Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 10 de 10
Filtrar
1.
Forensic Sci Int ; 313: 110342, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474342

RESUMO

The cutting agents, classified as diluents (pharmacologically inactive) or adulterants (pharmacologically active), are substances commonly used to cut drugs of abuse to increase profits. These substances are constantly changing over time, increasing the risks to the user's health caused by the compounds' potential individual toxicities as well as their drug-drug interactions. This work aimed to develop and validate a screening method using a portable quadrupole-based gas chromatography mass spectrometer (FLIR Griffin™ G510) to identify drugs of abuse and adulterants in seized material, and compare it with a well validated standard technology, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was validated for the identification of alprazolam, amphetamine, aminopyrine, benzocaine, caffeine, cocaine, codeine, diltiazem, ephedrine, fentanyl, fenethylline, furanylfentanyl, heroin, hydroxyzine, levamisole, lidocaine, methamphetamine, morphine, noramidopyrine (a marker of metamizole), phencyclidine, phenacetin, procaine, strychnine and xylazine. The targeted substances were chosen based on current intelligence regarding prevalent adulterants observed in multiple jurisdictions. Interference, precision, robustness and carryover were evaluated. The method was successfully validated and proved to be suitable to detect and identify the 24 target compounds proposed. The reliability of the instrument for detecting the presence of targeted compounds was analyzed by using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The portable quadrupole-based gas chromatography mass spectrometer was considered suitable for use in forensic analysis as a screening method.

3.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(3): 888-896, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485426

RESUMO

The following report summarizes a study performed on seized drug exhibits collected in two U.S. states to evaluate the presence and identification of cutting agents. Aliquots of seized drug materials from Kentucky (n = 200) and Vermont (n = 315) were prepared using a dilute-and-shoot procedure. Initial analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) followed by analysis using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF). Active compounds detected overall included caffeine (31.0%), quinine/quinidine (24.7%), levamisole (11.6%), acetaminophen, (8.2%) and procaine (8.2%). These compounds were found with several drugs of abuse, such as heroin, fentanyl, methamphetamine, and cocaine. This novel information about cutting agents used to dilute or alter drugs of abuse is important to criminal investigations and in the management of acute intoxications at health centers. However, common methodologies for analysis and standard reporting practices frequently do not include cutting agents, resulting in lacking or inadequate information regarding prevalence of these substances.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Medicamentos , Drogas Ilícitas/química , Acetaminofen/análise , Cafeína/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Kentucky , Levamisol/análise , Procaína/análise , Quinidina/análise , Quinina/análise , Vermont
4.
Int J Pediatr ; 2017: 2382951, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28932246

RESUMO

The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD) protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment. CHILD included age-appropriate literacy and numeracy, drug education, basic living safety, and communication and trauma coping skills. A battery of measures examined multiple child health domains at treatment's start and end and 12 weeks later. For younger children, there were no significant Gender or Gender X Time effects (all p's > .16 and .35, resp.). The time main effect was significant for all outcomes (all p's < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate). Post hoc testing showed significant improvements from residential treatment entry to completion for all scales. For older children, a time main effect was significant for (all p's < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate) all but one outcome. Community follow-up means were significantly lower than residential treatment entry means. CHILD had a positive impact on children, and treatment impact endured from posttreatment to follow-up assessment.

