets of impulsivity and risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of interventions for at-risk populations.

15.
Am J Psychiatry ; 175(4): 370-380, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors sought evidence for altered adolescent brain growth trajectory associated with moderate and heavy alcohol use in a large national, multisite, prospective study of adolescents before and after initiation of appreciable alcohol use. METHOD: This study examined 483 adolescents (ages 12-21) before initiation of drinking and 1 and 2 years later. At the 2-year assessment, 356 participants continued to meet the study's no/low alcohol consumption entry criteria, 65 had initiated moderate drinking, and 62 had initiated heavy drinking. MRI was used to quantify regional cortical and white matter volumes. Percent change per year (slopes) in adolescents who continued to meet no/low criteria served as developmental control trajectories against which to compare those who initiated moderate or heavy drinking. RESULTS: In no/low drinkers, gray matter volume declined throughout adolescence and slowed in many regions in later adolescence. Complementing gray matter declines, white matter regions grew at faster rates at younger ages and slowed toward young adulthood. Youths who initiated heavy drinking exhibited an accelerated frontal cortical gray matter trajectory, divergent from the norm. Although significant effects on trajectories were not observed in moderate drinkers, their intermediate position between no/low and heavy drinkers suggests a dose effect. Neither marijuana co-use nor baseline volumes contributed significantly to the alcohol effect. CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of drinking during adolescence, with or without marijuana co-use, disordered normal brain growth trajectories. Factors possibly contributing to abnormal cortical volume trajectories include peak consumption in the past year and family history of alcoholism.

16.
Cereb Cortex ; 28(3): 1049-1063, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168274

RESUMO

The transition from adolescent to adult cognition and emotional control requires neurodevelopmental maturation likely involving intrinsic functional networks (IFNs). Normal neurodevelopment may be vulnerable to disruption from environmental insult such as alcohol consumption commonly initiated during adolescence. To test potential disruption to IFN maturation, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in 581 no-to-low alcohol-consuming and 117 moderate-to-high-drinking youth. Functional seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis assessed age, sex, and moderate alcohol drinking on default-mode, executive-control, salience, reward, and emotion networks and tested cognitive and motor coordination correlates of network connectivity. Among no-to-low alcohol-consuming adolescents, executive-control frontolimbicstriatal connectivity was stronger in older than younger adolescents, particularly boys, and predicted better ability in balance, memory, and impulse control. Connectivity patterns in moderate-to-high-drinking youth were tested mainly in late adolescence when drinking was initiated. Implicated was the emotion network with attenuated connectivity to default-mode network regions. Our cross-sectional rs-fMRI findings from this large cohort of adolescents show sexual dimorphism in connectivity and suggest neurodevelopmental rewiring toward stronger and spatially more distributed executive-control networking in older than younger adolescents. Functional network rewiring in moderate-to-high-drinking adolescents may impede maturation of affective and self-reflection systems and obscure maturation of complex social and emotional behaviors.

17.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 32: 130-137, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29150307

RESUMO

Retention efforts are critical to maintain relationships with research participants over time. This is especially important for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, where families are asked to stay engaged with the study throughout the course of 10 years. This high-degree of involvement is essential to longitudinally track child and adolescent development. At a minimum, we will connect with families every 6 months by telephone, and every year in person, with closer contact with the youth directly as they transition into adolescence. Differential retention, when related to non-random issues pertaining to demographic or risk features, can negatively impact the generalizability of study outcomes. Thus, to ensure high rates of retention for all participants, the ABCD study employs a number of efforts to support youth and families. This overview details the framework and concrete steps for retention.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cognição/fisiologia , Retenção (Psicologia)/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
18.
Front Behav Neurosci ; 11: 223, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180956

RESUMO

During adolescence, problems reflecting cognitive, behavioral and affective dysregulation, such as inattention and emotional dyscontrol, have been observed to be associated with substance use disorder (SUD) risks and outcomes. Prior studies have typically been with small samples, and have typically not included comprehensive measurement of executive dysfunction domains. The relationships of executive dysfunction in daily life with performance based testing of cognitive skills and structural brain characteristics, thought to be the basis for executive functioning, have not been definitively determined. The aims of this study were to determine the relationships between executive dysfunction in daily life, measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), cognitive skills and structural brain characteristics, and SUD risks, including a global SUD risk indicator, sleep quality, and risky alcohol and cannabis use. In addition to bivariate relationships, multivariate models were tested. The subjects (n = 817; ages 12 through 21) were participants in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) study. The results indicated that executive dysfunction was significantly related to SUD risks, poor sleep quality, risky alcohol use and cannabis use, and was not significantly related to cognitive skills or structural brain characteristics. In multivariate models, the relationship between poor sleep quality and risky substance use was mediated by executive dysfunction. While these cross-sectional relationships need to be further examined in longitudinal analyses, the results suggest that poor sleep quality and executive dysfunction may be viable preventive intervention targets to reduce adolescent substance use.

19.
Pers Individ Dif ; 114: 42-47, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038610

RESUMO

Risky driving behaviors are disproportionately high among young adults and impulsivity is a robust risk factor. Recent conceptualizations have proposed multidimensional facets of impulsivity comprised of negative urgency, premeditation, perseverance, sensation seeking, and positive urgency (UPPS-P model). Prior studies have found these facets are associated with risky driving behaviors in college student samples, but no prior studies have examined these facets in clinical samples. This study examined the unique and interactive effects of UPPS-P impulsivity facets on past-year risky driving behaviors in a sample of high-risk young adults (ages 18-30 years) with a history of substance use and antisocial behavior and their siblings (n=1,100). Multilevel Poisson regressions indicated that sensation seeking and negative urgency were uniquely and positively associated with both frequency of past-year reckless driving and driving under the influence. Moreover, lack of premeditation was uniquely and positively associated with reckless driving, whereas lack of perseverance was uniquely and positively associated with driving under the influence. Furthermore, lack of premeditation moderated and strengthened the positive association between sensation seeking and driving under the influence. These study findings suggest that assessing multiple facets of trait impulsivity could facilitate targeted prevention efforts among young adults with a history of externalizing psychopathology.

20.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 41(6): 1154-1165, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28421617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abundant cross-sectional evidence links eveningness (a preference for later sleep-wake timing) and increased alcohol and drug use among adolescents and young adults. However, longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether eveningness is a risk factor for subsequent alcohol and drug use, particularly during adolescence, which is marked by parallel peaks in eveningness and risk for the onset of alcohol use disorders. This study examined whether eveningness and other sleep characteristics were associated with concurrent or subsequent substance involvement in a longitudinal study of adolescents. METHODS: Participants were 729 adolescents (368 females; age 12 to 21 years) in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence study. Associations between the sleep variables (circadian preference, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, sleep timing, and sleep duration) and 3 categorical substance variables (at-risk alcohol use, alcohol bingeing, and past-year marijuana use [y/n]) were examined using ordinal and logistic regression with baseline age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric problems as covariates. RESULTS: At baseline, greater eveningness was associated with greater at-risk alcohol use, greater bingeing, and past-year use of marijuana. Later weekday and weekend bedtimes, but not weekday or weekend sleep duration, showed similar associations across the 3 substance outcomes at baseline. Greater baseline eveningness was also prospectively associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up, after covarying for baseline bingeing and marijuana use. Later baseline weekday and weekend bedtimes, and shorter baseline weekday sleep duration, were similarly associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up after covarying for baseline values. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that eveningness and sleep timing may be under recognized risk factors and future areas of intervention for adolescent involvement in alcohol and marijuana that should be considered along with other previously identified sleep factors such as insomnia and insufficient sleep.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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