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1.
Prev Med ; : 106460, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609616

RESUMO

Vulnerable populations such as the uninsured, unemployed, and unhoused face significant morbidity and mortality from influenza but are less likely to receive the annual vaccine and have limited access to medical care. We describe an interprofessional, student-run vaccine outreach program (VOP) in Davidson County, Tennessee that lowers barriers to vaccination through free vaccination events in nontraditional community locations. We provide this framework as a model to expand novel, seasonal, or outbreak-oriented vaccine outreach to resource-poor populations. Demographic data were collected from the patients who received an influenza vaccine between 2015 and 2019 through an optional survey to determine whether these events were reaching unhoused, uninsured, and/or unemployed individuals. Of 1803 patients, 1733 (96.1%) completed at least one field of the demographic form. Overall, 481 (27.8%) were individuals without homes or living in temporary housing and 673 (38.8%) were unemployed. Most patients, 1109 (64.0%), did not have health insurance at any point during the prior two years. With the addition of a nurse practitioner student to VOP leadership, the 2018-2019 VOP reached the most homeless or temporarily-housed (228, 32.3%), unemployed (313, 18.5%), and disabled (60, 8.5%) patients. The VOP can be adapted to meet community needs, funding, and volunteer interest. The VOP model may be applicable to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, especially since the economic impact of COVID-19 has increased unemployment rates and housing instability. Healthcare students serve as an eager, underutilized resource who can be leveraged to disseminate vaccines to individuals with limited access to care.

2.
Suicide Life Threat Behav ; 51(1): 76-87, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Categorical data analysis is relevant to suicide risk and prevention research that focuses on discrete outcomes (e.g., suicide attempt status). Unfortunately, results from these analyses are often misinterpreted and not presented in a clinically tangible manner. We aimed to address these issues and highlight the relevance and utility of categorical methods in suicide research and clinical assessment. Additionally, we introduce relevant basic machine learning methods concepts and address the distinct utility of the current methods. METHOD: We review relevant background concepts and pertinent issues with references to helpful resources. We also provide non-technical descriptions and tutorials of how to convey categorical statistical results (logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curves, area under the curve [AUC] statistics, clinical cutoff scores) for clinical context and more intuitive use. RESULTS: We provide comprehensive examples, using simulated data, and interpret results. We also note important considerations for conducting and interpreting these analyses. We provide a walk-through demonstrating how to convert logistic regression estimates into predicted probability values, which is accompanied by Appendices demonstrating how to produce publication-ready figures in R and Microsoft Excel. CONCLUSION: Improving the translation of statistical estimates to practical, clinically tangible information may narrow the divide between research and clinical practice.

3.
Arch Dis Child ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441316

RESUMO

Estimates for the UK suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy and prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)-the most common neurodevelopmental condition-are high. Considering the significant health and social impacts of FASD, there is a public health imperative to prioritise prevention, interventions and support. In this article, we outline the current state of play regarding FASD knowledge and research in the UK, which is characterised by a lack of evidence, a lack of dedicated funding and services, and consequently little policy formulation and strategic direction. We highlight progress made to date, as well as current knowledge and service gaps to propose a way forward for UK research.

4.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 21(3): 154-161.e3, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478922

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Outcomes continue to improve in relapsed myeloma as more effective treatment options emerge. We report a multicenter single-arm phase 2 trial evaluating toxicity and efficacy of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients who had received a median of 1 prior treatment line received bortezomib subcutaneously 1.3 mg/m2 days 1, 4, 8, and 11; dexamethasone 20 mg orally days 1-2, 4-5, 8-9, and 11-12; vorinostat 400 mg orally days 1-4, 8-11, and 15-18 of a 21-day cycle. After receipt of a minimum of 3 cycles of therapy, participants received maintenance vorinostat (400 mg days 1-4 and 15-18 of a 28-day cycle). RESULTS: Overall response was 81.3%: complete response occurred in 4 of 16, very good partial response in 2 of 16, and partial response 7 of 16. Clinical benefit response rate was 100%; median progression-free survival was 11.9 months. A total of 75% patients experienced a dose reduction or stopped treatment as a result of intolerability. CONCLUSION: Although toxicity and dose reductions were observed, this study demonstrates that the combination of vorinostat, bortezomib, and dexamethasone is effective in relapsed myeloma with good response rates, suggesting there is an ongoing rationale for further optimization of HDAC inhibitor-based combinations in the treatment of myeloma to improve tolerability and enhance efficacy.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(1)2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466657

