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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 643, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lower Dipteran fungus fly, Sciara coprophila, has many unique biological features that challenge the rule of genome DNA constancy. For example, Sciara undergoes paternal chromosome elimination and maternal X chromosome nondisjunction during spermatogenesis, paternal X elimination during embryogenesis, intrachromosomal DNA amplification of DNA puff loci during larval development, and germline-limited chromosome elimination from all somatic cells. Paternal chromosome elimination in Sciara was the first observation of imprinting, though the mechanism remains a mystery. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence for Sciara coprophila to take a large step forward in addressing these features. RESULTS: We assembled the Sciara genome using PacBio, Nanopore, and Illumina sequencing. To find an optimal assembly using these datasets, we generated 44 short-read and 50 long-read assemblies. We ranked assemblies using 27 metrics assessing contiguity, gene content, and dataset concordance. The highest-ranking assemblies were scaffolded using BioNano optical maps. RNA-seq datasets from multiple life stages and both sexes facilitated genome annotation. A set of 66 metrics was used to select the first draft assembly for Sciara. Nearly half of the Sciara genome sequence was anchored into chromosomes, and all scaffolds were classified as X-linked or autosomal by coverage. CONCLUSIONS: We determined that X-linked genes in Sciara males undergo dosage compensation. An entire bacterial genome from the Rickettsia genus, a group known to be endosymbionts in insects, was co-assembled with the Sciara genome, opening the possibility that Rickettsia may function in sex determination in Sciara. Finally, the signal level of the PacBio and Nanopore data support the presence of cytosine and adenine modifications in the Sciara genome, consistent with a possible role in imprinting.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Cromossomo X , DNA , Feminino , Fungos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
J Gen Virol ; 102(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950806

RESUMO

Rotavirus C (RVC) is associated with acute diarrhoea in both children and young animals. Because of its frequent occurrence, additional sequences have recently been generated. In this study, we sequenced 21 complete genomes from porcine diarrhoea samples and analysed them together with all available reference sequences collected from the GenBank database [National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)]. Based on phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance calculation, the number of each segment was identified as 31G, 26P, 13I, 5R, 5C, 5M, 12A, 10 N, 9T, 8E and 4 H for genotypes encoding VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3 and NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5, respectively. From the analysis, genotypes G19-G31, P[22]-P[26], R5, A9-A12, N9-N10, T7-T9 and E6-E8 were defined as newly identified genotypes, and genotype C6 was combined with C5, and M6 was combined with M1, due to their closely related nature. Estimated with the identity frequency ratio between the intergenotype and intragenotype, the nucleotide identity cutoff values for different genotypes were determined as 85, 85, 86, 84, 83, 84, 82, 87, 84, 81 and 79 % for VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5, respectively. Genotyping of the 49 US strains indicated possible segment reassortment in 9 of the 11 segments, with the exceptions being VP1 and NSP5, and the most prevalent genotypes for each segment genes in the USA were G6/G5/G21/G9-P5/P4-I6/I5-R1-C5-M1-A8-N1/N10-T1-E1-H1. Our study updated the genotypes of RVC strains and provided more evidence of RVC strain diversity that may be relevant to better understand genetic diversity, and the distribution and evolution of RVC strains.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genes Virais , Genótipo , Filogenia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos , Estados Unidos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884059

RESUMO

Recently, students and faculty have been forced to deal with unprecedented disruptions to their courses and broader uncertainties that have presented serious challenges to quality instruction. We present a flexible, team-based approach to teaching and learning that can transition seamlessly between face-to-face, hybrid, and fully online instruction when disruptions occur. We have built a community genome annotation program that can be implemented as a module in a biology course, as an entire course, or as directed research projects. This approach maintains an engaging and supportive educational environment and provides students the opportunity to learn and contribute to science with undergraduate research. Students are provided guidance through multiple interactions with faculty and peer mentors to support their progress and encourage learning. Integration of the developed instructional tools with available technology ensures that students can contribute remotely. Through this process, students seamlessly continue their annotation coursework, participate in undergraduate research, and prepare abstracts and posters for virtual conferences. Importantly, this strategy does not impose any additional burden or workload on students, who may already be overwhelmed with the additional work associated with the transition to remote learning. Here, we present tips for implementing this instructional platform, provide an overview of tools that facilitate instruction, and discuss expected educational outcomes.

