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1.
Chemosphere ; : 133521, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999106

RESUMO

Rail transport is considered a serious risk to the environment; however, its environmental impact has been addressed insufficiently with many resulting uncertainties. A busy railway corridor was used to determine if the side of a railway track could distort the assessment of soil contamination with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and if soil phytotoxicity changes up to 50 m away from the track. The studied soils showed a moderate to heavy level of contamination by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Cu, Ni and Zn content decreased significantly with the distance from the track while Pb content increased slightly, probably because the Pb came predominantly from exhaust gases, while the source of the remaining elements was the abrasion of railway infrastructure components. The side of the railway track proved to be a significant factor that influenced Ni and Pb content in particular. The phytotoxicity test predominantly showed a slight inhibition of plant growth with a maximum value reaching 70.4% but with an absence of significant differences in phytotoxicity between the distances. The ecological risk assessment did not reveal a serious threat to the environment from the PTEs in the soil. Based on the results, it is appropriate to define a heavily polluted zone at a minimum distance of 50 m from the track, and both sides of the railway track should be assessed so that the actual level of contamination is not underestimated. Further research is needed on this issue urgently due to the severe and hitherto overlooked environmental risks associated with rail transport.

2.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132452, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619257

RESUMO

The threat posed by the degradation of the soil environment by metal (-oid)s has been lead to the improvement of existing or search for new remediation methods; in this case, the application of environmentally friendly nanomaterials falls into this trend. The study applied a technique of aided phytostabilization for the immobilization of metal (-oid)s in soil with the application of nanosized halloysite and biochar (nBH), along with Lolium perenne L. Its effectiveness was assessed in terms of changing temperature conditions (16 cycles of freeze and thaw cycles, (FTC)) on the content of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in the soil, roots, and above-ground parts of the tested plant, chemical fraction distributions of metal (-oid)s and their stability (based on reduced partition index, Ir). The biomass yield in nBH-amended soil was 2-fold higher compared to control soil, but it decreased by 1.6-fold after FTC. nBH facilitated more bioaccumulation of As, Pb and Zn than Cu in plant roots, before than after FTC. nBH increased pH in phytostabilized soil, but it was not affected by changing FTC. In soil nBH-phytostabilized total concentration of metal (-oid)s significantly decreased compared to control soil, for As and Cu below permissible value, regardless of FTC. Soil amendment and changing temperature conditions affected metal (-oid)s redistribution in soil. As a result, the stability of As increased from 0.50 to 0.66, Cu from 0.49 to 0.52, Pb from 0.36 to 0.48 and Zn from 0.39 to 0.47. These findings suggest that nBH can immobilize metal (-oid)s in phytostabilized soil under changing temperature conditions.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal , Argila , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Temperatura
3.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 775785, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868175

RESUMO

Among heavy metals, chromium (Cr) contamination is increasing gradually due to the use of untreated industrial effluents for irrigation purposes, thereby posing a severe threat to crop production. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of compost, biochar (BC), and co-composted BC on the growth, physiological, biochemical attributes, and health risks associated with the consumption of Brassica grown on Cr-contaminated soil. Results revealed that Cr stress (Cr-25) significantly reduced the growth and physiological attributes and increased antioxidant enzyme activities in Brassica, but the applied amendments considerably retrieved the negative effects of Cr toxicity through improving the growth and physiology of plants. The maximum increase in plant height (75.3%), root length (151.0%), shoot dry weight (139.4%), root dry weight (158.5%), and photosynthetic rate (151.0%) was noted with the application of co-composted BC under Cr stress (Cr-25) in comparison to the control. The application of co-composted BC significantly reduced antioxidant enzyme activities, such as APX (42.5%), GP (45.1%), CAT (45.4%), GST (47.8%), GR (47.1%), and RG (48.2%), as compared to the control under Cr stress. The same treatment reduced the accumulation of Cr in grain, shoot, and roots of Brassica by 4.12, 2.27, and 2.17 times and enhanced the accumulation in soil by 1.52 times as compared to the control. Moreover, the application of co-composted BC significantly enhanced phytostabilization efficiency and reduced associated health risks with the consumption of Brassica. It is concluded that the application of co-composted BC in Cr-contaminated soil can significantly enhance the growth, physiological, and biochemical attributes of Brassica by reducing its uptake in plants and enhanced phytostabilization efficiency. The tested product may also help in restoring the soils contaminated with Cr.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948484

