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1.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107084, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous literature finds an increase in depressive symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation following the COVID-19 pandemic in the US - suicides do not appear to increase. We examine whether 1) state lockdown policies in the US precede an increase in mental health symptoms; and 2) the extent to which using substances amplifies or attenuates the relation. METHODS: We specified, as our exposure variable, the timing of state-level lockdown orders. We used, as the outcome variable, the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4) that measures anxiety and depression symptoms. We utilized the Understanding America Study (UAS), a nationally representative sample of 7,597 adults across 50 states in the US, surveyed biweekly between March 10, 2020 and November 11, 2020. Linear fixed effect analyses controlled for time-invariant individual factors, as well as employment status, household income, and previous mental health diagnosis. RESULTS: Regression results indicate an increase in PHQ-4 scores of approximately 1.70 during lockdown, relative to no lockdown (p < 0.05). Relative to no lockdown, an increase in alcohol use corresponds with a 0.08 unit decrease in PHQ-4 scores during lockdown (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: State lockdown policies precede greater mental health symptoms. Increases in consuming alcohol attenuates the relation between state lockdown policies and mental health symptoms. Results may portend greater addiction following the pandemic warranting further investigation into utilization of substance use treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Suicídio , Adulto , Ansiedade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Soc Sci Med ; 289: 114417, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656819

RESUMO

The 2016 election of United States (U.S.) President Donald Trump was a political event that may have affected population-level mental health. A prominent theme in the Trump election was anti-immigrant policy that contributed to a racist and xenophobic sociopolitical climate. Applying a symbolic dis/empowerment framework, this study examines whether there was an effect of the Trump election on the mental health of the U.S. population that differed by race/ethnicity, language of interview, and state-level support for Trump or Clinton. We used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2011-2018 to examine trends in poor mental health days in the five months after the U.S Presidential election (November 2016 to March 2017) compared to all other survey months. We conducted difference-in-differences analyses using negative binomial regression models to examine the effect of the five post-election months on the rate of poor mental health days, comparing six population categories: 1) non-Latinx white populations in Trump states, 2) non-Latinx white populations in Clinton states, 3) English-speaking Latinx populations in Trump states, 4) English-speaking Latinx populations in Clinton states, 5) Spanish-speaking Latinx populations in Trump states, and 6) Spanish-speaking Latinx populations in Clinton states. White populations in Clinton states reported more poor mental health days in response to the five months post-election period compared to white populations in Trump states. English-speaking Latinx people living in Trump states experienced higher than expected poor mental health days in November 2016 and February 2017. Spanish-speaking Latinx people, by contrast, reported fewer poor mental health days in the post-election period. The 2016 U.S. presidential election preceded population-level changes in mental health that support a symbolic dis/empowerment framework. We discuss possible explanations and the mental health implications for future major political events.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research documents social and economic antecedents of adverse birth outcomes, which may include involuntary job loss. Previous work on job loss and adverse birth outcomes, however, lacks high-quality individual data on, and variation in, plausibly exogenous job loss during pregnancy and therefore cannot rule out strong confounding. METHODS: We analysed unique linked registries in Denmark, from 1980 to 2017, to examine whether a father's involuntary job loss during his spouse's pregnancy increases the risk of a low-weight (i.e. <2500 grams) and/or preterm (i.e. <37 weeks of gestational age) birth. We applied a matched-sibling design to 743 574 sibling pairs. RESULTS: Results indicate an increased risk of a low-weight birth among infants exposed in utero to fathers' unexpected job loss [odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.75]. Sex-specific analyses show that this result holds for males (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.53) but not females (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.91). We find no relation with preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the inference that a father's unexpected job loss adversely affects the course of pregnancy, especially among males exposed in utero.

5.