4.
Sports Biomech ; : 1-18, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666149

RESUMO

Motion capture systems are used in the analysis and interpretation of athlete movement patterns for a variety of reasons, but data integrity remains critical regardless. The extent to which marker location or constraining degrees of freedom (DOF) in the biomechanical model impacts on this integrity lacks consensus. Ten elite academy footballers performed bilateral overhead squats using a marker-based motion capture system. Kinematic data were calculated using four different marker sets with 3DOF and 6DOF configurations for the three joint rotations of the right knee. Root mean squared error differences between marker sets ranged in the sagittal plane between 1.02 and 4.19 degrees to larger values in the frontal (1.30-6.39 degrees) and transverse planes (1.33 and 7.97 degrees). The cross-correlation function of the knee kinematic time series for all eight marker-sets ranged from excellent for sagittal plane motion (>0.99) but reduced for both coronal and transverse planes (<0.9). Two-way ANOVA repeated measures calculated at peak knee flexion revealed significant differences between marker sets for frontal and transverse planes (p < 0.05). Pairwise comparisons showed significant differences between some marker sets. Marker location and constraining DOF while measuring relatively large ranges of motion in this population are important considerations for data integrity.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116474, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639486

RESUMO

Many types of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), have been found in leachate of operating municipal landfills. However, there is only limited information on CECs presence in leachate of historic landfills (≥3 decades since closure, often lacking engineered liners or leachate collection systems) at concentrations that may pose a risk to nearby wells and surface water ecosystems. In this study, 48 samples of leachate-impacted groundwater were collected from 20 historic landfills in Ontario, Canada. The CECs measured included artificial sweeteners (ASs), PFAS, organophosphate esters (OPE), pharmaceuticals, bisphenols, sulfamic acid, perchlorate, and substituted phenols. The common presence of the AS saccharin, a known indicator of old landfill leachate, combined with mostly negligible levels of the AS acesulfame, an indicator of modern wastewater, revealed that most samples were strongly influenced by leachate and not cross-contaminated by wastewater (which can contain these same CECs). Several landfills, including ones closed in the 1960s, had total PFAS concentrations similar to those previously measured at modern landfills, with a maximum observed here of 12.7 µg/L. Notably elevated concentrations of several OPE, sulfamic acid, cotinine, and bisphenols A and S were found at many 30-60 year-old landfills. There was little indication of declining concentrations with landfill age, suggesting historic landfills can be long-term sources of CECs to groundwater and that certain CECs may be useful tracers for historic landfill leachate. These findings provide guidance on which CECs may require monitoring at historic landfill sites and wastewater treatment plants receiving their effluent.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ontário , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Water Res ; 184: 116124, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755735

RESUMO

For more than a decade the artificial sweeteners acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) have been applied as tracers of the input of wastewater to environmental waters. Recently concerns have been raised that degradation of ACE during treatment may hinder or restrict its use as a wastewater tracer. In this study the value of ACE and SUC as tracers was reassessed based on samples of wastewater at 12 municipal wastewater treatment (MWWT) plants and from 7 septic systems and associated septic plumes in groundwater. The results indicated stability of SUC during MWWT at most plants, and variable removal of both sweeteners during some MWWT and in the septic wastewater systems. However, the residual concentrations of ACE and SUC in municipal effluent and in septic plumes indicate that both sweeteners remain valuable wastewater tracers. The mass ratio SUC/ACE was found to be a useful parameter for examining the relative persistence of these sweeteners.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Edulcorantes/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137426, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325562

RESUMO

Quantitative information about fluxes of perchlorate in the environment is lacking. This study reports analyses of perchlorate in various environmental waters sampled from rural headwater catchments in the Thames River basin in southern Ontario (Canada) that provide evidence about the fluxes and fate of perchlorate in the environment. Concentrations in streams (16 to 1047 ng/L) were used to estimate exports from these rural catchments (228-1843 mg/(ha·year)), atmospheric deposition (1480 ± 230 mg/(ha·year)), as well as variable rates of microbial degradation of perchlorate, which appeared to be enhanced in catchments with higher percentages of wetlands. Groundwater data supported earlier evidence that degradation of perchlorate occurs in the subsurface under oxygen-depleted conditions. The stream data suggest that the rate of degradation varies strongly between catchments and ranges up to >1000 mg/(ha·year).