RESUMO

The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has a wide global distribution with many ecotypes and has been bred in captivity for various traits, making it a useful evolutionary model system. The Y chromosome represents one of the most informative markers of phylogeography, yet it has not been well-studied in the red fox due to a lack of the necessary genomic resources. We used a target capture approach to sequence a portion of the red fox Y chromosome in a geographically diverse red fox sample, along with other canid species, to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, 13 of which we validated for use in subsequent studies. Phylogenetic analyses of the Y chromosome sequences, including calibration to outgroups, confirmed previous estimates of the timing of two intercontinental exchanges of red foxes, the initial colonization of North America from Eurasia approximately half a million years ago and a subsequent continental exchange before the last Pleistocene glaciation (~100,000 years ago). However, in contrast to mtDNA, which showed unidirectional transfer from Eurasia to North America prior to the last glaciation, the Y chromosome appears to have been transferred from North America to Eurasia during this period. Additional sampling is needed to confirm this pattern and to further clarify red fox Y chromosome phylogeography.

8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD013245, 2020 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), also referred to as hormone therapy,àhas long been the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer. Additional agents have been reserved for the castrate-resistant disease stage when ADT start becoming less effective. Abiraterone is an agent with an established role in that disease stage, which has only recently been evaluated in the hormone-sensitive setting. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of early abiraterone acetate, in combination with systemic ADT, for newly diagnosed metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, six other databases, two trials registries, grey literature, and conference proceedings, up to 15 May 2020. We applied no restrictions on publication language or status. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized trials, in which men diagnosed with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer were administered abiraterone acetate and prednisolone with ADT or ADTàalone. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently classified studies and abstracted data from the included studies. We performed statistical analyses using a random-effects model. We rated the quality of evidence according to the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: The search identified two randomized controlled trials (RCT), with 2201 men, who were assigned to receive either abiraterone acetate 1000 mg once daily and low dose prednisone (5mg) in addition to ADT, or ADT alone. In the LATITUDE trial, the median age and range of men in the intervention group was 68 (38 to 89) years, and 67 (33 to 92) years in the control group. Nearly all of the men in thisàstudy (97.6%) had prostate cancer with a Gleason score of at least 8 (ISUP grade group 4). Primary outcomes The addition of abiraterone acetate to ADT reduces the probability of death from any cause compared to ADT alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56 to 0.73; 2 RCTs, 2201 men; high certainty of evidence); this corresponds to 163 fewer deaths per 1000 men with hormone-sensitive metastaticàprostate cancerà(210 fewer to 115 fewer) at five years. Abiraterone acetate in addition to ADT probably results in little to no differenceàin quality of life compared to ADT alone, measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-prostate total score (FACT-P; range 0 to 156; higher values indicates better quality of life),àat 12 months (mean difference [MD] 2.90 points, 95% CI 0.11 to 5.60; 1 RCT, 838 men; moderate certainty of evidence). Secondary outcomes Abiraterone plus ADT increases the risk of grades III to V adverse events compared to ADT alone (risk ratio [RR] 1.34, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.47; 1 RCT, 1199 men; high certainty of evidence); this corresponds to 162 more grade III to Vàevents per 1000 men with hormone-sensitive metastaticàprostate cancerà(105 more to 224 more) at a median follow-up of 30àmonths. Abiraterone acetate in addition to ADT probably reduces the probability of death due to prostate cancer compared to ADT alone (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.68; 2 RCTs, 2201 men; moderate certainty of evidence). This corresponds to 120 fewer death from prostate cancer per 1000 men with hormone-sensitive metastaticàprostate cancerà(95% CI 145 fewer to 90 fewer) afteràa median follow-up of 30 months. The addition of abiraterone acetate to ADT probably decreases the probability of disease progression compared to ADT alone (HR 0.35, 95%CI 0.26 to 0.49; 2 RCTs, 2097 men; moderate certainty of evidence). This corresponds to 369 fewer incidences of disease progression per 1000 men with hormone-sensitive metastaticàprostate cancerà(456 fewer to 256 fewer)àafter a median follow-up of 30 months. The addition of abiraterone acetate to ADT probably increases the risk of discontinuing treatment due to adverse events compared to ADT alone (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.92; 1 RCT, 1199 men; moderate certainty of evidence). This corresponds to 51 more men (95% CI 17 more to 93 more) discontinuing treatment because of adverse events per 1000 men treated with abiraterone acetate and ADT compared to ADT alone afteràa median follow-up of 30 months. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The addition of abiraterone acetate to androgen deprivation therapy improves overall survival but probably not quality of life. Itàprobably also extends disease-specific survival, and delays disease progression compared to androgen deprivation therapy alone. However, the risk of grades III to V adverse events is increased, and probably, so is the risk of discontinuing treatment due to adverse events.