RESUMO

This paper presents experimental results from the use of biosurfactants in the remediation of a soil from a smelter in Poland. In the soil, concentrations of Cu (1659.1 mg/kg) and Pb (290.8 mg/kg) exceeded the limit values. Triple batch washing was tested as a soil treatment. Three main variants were used, each starting with a different plant-derived (saponin, S; tannic acid, T) or microbial (rhamnolipids, R) biosurfactant solution in the first washing, followed by 9 different sequences using combinations of the tested biosurfactants (27 in total). The efficiency of the washing was determined based on the concentration of metal removed after each washing (CR), the cumulative removal efficiency (Ecumulative) and metal stability (calculated as the reduced partition index, Ir, based on the metal fractions from BCR sequential extraction). The type of biosurfactant sequence influenced the CR values. The variants that began with S and R had the highest average Ecumulative for Cu and Pb, respectively. The Ecumulative value correlated very strongly (r > 0.8) with the stability of the residual metals in the soil. The average Ecumulative and stability of Cu were the highest, 87.4% and 0.40, respectively, with the S-S-S, S-S-T, S-S-R and S-R-T sequences. Lead removal and stability were the highest, 64-73% and 0.36-0.41, respectively, with the R-R-R, R-R-S, R-S-R and R-S-S sequences. Although the loss of biosurfactants was below 10% after each washing, sequential washing with biosurfactants enriched the soil with external organic carbon by an average of 27-fold (S-first variant), 24-fold (R first) or 19-fold (T first). With regard to environmental limit values, metal stability and organic carbon resources, sequential washing with different biosurfactants is a beneficial strategy for the remediation of smelter-contaminated soil with given properties.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Poluição Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Polônia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638870

RESUMO

Agriculture in the 21st century is facing multiple challenges, such as those related to soil fertility, climatic fluctuations, environmental degradation, urbanization, and the increase in food demand for the increasing world population. In the meanwhile, the scientific community is facing key challenges in increasing crop production from the existing land base. In this regard, traditional farming has witnessed enhanced per acre crop yields due to irregular and injudicious use of agrochemicals, including pesticides and synthetic fertilizers, but at a substantial environmental cost. Another major concern in modern agriculture is that crop pests are developing pesticide resistance. Therefore, the future of sustainable crop production requires the use of alternative strategies that can enhance crop yields in an environmentally sound manner. The application of rhizobacteria, specifically, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), as an alternative to chemical pesticides has gained much attention from the scientific community. These rhizobacteria harbor a number of mechanisms through which they promote plant growth, control plant pests, and induce resistance to various abiotic stresses. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms of rhizobacteria involved in plant growth promotion, biocontrol of pests, and bioremediation of contaminated soils. It also focuses on the effects of PGPR inoculation on plant growth survival under environmental stress. Furthermore, the pros and cons of rhizobacterial application along with future directions for the sustainable use of rhizobacteria in agriculture are discussed in depth.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
6.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685997

RESUMO

In Europe, mainly due to industrial desulfurization, the supply of soil sulfur (S), an essential nutrient for crops, has been declining. One of the currently promoted sources of renewable energy is biogas production, which produces S as a waste product. In order to confirm the effect of the foliar application of waste elemental S in combination with liquid urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) fertilizer, a vegetation experiment was conducted with maize as the main crop grown for biogas production. The following treatments were included in the experiment: 1. Control (no fertilization), 2. UAN, 3. UANS1 (N:S ratio, 2:1), 4. UANS2 (1:1), 5. UANS3 (1:2). The application of UAN increased the N content in the plant and significantly affected the chlorophyll content (N-tester value). Despite the lower increase in nitrogen (N) content and uptake by the plant due to the application of UANS, these combinations had a significant effect on the quantum yield of PSII. The application of UANS significantly increased the S content of the plant. The increase in the weight of plants found on the treatment fertilized with UANS can be explained by the synergistic relationship between N and S, which contributed to the increase in crop nitrogen use efficiency. This study suggests that the foliar application of waste elemental S in combination with UAN at a 1:1 ratio could be an effective way to optimize the nutritional status of maize while reducing mineral fertilizer consumption.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0252262, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As a liquid organic fertilizer used in agriculture, digestate is rich in many nutrients (i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, calcium, potassium); their utilization may be however less efficient in soils poor in organic carbon (due to low carbon:nitrogen ratio). In order to solve the disadvantages, digestate enrichment with carbon-rich amendments biochar or humic acids (Humac) was tested. METHODS: Soil variants amended with enriched digestate: digestate + biochar, digestate + Humac, and digestate + combined biochar and humic acids-were compared to control with untreated digestate in their effect on total soil carbon and nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration and soil enzymatic activities in a pot experiment. Yield of the test crop lettuce was also determined for all variants. RESULTS: Soil respiration was the most significantly increased property, positively affected by digestate + Humac. Both digestate + biochar and digestate + Humac significantly increased microbial biomass carbon. Significant negative effect of digestate + biochar (compared to the control digestate) on particular enzyme activities was alleviated by the addition of humic acids. No significant differences among the tested variants were found in the above-ground and root plant biomass. CONCLUSIONS: The tested organic supplements improved the digestate effect on some determined soil properties. We deduced from the results (carbon:nitrogen ratio, microbial biomass and activity) that the assimilation of nutrients by plants increased; however, the most desired positive effect on the yield of crop biomass was not demonstrated. We assume that the digestate enrichment with organic amendments may be more beneficial in a long time-scaled trial.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Agricultura , Biomassa
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148756, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273836