Assuntos
Percloratos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea , Ontário , Rios
8.
Chemosphere ; 251: 126386, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155495

RESUMO

This study presents the first reported detections and concentrations of alkyl phenoxy-benzenesulfonate surfactants (APBS) in municipal wastewater. A semi quantitative direct injection LC/MS/MS method was developed. Samples of raw influent and final effluent were obtained from fourteen municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) at various locations in Canada and were analyzed for APBS, including five homologues of monoalkyldiphenylether disulfonates (MADS) and one monoalkyldiphenylether sulfonate (MAMS) homologue. APBS were detected in all 42 of the wastewater raw influent samples and in 37 of the 42 wastewater final effluent samples; the other 5 final effluent samples had trace levels below the minimum detection limit. In the samples of raw influent from the fourteen municipal treatment plants, the dissolved concentrations of APBS (total) ranged from 0.9 to 13.6 µg/L. In samples of final effluent from the same plants the total APBS ranged from below detection to 4 µg/L. The APBS were more resistant to loss during wastewater treatment compared to previous studies of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in wastewaters. The most effective wastewater treatments for removal of APBS were those that involved either secondary treatment with aeration or advanced treatment including biological nutrient removal. Available information on ecotoxicity is lacking for evaluating the impacts of APBS surfactants when released to the environment.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Benzenossulfonatos/análise , Canadá , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tensoativos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 54: 100915, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062333

RESUMO

Reproduction is a critical feature in the search for means to manage the Asian citrus psyllid, vector of a devastating bacterial pathogen of citrus. The importance of accuracy in functional, anatomical descriptions and interpretations for use by other disciplines, particularly molecular genetics, cannot be overstressed. The term 'sperm pump' was coined by classical authors on observational appearance of the endoskeleton of the male reproductive apparatus. They described a thimble-shaped cuticle with smooth, cylindrical columns, interpreted as muscles, that ran longitudinally around a central cylinder. They detected transverse lines on the cylinder giving the false impression of a coiled spring. These features fostered the teleological interpretation that the device is a contractile pump. Now obsolete, the term is replaced by 'drum/spout complex'. It is a hypodermis with a sclerotized cuticle that houses the phallus which transports seminal fluid through its lumen to the female for insemination. Between the spout and the external genitalia is a spout extension, conferring flexibility to the apparatus about the abdominal apex. Approximately 21 longitudinal columns extend circumferentially around the cylinder's hemolymph-side, from the thimble's basal plate to its apical plate. These columns are correctly muscle cells, and reinterpreted to exude a lipaceous, lubricating substance for mating.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Genitália Masculina/anatomia & histologia , Masculino
10.
Oncol Nurs Forum ; 46(6): 654-669, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626621

RESUMO

PROBLEM STATEMENT: To define the Oncology Nursing Society Research Agenda for 2019-2022. DESIGN: Multimethod, consensus-building approach by members of the Research Agenda Project Team. DATA SOURCES: Expert opinion, literature review, surveys, interviews, focus groups, town hall, and review of research priorities from other cancer care organizations and funding agencies. ANALYSIS: Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used to synthesize research priority themes that emerged. FINDINGS: Three priority areas for scientific development were identified. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: The Research Agenda can be used to focus oncology nurses' research, scholarship, leadership, and health policy efforts to advance quality cancer care, inform research funding priorities, and align initiatives and resources across the ONS enterprise.


