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1.
J Geophys Res Atmos ; 123(8): 4273-4283, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938147

RESUMO

It has been hypothesized that black carbon (BC) influences mixed-phase clouds by acting as an ice-nucleating particle (INP). However, the literature data for ice nucleation by BC immersed in supercooled water are extremely varied, with some studies reporting that BC is very effective at nucleating ice, whereas others report no ice-nucleating ability. Here we present new experimental results for immersion mode ice nucleation by BC from two contrasting fuels (n-decane and eugenol). We observe no significant heterogeneous nucleation by either sample. Using a global aerosol model, we quantify the maximum relative importance of BC for ice nucleation when compared with K-feldspar and marine organic aerosol acting as INP. Based on the upper limit from our laboratory data, we show that BC contributes at least several orders of magnitude less INP than feldspar and marine organic aerosol. Representations of its atmospheric ice-nucleating ability based on older laboratory data produce unrealistic results when compared against ambient observations of INP. Since BC is a complex material, it cannot be unambiguously ruled out as an important INP species in all locations at all times. Therefore, we use our model to estimate a range of values for the density of active sites that BC particles must have to be relevant for ice nucleation in the atmosphere. The estimated values will guide future work on BC, defining the required sensitivity of future experimental studies.

2.
Nature ; 525(7568): 234-8, 2015 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354482

RESUMO

The amount of ice present in clouds can affect cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties. The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice-nucleating particles. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice. Sea-spray aerosol contains large amounts of organic material that is ejected into the atmosphere during bubble bursting at the organically enriched sea-air interface or sea surface microlayer. Here we show that organic material in the sea surface microlayer nucleates ice under conditions relevant for mixed-phase cloud and high-altitude ice cloud formation. The ice-nucleating material is probably biogenic and less than approximately 0.2 micrometres in size. We find that exudates separated from cells of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana nucleate ice, and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates is a likely candidate for the observed ice-nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. Global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, in combination with our measurements, suggest that marine organic material may be an important source of ice-nucleating particles in remote marine environments such as the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Gelo , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Ar , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Regiões Árticas , Diatomáceas/química , Congelamento , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Fitoplâncton/química , Água do Mar/química
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