RESUMO

Biochar has received extensive attention because of its multi-functionality for agricultural and environmental applications. Despite its many benefits, there are concerns related to the long-term safety and implications of its application, mainly because the mechanisms affecting soil and organism health are poorly quantified and understood. This work reviews 259 sources and summarises existing knowledge on biochar's adverse effects on soil from a multiangle perspective, including the physicochemical changes in soil, reduced efficiency of agrochemicals, potentially toxic substances in biochar, and effects on soil biota. Suggestions are made for mitigation measures. Mixed findings are often reported; however, the results suggest that high doses of biochar in clay soils are likely to decrease available water content, and surface application of biochar to sandy soils likely increases erosion and particulate matter emissions. Furthermore, biochar may increase the likelihood of excessive soil salinity and decreased soil fertility because of an increase in the pH of alkaline soils causing nutrient precipitation. Regarding the impact of biochar on (agro)chemicals and the role of biochar-borne toxic substances, these factors cannot be neglected because of their apparent undesirable effects on target and non-target organisms, respectively. Concerning non-target biota, adverse effects on reproduction, growth, and DNA integrity of earthworms have been reported along with effects on soil microbiome such as a shift in the fungi-to-bacteria ratio. Given the diversity of effects that biochar may induce in soil, guidelines for future biochar use should adopt a structured and holistic approach that considers all positive and negative effects of biochar.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Carvão Vegetal , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300073

RESUMO

Though botanical gardens are an important and widely visited component of urban green spaces (UGS) worldwide, their pollution is rarely studied. The aim of this study was to assess botanical garden soil contamination and ecotoxicity and to evaluate whether urban botanical gardens are more contaminated than urban parks. Soil assessments showed serious contamination with Cd, Pb and Zn, emitted predominantly by traffic, agrochemicals and past construction and demolition waste. The discovery of hazardous historical ecological burden in the UGS calls for the necessity of detailed surveys of such areas. Despite prevailing moderate-to-heavy contamination, the soil was only slightly ecotoxic. Maximum immobilisation inhibition of Daphnia magna reached 15%. Growth of Sinapis alba L. was predominantly stimulated (73%), and Desmodesmus subspicatus Chodat was exclusively stimulated, possibly due to soil alkalinity and fertiliser-related nutrients. The hypothesis of a higher contamination of urban botanical gardens compared to urban parks was confirmed. However, urban parks can face a greater risk of soil ecotoxicity, hypothetically due to decreased activity of soil organisms resulting from adverse soil conditions caused by active recreation. The results highlight the need for an increased focus on botanical and ornamental gardens when assessing and managing UGS as areas potentially more burdened with contamination.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cidades , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Jardins , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Parques Recreativos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 303, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organic mulches are widely used in crop production systems. Due to their benefits in improving soil fertility, retention of soil moisture and weed control. Field experiments were conducted during wheat growing seasons of 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 to evaluate the effects of Jatropha leaves mulch on the growth of wheat varieties 'Wadan-17' (rainfed) and 'Pirsabaq-2013' (irrigated) under well irrigated and water stress conditions (non-irrigated maintaining 40% soil field capacity). Jatropha mulch was applied to the soil surface at 0, 1, 3 and 5 Mg ha-1 before sowing grains in the field. Under conditions of water stress, Jatropha mulch significantly maintained the soil moisture content necessary for normal plant growth. RESULTS: We noted a decrease in plant height, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, leaf area, leaf relative water content (LRWC), chlorophyll, and carotenoid content due to water stress. However, water stress caused an increase in leaf and root phenolics content, leaf soluble sugars and electrolytes leakage. We observed that Jatropha mulch maintained LRWC, plant height, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, leaf area and chlorophyll content under water stress. Moreover, water stress adverse effects on leaf soluble sugar content and electrolyte leakage were reversed to normal by Jatropha mulch. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it may be concluded that Jatropha leaves mulch will minimize water stress adverse effects on wheat by maintaining soil moisture and plant water status.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Jatropha , Folhas de Planta , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Desidratação , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253390, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34191839