Assuntos
Pesquisa em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Enfermagem Oncológica/organização & administração , Objetivos Organizacionais , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Sociedades de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
12.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(4): e1006682, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943207

RESUMO

High quality gene models are necessary to expand the molecular and genetic tools available for a target organism, but these are available for only a handful of model organisms that have undergone extensive curation and experimental validation over the course of many years. The majority of gene models present in biological databases today have been identified in draft genome assemblies using automated annotation pipelines that are frequently based on orthologs from distantly related model organisms and usually have minor or major errors. Manual curation is time consuming and often requires substantial expertise, but is instrumental in improving gene model structure and identification. Manual annotation may seem to be a daunting and cost-prohibitive task for small research communities but involving undergraduates in community genome annotation consortiums can be mutually beneficial for both education and improved genomic resources. We outline a workflow for efficient manual annotation driven by a team of primarily undergraduate annotators. This model can be scaled to large teams and includes quality control processes through incremental evaluation. Moreover, it gives students an opportunity to increase their understanding of genome biology and to participate in scientific research in collaboration with peers and senior researchers at multiple institutions.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/educação , Genômica/educação , Modelos Genéticos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Genéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Genômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Estudantes
14.
Gene Expr Patterns ; 31: 26-31, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630105

RESUMO

The pair-rule gene teneurin-m/odd Oz (ten-m/odz) is required for the patterning of alternate segment boundaries in the early Drosophila embryo. Mutant phenotypes of ten-m/odz display a typical pair-rule phenotype in which odd-numbered segments are eliminated. Consistent with its pair-rule function, Ten-m/Odz protein is expressed in a seven-stripe pattern before the onset of gastrulation. While expression of ten-m/odz orthologues have been characterized in several vertebrate species, their expression patterns in non-Drosophila arthropods during embryonic segmentation have yet to be reported. Here, we have identified a Tribolium orthologue of ten-m/odz (Tc-ten-m/odz) and analyzed its expression patterns during embryonic segmentation. Tc-ten-m/odz expression was observed in a region of the growth zone, which appeared to be a potential mesodermal region, during germband elongation. Later, segmental expression appeared in the trunk after segments had already formed. In contrast to Drosophila, apparently Tc-ten-m/odz was neither expressed in the ectoderm of the growth zone where segmentation occurs, nor the ectoderm of trunk regions where segmentation is maintained. Our findings suggest that Tc-ten-m/odz may not function as a pair rule gene in Tribolium segmentation.


Assuntos
Padronização Corporal , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Tenascina/genética , Tribolium/genética , Animais , Ectoderma/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Tenascina/metabolismo , Tribolium/embriologia
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1858: 27-32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414108

RESUMO

Isolation of high molecular weight (HMW) DNA from any organism can be daunting and populations of extremely small insects with hard exoskeletons are no exception. It can be challenging to isolate DNA that is clean enough to enzymatically label, digest or otherwise manipulate without sacrificing length. The method described here was originally developed to isolate HMW DNA for BAC library construction. More recently, it has proven reliable for long range optical mapping as well.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos/genética , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Biblioteca Gênica , Genoma de Inseto , Insetos/genética , Animais , Peso Molecular
16.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(3): 553-561, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576522

RESUMO

Long-term suppression of recombination ultimately leads to gene loss, as demonstrated by the depauperate Y and W chromosomes of long-established pairs of XY and ZW chromosomes. The young social supergene of the Solenopsis invicta red fire ant provides a powerful system to examine the effects of suppressed recombination over a shorter timescale. The two variants of this supergene are carried by a pair of heteromorphic chromosomes, referred to as the social B and social b (SB and Sb) chromosomes. The Sb variant of this supergene changes colony social organization and has an inheritance pattern similar to a Y or W chromosome because it is unable to recombine. We used high-resolution optical mapping, k-mer distribution analysis, and quantification of repetitive elements on haploid ants carrying alternate variants of this young supergene region. We find that instead of shrinking, the Sb variant of the supergene has increased in length by more than 30%. Surprisingly, only a portion of this length increase is due to consistent increases in the frequency of particular classes of repetitive elements. Instead, haplotypes of this supergene variant differ dramatically in the amounts of other repetitive elements, indicating that the accumulation of repetitive elements is a heterogeneous and dynamic process. This is the first comprehensive demonstration of degenerative expansion in an animal and shows that it occurs through nonlinear processes during the early evolution of a region of suppressed recombination.