Global Health ; 17(1): 105, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health workforce planning is critical for health systems to safeguard the ability to afford, train, recruit, and retain the appropriate number and mix of health workers. This balance is especially important when macroeconomic structures are also reforming. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is moving toward greater diversification, privatization, and resiliency; health sectorreform is a key pillar of this transition. METHODS: We used the Ministry of Health Yearbook data on the number of workers and health expenditures from 2007 to 2018 and projected health labor market supply and demand of workers through 2030, evaluated the potential shortages and surpluses, and simulated different policy scenarios to identify relevant interventions. We further focused on projections for health workers who are Saudi nationals and health worker demand within the public sector (versus the private sector) to inform national objectives of reducing dependency on foreign workers and better deploying public sector resources. RESULTS: We projected the overall health labor market to demand 9.07 physicians and nurses per 1,000 population (356,514) in 2030; the public sector will account for approximately 67% of this overall demand. Compared to a projected supply of 10.16 physicians and nurses per 1,000 population (399,354), we estimated an overall modest surplus of about 42,840 physicians and nurses in 2030. However, only about 17% of these workers are estimated to be Saudi nationals, for whom there will be a demand shortage of 287,895 workers. Among policy scenarios considered, increasing work hours had the largest effect on reducing shortages of Saudi workers, followed by bridge programs for training more nurses. Government resources can also be redirected to supporting more Saudi nurses while still ensuring adequate numbers of physicians to meet service delivery goals in 2030. CONCLUSION: Despite projected overall balance in the labor market for health workers in 2030, without policy interventions, severe gaps in the Saudi workforce will persist and limit progress toward health system resiliency in Saudi Arabia. Both supply- and demand-side policy interventions should be considered, prioritizing those that increase productivity among Saudi health workers, enhance training for nurses, and strategically redeploy financial resources toward employing these workers.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(10): 1834-1840, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer ranks as the second leading cause of death among children ages 1 to 14 years in the United States. Previous research finds that strong cohort selection in utero against males precedes a reduction in live-born males considered frail. We examine whether such cohort selection in utero may similarly affect the frequency of childhood cancers among male live births. METHODS: We examined 1,368 childhood cancers among males born in Sweden over 144 months, from January 1990 to December 2001, and followed to age 15 in the Swedish Cancer Registry. We retrieved the count of male twins by birth month from the Swedish Birth Registry. We applied autoregressive, integrated, moving average time-series methods to identify and control for temporal patterns in monthly childhood cancers and to evaluate robustness of results. RESULTS: Fewer childhood cancers occur among monthly male birth cohorts with elevated selection in utero (i.e., a low count of live-born male twins). This association appears in the concurrent month (coef = 0.04; 95% CI, 0.001-0.079) as well as in the following month in which most births from the twin's conception cohort are "scheduled" to be born (coef = 0.055; 95% CI, 0.017-0.094). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated cohort selection in utero may reduce the number of frail male gestations that would otherwise have survived to birth and received a cancer diagnosis during childhood. IMPACT: This novel result warrants further investigation of prenatal exposures, including those at the population level, that may induce cohort selection in utero for some cancer types but not others.

7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 478, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some scholars posit that attempts to avert stillbirth among extremely preterm gestations may result in a live birth but an early neonatal death. The literature, however, reports no empirical test of this potential form of left truncation. We examine whether annual cohorts delivered at extremely preterm gestational ages show an inverse correlation between their incidence of stillbirth and early neonatal death. METHODS: We retrieved live birth and infant death information from the California Linked Birth and Infant Death Cohort Files for years 1989 to 2015. We defined the extremely preterm period as delivery from 22 to < 28 weeks of gestation and early neonatal death as infant death at less than 7 days of life. We calculated proportions of stillbirth and early neonatal death separately by cohort year, race/ethnicity, and sex. Our correlational analysis controlled for well-documented declines in neonatal mortality over time. RESULTS: California reported 89,276 extremely preterm deliveries (live births and stillbirths) to Hispanic, non-Hispanic (NH) Black, and NH white mothers from 1989 to 2015. Findings indicate an inverse correlation between stillbirth and early neonatal death in the same cohort year (coefficient: -0.27, 95% CI of - 0.11; - 0.42). Results remain robust to alternative specifications and falsification tests. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the notion that cohorts with an elevated risk of stillbirth also show a reduced risk of early neonatal death among extremely preterm deliveries. Results add to the evidence base that selection in utero may influence the survival characteristics of live-born cohorts.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal , Mortalidade Perinatal/tendências , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Viés , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/tendências , Gravidez