RESUMO

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy detects functional groups such as vibrational bands like N-H, O-H, C-H, C = O (ester, amine, ketone, aldehyde), C = C, C = N (vibrational modes of a tetrapyrrole ring) and simply C = N. The FTIR of these bands is fundamental to the investigation of the effect of biochar (BC) treatment on structural changes in the chlorophyll molecules of both plants that were tested. For this, dried leaf of Spinacia oleracia (spinach) and Trigonella corniculata (fenugreek) were selected for FTIR spectral study of chlorophyll associated functional groups. The study's primary goal was to investigate the silent features of infrared (IR) spectra of dried leave samples. The data obtained from the current study also shows that leaf chlorophyll can mask or suppress other molecules' FITR bands, including proteins. In addition, the C = O bands with Mg and the C9 ketonic group of chlorophyll are observed as peaks at1600 (0%BC), 1650 (3%BC) and 1640, or near to1700 (5%BC) in spinach samples. In fenugreek, additional effects are observed in the FTIR spectra of chlorophyll at the major groups of C = C, C = O and C9 of the ketonic groups, and the vibrational bands are more evident at C-H and N-H of the tetrapyrrole ring. It is concluded that C-N bands are more visible in 5% BC treated spinach and fenugreek than in all other treatments. These types of spectra are useful in detecting changes or visibility of functional groups, which are very helpful in supporting biochemical data such as an increase in protein can be detected by more visibility of C-N bands in FTIR spectra.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Clorofila/análise , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Spinacia oleracea/química , Trigonella/química , Absorção Fisico-Química , Clorofila/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Metais Pesados/química , Estrutura Molecular , Folhas de Planta/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Vibração
12.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069264

RESUMO

In recent years, a lot of attention has been given to searching for new additives which will effectively facilitate the process of immobilizing contaminants in the soil. This work considers the role of the enhanced nano zero valent iron (nZVI) strategy in the phytostabilization of soil contaminated with potentially toxic elements (PTEs). The experiment was carried out on soil that was highly contaminated with PTEs derived from areas in which metal waste had been stored for many years. The plants used comprised a mixture of grasses-Lolium perenne L. and Festuca rubra L. To determine the effect of the nZVI on the content of PTEs in soil and plants, the samples were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The addition of nZVI significantly increased average plant biomass (38%), the contents of Cu (above 2-fold), Ni (44%), Cd (29%), Pb (68%), Zn (44%), and Cr (above 2-fold) in the roots as well as the soil pH. The addition of nZVI, on the other hand, was most effective in reducing the Zn content of soil when compared to the control series. Based on the investigations conducted, the application of nZVI to soil highly contaminated with PTEs is potentially beneficial for the restoration of polluted lands.

13.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112669, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934019

RESUMO

The conversion of old brownfield sites into places once again serving society is becoming an upward global trend, especially in urban areas. Due to the increasingly growing pressure on the expansion of urban green spaces, such sites can become, for instance, urban parks. The aim of the study was to assess whether the solution is appropriate and if it does not pose a potential health risk. Heavy pollution of soils was found out by means of the example of the urban park newly established in a reclaimed area of a historic mining town. The high average values in the topsoil were found out mainly in As (132 mg/kg), Cd (6.8 mg/kg), Pb (535 mg/kg) and Zn (1604 mg/kg). The assessment of the non-carcinogenic health risk has revealed possible As-related adverse health effects in children even at irregular park visits. According to the carcinogenic risk assessment, As, Cd, Cr and Ni can be ranked in the category of an acceptable total risk for regulatory purposes. The health status of park vegetation as a significant component of the urban ecosystem was also assessed. Soil phytotoxicity brought about severe damage to the seedlings, with a mortality rate of up to 84% locally. The results indicate that heavily polluted brownfield sites with historic mining-related activities are not suitable for establishing urban parks even after reclamation and nature-based solutions may not be invariably appropriate. Based on the findings, the management steps that ought to be implemented in the process of brownfield redevelopment into the urban park even after its establishment have been highlighted in order to minimize the health risk to park visitors while providing the required ecosystem services by vegetation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Criança , China , Cidades , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Parques Recreativos , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
14.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917847