Assuntos
Acetato de Abiraterona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Acetato de Abiraterona/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Suspensão de Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-9, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317336

RESUMO

Older adults are at an elevated risk for passive suicide ideation. The interpersonal theory of suicide and the 3-step theory may provide a framework to better understand factors that contribute to passive suicide ideation among older adults. Specifically, this study aimed to test components of prominent suicide theories and examine the role of meaning in life in the associations between hopelessness, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness and passive suicide ideation among older adults. Participants were 243 adults aged 60 and older recruited from primary care settings in the southwest United States. We hypothesized that high meaning in life would weaken the associations between hopelessness, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness and passive suicide ideation. Results from moderation analyses indicate that meaning in life was a significant moderator of the associations between hopelessness and passive suicide ideation, thwarted belongingness and passive suicide ideation, and perceived burdensomeness and passive suicide ideation. These findings suggest that when meaning in life is low there are significant negative associations between hopelessness, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness and passive suicide ideation among older adults. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

10.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323954

RESUMO

Understanding how species have responded to past climate change may help refine projections of how species and biotic communities will respond to future change. Here, we integrate estimates of genome-wide genetic variation with demographic and niche modeling to investigate the historical biogeography of an important ecological engineer: the dusky-footed woodrat, Neotoma fuscipes. We use RADseq to generate a genome-wide dataset for 71 individuals from across the geographic distribution of the species in California. We estimate population structure using several model-based methods and infer the demographic history of regional populations using a site frequency spectrum-based approach. Additionally, we use ecological niche modeling to infer current and past (Last Glacial Maximum) environmental suitability across the species' distribution. Finally, we estimate the directionality and possible spatial origins of regional population expansions. Our analyses indicate this species is subdivided into three regionally distinct populations, with the deepest divergence occurring ~1.7 million years ago across the modern-day San Francisco-Bay Delta region; a common biogeographic barrier for the flora and fauna of California. Our models of environmental suitability through time coincide with our estimates of population expansion, with relative long-term stability in the southern portion of the range, and more recent expansion into the northern end of the range. Our study illustrates how the integration of genome-wide data with spatial and demographic modeling can reveal the timing and spatial extent of historic events that determine patterns of biotic diversity and may help predict biotic response to future change.

11.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000001550, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microhematuria is a prevalent condition and the American Urological Association has developed a new risk-stratified approach for the evaluation of patients with microhematuria. Our objective was to provide the first evaluation of this important guideline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multinational cohort study combines contemporary patients from 5 clinical trials and 2 prospective registries who underwent urological evaluation for hematuria. Patients were stratified into American Urological Association risk strata (low, intermediate, or high risk) based on sex, age, degree of hematuria, and smoking history. The primary endpoint was the incidence of bladder cancer within each risk stratum. RESULTS: A total of 15,779 patients were included in the analysis. Overall, 727 patients (4.6%) were classified as low risk, 1,863 patients (11.8%) were classified as intermediate risk, and 13,189 patients (83.6%) were classified as high risk. The predominance of high risk patients was consistent across all cohorts. A total of 857 bladder cancers were diagnosed with a bladder cancer incidence of 5.4%. Bladder cancer was more prevalent in men, smokers, older patients, and patients with gross hematuria. The cancer incidence for low, intermediate, and high risk groups was 0.4% (3 patients), 1.0% (18 patients), and 6.3% (836 patients), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The new risk stratification system separates hematuria patients into clinically meaningful categories with differing likelihoods of bladder cancer that would justify evaluating the low, intermediate and high risk groups with incremental intensity. Furthermore, it provides the relative incidence of bladder cancer in each risk group which should facilitate patient counseling regarding the risks and benefits of evaluation for bladder cancer.