8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(9): 2446-2452, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether a retail sales database could be used to monitor antibiotic utilization in the outpatient setting at the national level. METHODS: We extracted 2012-17 outpatient antibiotic extrapolated retail sales (IQVIA's Xponent) and reimbursement data from the National Health Insurance (SNDS) in metropolitan France. We compared estimates of antibiotic use and consumption [number of antibiotic drug deliveries (DrID) and defined daily doses (DID) per 1000 inhabitants per day]. We relied on relative differences, Pearson's r statistics and time series using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling to study: (i) differences in point estimates, (ii) correlation, and (iii) consistency in time trends between Xponent and SNDS. The analysis was conducted overall and in subgroups (age groups, therapeutic classes, major antimicrobial agents and regions). RESULTS: We analysed approximately 377 million antibiotic drug deliveries, comprising nearly 3.4 billion DDDs. Overall, Xponent slightly overestimated SNDS point estimates with yearly relative differences of +3.5% for DrID and +3.3% for DID. Peaks in relative differences were observed for July and August months. Relative differences were <5% in most subgroups, except for fosfomycin and three French regions. Overall and across most subgroups, the correlation between Xponent and SNDS monthly aggregated estimates was almost perfect (r ≥ 0.992 for all subgroups, except for one region). ARIMA modelling showed high consistency between Xponent's and SDNS's DrID time series, but detected timepoints where the series significantly diverged. CONCLUSIONS: IQVIA's Xponent and SNDS data were highly consistent. Xponent database seems suitable for monitoring outpatient antibiotic utilization in France.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Comércio , Uso de Medicamentos , França , Humanos , Marketing
9.
J Nutr ; 151(8): 2455-2464, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of toilets and the widespread practice of open defecation may contribute to India's large burden of child undernutrition. OBJECTIVES: We examine whether a large national sanitation campaign launched in 2014, the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), precedes a reduction in stunting and wasting among under 5-y-old (u5) children in India. METHODS: In this observational study, we used district-level data from before (2013-2014) and after (2015-2016) SBM from 3 national surveys to derive, as our outcomes, the percentage of u5 children per district who are stunted and wasted. We defined our exposures as 1) binary indicator of SBM and 2) percentage of households with toilets per district. Our analytic sample comprised nearly all 640 Indian districts (with ∼1200 rural/urban divisions per district per time point). Linear regression analyses controlled for baseline differences in districts, linear time trends by state, and relevant covariates. RESULTS: Relative to pre-SBM, u5 stunting declines by 0.06% (95% CI: -0.10, -0.01; P = 0.009) with every percentage increase in households with toilets post-SBM. Rural regions and districts with higher pre-SBM toilet availability show greater decline in u5 stunting post-SBM. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in toilet availability on a national scale, precipitated by the SBM sanitation campaign, is associated with a reduction in undernutrition among u5 children in India over the early phase of the campaign.

11.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 125: 108311, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rise in opioid-related mortality and opioid-related emergency department (ED) visits has stimulated research on whether broader economic declines, such as the Great Recession, affect opioid-related morbidity. We examine in New York City whether one measure of morbidity-opioid-related ED visits-responded acutely to the large negative "shock" of the Great Recession. METHODS: Data comprise outpatient "treat and release" opioid-related ED visits in New York City for the 72 months spanning January 2006 to December 2011, taken from the Statewide Emergency Department Database (n = 150,246). We modeled the monthly incidence of opioid-related ED visits using Autoregressive, Integrated, Moving Average (ARIMA) time-series methods to control for patterning in ED visits before examining its potential association with the economic shock of the Great Recession. RESULTS: New York City shows a mean of 1761 outpatient ED visits per month for opioid dependence and abuse. Unexpectedly large drops in employment coincide with fewer than expected opioid dependence and abuse ED visits in that same month. The result (coefficient = 0.046, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.002, 0.090) represents a 0.8% drop in overall incidence of opioid dependence and abuse ED visits during the Great Recession. We, however, observe no association between the Great Recession and ED visits for prescription opioid overdose or heroin overdose, or with inpatient ED visits for opioid dependence and abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Findings, if replicated, indicate distinct short-term reductions in opioid-related morbidity following the Great Recession. This result diverges from previous findings of increased opioid use following extended economic downturns.