RESUMO

The effect of coating the seed of clover crops by water absorbing seed process (WASP) technology pelletization on its germination capacity was studied in conditions of diverse drought intensities simulated by different concentrations of polyethylenglycol (PEG) 8000 solution. Drought resistance was monitored in the seed of five fodder clover species: Anthyllis vulneraria L., Medicago lupulina L., Trifolium repens L., Melilotus albus Medik. and Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. In the seed of given plant species, germination capacity was determined along with the share of dead and hard seeds. Although the coating significantly (p < 0.05) affected the drought resistance of seeds, the germination capacity increased only in conditions of milder drought (simulation with PEG: 0.1-0.3 mol). With the increasing intensity of drought induced by higher PEG concentrations (0.4-0.7 mol) the number of germinable seeds demonstrably decreased and the number of dead seeds increased in the coated seed as compared with the uncoated seed. The coated seed can be appropriate for use in M. lupulina, M. albus and T. repens, while the uncoated seed can be used in A. vulneraria and O. viciifolia.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6606, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758248

RESUMO

High lead (Pb) concentration in soils is becoming a severe threat to human health. It also deteriorates plants, growth, yield and quality of food. Although the use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), biochar and compost can be effective environment-friendly amendments for decreasing Pb stress in crop plants, the impacts of their simultaneous co-application has not been well documented. Thus current study was carried, was conducted to investigate the role of rhizobacteria and compost mixed biochar (CB) under Pb stress on selected soil properties and agronomic parameters in mint (Mentha piperita L.) plants. To this end, six treatments were studied: Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, CB, PGPR1 + CB, PGPR2 + CB and control. Results showed that the application A. faecalis + CB significantly decreased soil pH and EC over control. However, OM, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentration were significantly improved in the soil where A. faecalis + CB was applied over control. The A. faecalis + CB treatment significantly improved mint plant root dry weight (58%), leaves dry weight (32%), chlorophyll (37%), and N (46%), P (39%) and K (63%) leave concentration, while also decreasing the leaves Pb uptake by 13.5% when compared to the unamended control. In conclusion, A. faecalis + CB has a greater potential to improve overall soil quality, fertility and mint plant productivity under high Pb soil concentration compared to the sole application of CB and A. faecalis.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/metabolismo , Compostagem/métodos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Mentha/efeitos dos fármacos , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Alcaligenes faecalis/enzimologia , Alcaligenes faecalis/metabolismo , Aminoidrolases/metabolismo , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/enzimologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Frutas/química , Chumbo/metabolismo , Mentha/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Verduras/química
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247529, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630922

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) feeds to two-third of the global population by serving as staple food. It is the main export commodity of several countries; thus, contributes towards foreign exchange earnings. Unfortunately, average global rice yield is far below than its genetic potential. Low nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) is among the major reasons for low average yield. Current study evaluated the impact of nitrogen fertilizer application methods (conventional and deep placement) on growth, yield-related traits, chlorophyll contents, photosynthesis rate, agronomic N-use efficiency (ANUE), partial factors productivity of applied N (PFP) and economic returns of two different transplanted rice varieties (Basmati-515 and Super-Basmati). Fertilizer application methods significantly affected allometry, yield-related traits, chlorophyll contents, photosynthesis rate, ANUE, PFP and economic returns. Deep placement of N-fertilizer (DPNF) observed better allometric traits, high chlorophyll contents, photosynthesis rate, ANUE, PFP, yield attributes and economic returns compared to conventional application of N-fertilizer (CANF). Similarly, Basmati-515 had better allometric and yield-related traits, chlorophyll contents, photosynthesis rate, ANUE, PFP and economic returns than Super-Basmati. Regarding interactions among N-fertilizer application methods and rice varieties, Basmati-515 with DPNF resulted in higher chlorophyll contents, photosynthesis rate, ANUE, PFP, allometric and yield related traits and economic returns than CANF. The lowest values of these traits were observed for Super-Basmati with no application of N-fertilizer. Both varieties had better yield and economic returns with DPNF compared to CANF. It is concluded that DPNF improved yield, ANUE and economic returns; therefore, should be opted to improve productivity of transplanted fine rice. Nonetheless, lower nitrogen doses need to be tested for DPNF to infer whether it could lower N use in rice crop.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129576, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482516