Assuntos
Formigas/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Recombinação Genética , Animais , Inversão Cromossômica , Cromossomos de Insetos , Genoma de Inseto , Masculino , Mutagênese Insercional
17.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 47(5): 542-551, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29959091

RESUMO

In Hemiptera, presumptive stylets for each consecutive postembryonic instar are manufactured prior to ecdysis to replace the ecdysial stylets discarded with the exuviae. With the discovery that the bacterium "Candidatus" Liberibacter solanacearum accesses the tissues involved in the stylet replacement process of the potato psyllid, a hypothesis was formed that the bacterium could adhere to the stylets of freshly emerged instars and hence gain access to the host plant when feeding is resumed. Although unproven, it was imperative that a model for stylet replacement be built. Stylet morphology and the stylet replacement process of the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), vector of "C." L. asiaticus, causal pathogen of citrus greening disease, are comparable to the potato psyllid model system. Morphology consists of a basal terminus with its tab-shaped auricle, a base, shaft, and an apical terminus. Each of the four auricles act as a platform for the replacement apparatus, which is compacted into a tight aggregate of cells, the 'end-cap'. As modeled, on apolysis of larval instar hypodermis, the aggregate 'deconstructs' and expands into a snail shell-shaped tube, the 'atrium', that houses the presumptive stylet as it is synthesized. Completed stylets then despool from the atrium and are fitted into their functional positions as the next instar emerges from its exuviae.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Rhizobiaceae/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Hemípteros/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
19.
BMC Biol ; 15(1): 110, 2017 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The de novo assembly of repeat-rich mammalian genomes using only high-throughput short read sequencing data typically results in highly fragmented genome assemblies that limit downstream applications. Here, we present an iterative approach to hybrid de novo genome assembly that incorporates datasets stemming from multiple genomic technologies and methods. We used this approach to improve the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) genome from early draft status to a near chromosome-scale assembly. METHODS: We used a combination of advanced genomic technologies to iteratively resolve conflicts and super-scaffold the M. murinus genome. RESULTS: We improved the M. murinus genome assembly to a scaffold N50 of 93.32 Mb. Whole genome alignments between our primary super-scaffolds and 23 human chromosomes revealed patterns that are congruent with historical comparative cytogenetic data, thus demonstrating the accuracy of our de novo scaffolding approach and allowing assignment of scaffolds to M. murinus chromosomes. Moreover, we utilized our independent datasets to discover and characterize sequences associated with centromeres across the mouse lemur genome. Quality assessment of the final assembly found 96% of mouse lemur canonical transcripts nearly complete, comparable to other published high-quality reference genome assemblies. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a new assembly of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) genome with chromosome-scale scaffolds produced using a hybrid bioinformatic and sequencing approach. The approach is cost effective and produces superior results based on metrics of contiguity and completeness. Our results show that emerging genomic technologies can be used in combination to characterize centromeres of non-model species and to produce accurate de novo chromosome-scale genome assemblies of complex mammalian genomes.


Assuntos
Centrômero/genética , Cheirogaleidae/genética , Genoma , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(41): E8646-E8655, 2017 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973882

RESUMO

During the anterior-posterior fate specification of insects, anterior fates arise in a nonelongating tissue (called the "blastoderm"), and posterior fates arise in an elongating tissue (called the "germband"). However, insects differ widely in the extent to which anterior-posterior fates are specified in the blastoderm versus the germband. Here we present a model in which patterning in both the blastoderm and germband of the beetle Tribolium castaneum is based on the same flexible mechanism: a gradient that modulates the speed of a genetic cascade of gap genes, resulting in the induction of sequential kinematic waves of gap gene expression. The mechanism is flexible and capable of patterning both elongating and nonelongating tissues, and hence converting blastodermal to germband fates and vice versa. Using RNAi perturbations, we found that blastodermal fates could be shifted to the germband, and germband fates could be generated in a blastoderm-like morphology. We also suggest a molecular mechanism underlying our model, in which gradient levels regulate the switch between two enhancers: One enhancer is responsible for sequential gene activation, and the other is responsible for freezing temporal rhythms into spatial patterns. This model is consistent with findings in Drosophila melanogaster, where gap genes were found to be regulated by two nonredundant "shadow" enhancers.


Assuntos
Padronização Corporal/genética , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Tribolium/embriologia , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/citologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Tribolium/genética , Tribolium/metabolismo
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