12.
Int J Forensic Ment Health ; 19(4): 341-353, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33223964

RESUMO

This study tested current perceived social support (CPSS) as a moderator of the relation between previous substance use (PSU) and lifetime suicide attempt (SA) history among 200 NGRI inpatients. Results indicated no significant CPSS main effect. PSU was associated with greater odds of multiple prior lifetime SA. Moderation indicated those low in PSU but high in CPSS were least likely to report multiple prior lifetime SA. Conversely, NGRI inpatients with high CPSS and high PSU were most likely to report multiple lifetime SA. Our study suggests CPSS and PSU assessments may inform suicide risk assessments and interventions among NGRI inpatients.

13.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 166, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taxonomic profiles of vaginal microbial communities can be sorted into a discrete number of categories termed community state types (CSTs). This approach is advantageous because collapsing a hyper-dimensional taxonomic profile into a single categorical variable enables efforts such as data exploration, epidemiological studies, and statistical modeling. Vaginal communities are typically assigned to CSTs based on the results of hierarchical clustering of the pairwise distances between samples. However, this approach is problematic because it complicates between-study comparisons and because the results are entirely dependent on the particular set of samples that were analyzed. We sought to standardize and advance the assignment of samples to CSTs. RESULTS: We developed VALENCIA (VAginaL community state typE Nearest CentroId clAssifier), a nearest centroid-based tool which classifies samples based on their similarity to a set of reference centroids. The references were defined using a comprehensive set of 13,160 taxonomic profiles from 1975 women in the USA. This large dataset allowed us to comprehensively identify, define, and characterize vaginal CSTs common to reproductive age women and expand upon the CSTs that had been defined in previous studies. We validated the broad applicability of VALENCIA for the classification of vaginal microbial communities by using it to classify three test datasets which included reproductive age eastern and southern African women, adolescent girls, and a racially/ethnically and geographically diverse sample of postmenopausal women. VALENCIA performed well on all three datasets despite the substantial variations in sequencing strategies and bioinformatics pipelines, indicating its broad application to vaginal microbiota. We further describe the relationships between community characteristics (vaginal pH, Nugent score) and participant demographics (race, age) and the CSTs defined by VALENCIA. CONCLUSION: VALENCIA provides a much-needed solution for the robust and reproducible assignment of vaginal community state types. This will allow unbiased analysis of both small and large vaginal microbiota datasets, comparisons between datasets and meta-analyses that combine multiple datasets. Video abstract.

14.
PLoS Med ; 17(11): e1003434, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective health system interventions may help address the disproportionate burden of diabetes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We assessed the impact of health system interventions to improve outcomes for adults with type 2 diabetes in LMICs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, African Index Medicus, LILACS, and Global Index Medicus from inception of each database through February 24, 2020. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of health system interventions targeting adults with type 2 diabetes in LMICs. Eligible studies reported at least 1 of the following outcomes: glycemic change, mortality, quality of life, or cost-effectiveness. We conducted a meta-analysis for the glycemic outcome of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). GRADE and Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care methods were used to assess risk of bias for the glycemic outcome and to prepare a summary of findings table. Of the 12,921 references identified in searches, we included 39 studies in the narrative review of which 19 were cluster RCTs and 20 were individual RCTs. The greatest number of studies were conducted in the East Asia and Pacific region (n = 20) followed by South Asia (n = 7). There were 21,080 total participants enrolled across included studies and 10,060 total participants in the meta-analysis of HbA1c when accounting for the design effect of cluster RCTs. Non-glycemic outcomes of mortality, health-related quality of life, and cost-effectiveness had sparse data availability that precluded quantitative pooling. In the meta-analysis of HbA1c from 35 of the included studies, the mean difference was -0.46% (95% CI -0.60% to -0.31%, I2 87.8%, p < 0.001) overall, -0.37% (95% CI -0.64% to -0.10%, I2 60.0%, n = 7, p = 0.020) in multicomponent clinic-based interventions, -0.87% (-1.20% to -0.53%, I2 91.0%, n = 13, p < 0.001) in pharmacist task-sharing studies, and -0.27% (-0.50% to -0.04%, I2 64.1%, n = 7, p = 0.010) in trials of diabetes education or support alone. Other types of interventions had few included studies. Eight studies were at low risk of bias for the summary assessment of glycemic control, 15 studies were at unclear risk, and 16 studies were at high risk. The certainty of evidence for glycemic control by subgroup was moderate for multicomponent clinic-based interventions but was low or very low for other intervention types. Limitations include the lack of consensus definitions for health system interventions, differences in the quality of underlying studies, and sparse data availability for non-glycemic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, we found that health system interventions for type 2 diabetes may be effective in improving glycemic control in LMICs, but few studies are available from rural areas or low- or lower-middle-income countries. Multicomponent clinic-based interventions had the strongest evidence for glycemic benefit among intervention types. Further research is needed to assess non-glycemic outcomes and to study implementation in rural and low-income settings.