RESUMO

The soil system is a key component of the environment that can serve as a sink of pollutants. Using processed waste for aided phytostabilization of metals (HMs) in contaminated soils is an attractive phytoremediation technique that integrates waste utilization and recycling. In this study, we evaluated the effect of biologically and thermally processed wastes, i.e. sewage sludge compost (CSS), poultry feather ash (AGF) and willow chip biochar (BWC), on phytostabilization of contaminated soil from a steel disposal dump. Greenhouse experiments with Lupinus luteus L. and amendments (dosage: 3.0%, w/w) were conducted for 58 days. Soil toxicity was evaluated with Ostracodtoxkit and Phytotoxkit tests. At the end of the experiment, soil pH, plant biomass yield, and HM accumulation in plant tissues were determined. HM distribution, HM stability (reduced partition index) and potential environmental risk (mRI index) in the soil were assessed. During phytostabilization, changes in the diversity of the rhizospheric bacterial community were monitored. All amendments significantly increased soil pH and biomass yield and decreased soil phytotoxicity. AGF and BWC increased accumulation of individual HMs by L. luteus roots better than CSS (Cu and Cr, and Ni and Zn, respectively). The soil amendments did not improve Pb accumulation by the roots. Improvements in HM stability depended on amendment type: Ni and Pb stability were improved by all amendments; Zn stability, by AGF, and BWC; Cd stability, by AGF; and Cr stability, by BWC. AGF reduced the mRI most effectively. Microbial diversity in amended soils increased with time of phytostabilization and was up to 9% higher in CSS amended soil than in control soil. AGF application favored the abundance of the genera Arenimonas, Brevundimonas, Gemmatimonas and Variovorax, whose metabolic potential could have contributed to the better plant growth and lower mRI in that soil. In conclusion, AGF and BWC have great potential for restoring steel disposal dump areas, and the strategies researched here can contribute to achieving targets for sustainable development.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Aço
18.
Chemosphere ; 267: 129215, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359981

RESUMO

Urban soils pollution by trace elements arouses the growing interest in China. The aim of this study was to assess urban soil pollution by As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in China and the possible impacts on urban inhabitants and urban green spaces (UGS). Data from more than 17,000 samples were applied to characterize the status of 101 cities. The pollution assessment proved that 11% of the cities are heavily polluted. According to the Hazard Index, the value of risk for the infant population in 15 cities exceed the standardly accepted tolerable levels. The carcinogenic risk assessment demonstrated the potential threat in the cities with the total population approximately 20,566,900. Cr and As were detected to be the most hazardous elements. UGS may be seriously threatened by trace elements toxicity in 38 cities. Cd was found to be the riskiest element for UGS. Ecosystem services of UGS can be significantly disrupted under the current situation in China and their status is expected to deteriorate in the future. For this reason, it is essential to alter the policy of the urbanization process and develop functional concepts of urban green infrastructures adapted to the high level of contamination which shall improve human well-being in China.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Oligoelementos , China , Cidades , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17111, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033275

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

20.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(10)2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080896

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the heavy metals that negatively affects the growth of plants. High solubilization in water leads Cd to enter into plants quite easily, thus decreasing seed germination, photosynthesis, and transpiration. It also shows an antagonistic effect with many of the plants' nutrients like Mn, Ca, K, Mg and Fe. Nowadays, inoculation of plants with ACC deaminase (ACCD) rhizobacteria to mitigate Cd's adverse effects has drawn the attention of environmental microbiologists. The rhizobacteria secrete organic compounds that can immobilize Cd in soil. Therefore, this study was accomplished to investigate the effect of ACCD plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the bitter gourd under Cd stress. There were six treatments consisting of two ACCD PGPR (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Agrobacterium fabrum) strains and inorganic fertilizers at two levels of Cd, i.e., 2 (Cd2) and 5 mg kg-1 soil (Cd5). The results showed A. fabrum with the recommended NPK fertilizer (RNPKF) significantly increased the vine length (48 and 55%), fresh weight (24 and 22%), and contents of chlorophyll a (79 and 50%), chlorophyll b (30 and 33%) and total chlorophyll (61 and 36%), over control at the two Cd levels i.e., Cd2 and Cd5, respectively. In conclusion, the recommended NPK fertilizer + A. fabrum combination is a very effective treatment with which to immobilize Cd in soil for the improvement of bitter gourd growth.

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