6.
Ethn Health ; 20(5): 453-73, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24920072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study examines gender differences in drug-abuse treatment (DAT) entry, dropout, and outcomes in seven DAT centers in Afghanistan. This is the first study to examine gender differences in DAT programming in Afghanistan. DESIGN: A prospective cohort design of 504 women and men in seven DAT centers in Afghanistan was used in this study and the analyses examined whether gender differences exist for patients (1) at treatment entry, (2) at treatment dropout, and (3) for treatment outcomes. RESULTS: Gender differences were found at baseline for patient characteristics, drug use, crime, and social and occupational functioning. Results showed a trend that women remained in treatment longer than men. Looking at gender differences in treatment success, results showed greater reductions in drug use and crime, and greater social functioning among women. CONCLUSION: Results provide preliminary evidence for potential treatment success of women-tailored DAT programming in Afghanistan. Results also indicate that DAT appears to be successful among Afghan men; however, lower positive outcomes for men when compared to women suggest that more efforts should focus on tailoring DAT programming to the specific needs of Afghan men as well. Study limitations are addressed, and important policy implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto , Afeganistão , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 8: 20, 2013 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23734635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article focuses on examining drug abuse treatment (DAT) in El Salvador highlighting gang vs. non-gang membership differences in drug use and treatment outcomes. METHODS: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs were employed to examine the study aims. The 19 centers that met the study's inclusion criteria of one year or less in planned treatment offered varying treatment services: individual, group, family, and vocational therapy, dual diagnosis treatment, psychological testing, 12-step program, and outreach and re-entry aftercare. Most directors describe their treatment approach as "spiritual." Data were collected from 625 patients, directors, and staff from the 19 centers at baseline, of which 34 patients were former gang members. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the former patients (448) were re-interviewed six-months after leaving treatment and 48% were randomly tested for drug use. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the DAT patients at baseline were classified as heavy alcohol users and 40% were using illegal drugs, i.e., crack, marijuana, cocaine, tranquilizers, opiates, and amphetamines. There were large decreases after treatment in heavy alcohol and illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activities. Gang members reported illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activity more than non-gang members, yet only 5% of the study participants were gang members; further, positive change in treatment outcomes among gang members were the same or larger as compared to non-gang members. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use is the drug of choice among DAT patients in El Salvador with gang member patients having used illegal drugs more than non-gang members. The study shows that DAT centers successfully reduced the use of illegal drugs and alcohol among gang and non-gang members. Although our study could not include a control group, we believe that the DAT treatment centers in El Salvador contributed to producing this treatment success among former patients. These efforts should be continued and complemented by funding support from the Salvadoran government for DAT centers that obtain certification. In addition, tailored/alternative treatment modalities are needed for gang members in treatment for heavy drinking.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Drogas Ilícitas , Grupo Associado , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Crime/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , El Salvador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Subst Use Misuse ; 47(8-9): 889-909, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22676561

RESUMO

This study, conducted in 2005 to 2007, presents results that are based on a proscriptive cohort design. The sample consisted of 769 residents in 22 drug user treatment programs who stayed in treatment for at least 30 days to one year; 510 former residents (66%) from 21 programs (95%) were interviewed again at a 6-month post-treatment follow-up assessment. A majority of the participants were male, lived with family or relatives, had completed only primary school, and had a full-time or a part-time job prior to entering treatment. The participating therapeutic community (TC) programs were a mixture of volunteer, compulsory-probation, and prison-based programs. In-person interview data and urine testing showed that the self-reported drug use prevalence rates are reliable. The results show large positive treatment effects on 30-day and 6-month illegal drug use and small to medium effects on the severity of alcohol use and related problems. A multilevel regression analysis suggests that residents' reduced stigma, adaptation of the TC model, and frequency of alcohol and drug use-related consequences partially predict treatment success. Study limitations and policy implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Programas Obrigatórios , Modelos Teóricos , Prisões , Política Pública , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Comunidade Terapêutica , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Womens Health ; 4: 155-65, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22532779

RESUMO

Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT) centers assesses (a) the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b) whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91%) reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50%) experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one's own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.

10.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 3: 26, 2008 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19055774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of drug abuse treatment in Peru that used the therapeutic community (TC) model. Program directors and several staff members from all study treatment facilities received two to eight weeks of in-country training on how to implement the TC treatment model prior to the follow-up study. METHODS: This outcome study involved 33 TC treatment facilities and 509 former clients in Lima and other cities in five providences across Peru. A retrospective pre-test (RPT) follow-up design was employed in which 30-day use of illegal drugs and alcohol to intoxication was measured at baseline retrospectively, at the same time of the six-month follow-up. In-person interview data were collected from directors of 73 percent of the eligible TC organizations in January and February 2003 and from former 58 percent of the eligible TC former clients between October 2003 and October 2004. Drug testing was conducted on a small sample of former clients to increase the accuracy of the self-reported drug use data. RESULTS: Medium to large positive treatment effects were found when comparing 30-day illegal drug and alcohol use to intoxication before and six months after receiving treatment. As a supplemental analysis, we assumed the 42 percent of the former clients who were not interviewed at the six month assessment had returned to drugs. These results showed medium treatment effects as well. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling (HGLM) results showed higher implementation fidelity, less stigma after leaving treatment, and older clients, singly or in combination are key predictors of treatment success. CONCLUSION: This study found that former clients of drug and alcohol treatment in facilities using the TC model reported substantial positive change in use of illegal drugs and alcohol to intoxication at a six-month follow-up. The unique contribution of this study is that the results also suggest attention should be placed on the importance of implementing the TC drug abuse treatment model with fidelity. Further, the results strongly suggest that TC drug abuse treatment programs should incorporate follow-up activities that attempt to neutralize community negative reactions (perceived stigma) independent of other factors.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias , Comunidade Terapêutica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...