16.
BMJ ; 371: m4076, 2020 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106233
18.
Ecol Evol ; 10(19): 10532-10542, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072278

RESUMO

Several studies have demonstrated the ecological consequences of genetic variation within a single plant species. For example, these studies show that individual plant genotypes support unique composition of the plants' associated arthropod community. By contrast, fewer studies have explored how plant genetic variation may influence evolutionary dynamics in the plant's associated species. Here, we examine how aphids respond evolutionarily to genetic variation in their host plant. We conducted two experiments to examine local adaptation and rapid evolution of the free-feeding aphid Chaitophorus populicola across genetic variants of its host plant, Populus angustifolia. To test for local adaptation, we collected tree cuttings and aphid colonies from three sites along an elevation/climate gradient and conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment. In general, home aphids (aphids transplanted onto trees from the same site) produced 1.7-3.4 times as many offspring as foreign aphids (aphids transplanted onto trees from different sites). To test for rapid evolution, we used 4 clonally replicated aphid genotypes and transplanted each onto 5 clonally replicated P. angustifolia genotypes. Each tree genotype started with the same aphid genotype composition. After 21 days (~two aphid generations), aphid genotype composition changed (i.e., aphids evolved) and some tree genotypes supported unique evolutionary trajectories of aphids. These results suggest that plant evolution in response to human perturbation, such as climate change and invasive species, will also result in evolutionary responses in strongly interacting species that could cascade to affect whole communities.

19.
Clin Transl Radiat Oncol ; 25: 61-66, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072895

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and most patients are unsuitable for 'gold standard' treatment, which is concurrent chemoradiotherapy. CONCORDE is a platform study seeking to establish the toxicity profiles of multiple novel radiosensitisers targeting DNA repair proteins in patients treated with sequential chemoradiotherapy. Time-to-event continual reassessment will facilitate efficient dose-finding.

20.
Trials ; 21(1): 826, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell tumour with approximately 5500 new cases in the UK each year. Ixazomib is a next generation inhibitor of the 20S proteasome and is thought to be an effective treatment for those who have relapsed from bortezomib. The combination of cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (CD) is a recognised treatment option for patients with relapsed refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) who have relapsed after treatment with bortezomib and lenalidomide, whilst also often being combined with newer proteasome inhibitors. The most apparent combination for ixazomib is therefore with CD. METHODS: MUK eight is a randomised, controlled, open, parallel group, multi-centre phase II trial that will recruit patients with RRMM who have relapsed after treatment with thalidomide, lenalidomide, and a proteasome inhibitor. The primary objective of the trial is to evaluate whether ixazomib in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (ICD) has improved clinical activity compared to CD in terms of progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary objectives include comparing toxicity profiles and the activity and cost-effectiveness of both treatments. Since opening, the trial has been amended to allow all participants who experience disease progression (as per the IMWG criteria) on the CD arm to subsequently switch to receive ICD treatment, once progression has been confirmed with two clinical members of the Trial Management Group (TMG). This 'switch' phase of the study is exploratory and will assess second progression-free survival measured from randomisation to second disease progression (PFS2) and progression-free survival from the point of switching to second disease progression (PFS Switch) in participants who switch from CD to ICD treatment. DISCUSSION: Development of ixazomib offers the opportunity to further investigate the value of proteasome inhibition through oral administration in the treatment of RRMM. Previous studies investigating the safety and efficacy of ICD in patients with RRMM demonstrate a toxicity profile consistent with ixazomib in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, whilst the combination showed possible activity in RRMM patients. Further investigation of the anti-tumour effect of this drug in RRMM patients is therefore warranted, especially since no trials comparing CD with ICD have been completed at present. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN number: ISRCTN58227268 . Registered on 26 August 2015.

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