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Emergências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 279: 113962, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial research documents health consequences of neighborhood disadvantage. Patterns of residential mobility that differ by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) may sort non-Hispanic (NH) Black and low-SES families into disadvantaged neighborhoods. In this study, we leverage a sibling-linked dataset to track residential mobility among birthing persons between pregnancies and investigate baseline characteristics associated with downward mobility, including race/ethnicity, SES, and pre-existing health conditions. METHODS: We used a probabilistic linkage strategy to identify births to the same person between 2007 and 2015 (n = 624,222) and categorized downward residential mobility by quartile-level increases in neighborhood disadvantage. We defined strong downward mobility as a move from a neighborhood with very low (quartile 1) to very high (quartile 4) disadvantage and estimated the logit (i.e., log-odds) of strong downward mobility as a function of racial/ethnic, sociodemographic, and health characteristics of the birthing person and their first birth. We further explored the role of neighborhood housing affordability by examining changes in affordability from first to second birth by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: NH Black birthing persons show an over three-fold increased odds of strong downward mobility relative to NH white birthing persons (OR = 3.34, CI: 2.91, 3.84). To a lesser extent, Hispanic race/ethnicity, WIC receipt, low educational attainment, obesity, and infant preterm birth (PTB) also predict strong downward mobility. Examination of changes in neighborhood affordability indicate that over half of NH Black birthing persons move to a more affordable neighborhood, compared to less than a quarter of NH white birthing persons, before the birth of their second child. Results remain consistent across outcomes, measures of neighborhood SES, and modified log-Poisson models. CONCLUSION: We find an elevated risk of strong downward mobility among NH Black and low-SES birthing persons. Future research may identify other factors (e.g., housing affordability) that generate downward residential mobility to identify interventions that promote neighborhood equity.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Dinâmica Populacional , Gravidez , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 984, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing estimates of the impact of the COVID-19 burden on mental wellbeing come from countries with high mortality rates. This study therefore aimed to investigate the impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown (March-April 2020) on risk for stress/depression and functional impairment in a representative sample of adult individuals in Denmark, which had lower infection rates, and whether the impact of lockdown was heterogeneous across living situation. METHODS: Using a representative, randomly drawn sample from the complete Danish adult population interviewed in March 2 to April 13, 2020 (n = 2836) and again in July 2020 (n = 1526, 54% retention rate), we study how the imposed lockdown announced March 11 following the onset of the first Danish wave of COVID-19 infections affected mental wellbeing. We use the World Health Organization Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) to capture risk for stress/depression (WHO-5 < 50) and functional impairment (WSAS > 10). Using covariate adjusted ordinary least squares linear probability models and exploiting variation in the timing of responses occurring just before and just after the introduction of lockdown, we compare respondents before lockdown to respondents that answered during lockdown, as well as to answers in re-interviews in July. RESULTS: In our fully controlled models, we find reduced depressive symptoms among adults immediately after the shutdown, concentrated in adults with children living at home (-.089, p < .01 (from pre lockdown baseline .273)). Measures of functional impairment also declined immediately after the March shutdown among adults with children living at home (-.066, p < .05 (from pre lockdown baseline .150)). Impairment intensified for the entire sample between March and July (+.199, p < .001 (from pre lockdown baseline .248)), but depressive symptoms remained at lower rate in July (-.033, p < .05 (from pre lockdown baseline .332). CONCLUSIONS: Findings in Denmark indicate that living with children at home may have, in the short term, buffered the potential mental health sequelae of the COVID-19 shutdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Criança , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Hum Resour Health ; 19(1): 55, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), as part of its 2030 National Transformation Program, set a goal of transforming the healthcare sector to increase access to, and improve the quality and efficiency of, health services. To assist with the workforce planning component, we projected the needed number of physicians and nurses into 2030. We developed a new needs-based methodology since previous global benchmarks of health worker concentration may not apply to the KSA. METHODS: We constructed an epidemiologic "needs-based" model that takes into account the health needs of the KSA population, cost-effective treatment service delivery models, and worker productivity. This model relied heavily on up-to-date epidemiologic and workforce surveys in the KSA. We used demographic population projections to estimate the number of nurses and physicians needed to provide this core set of services into 2030. We also assessed several alternative scenarios and policy decisions related to scaling, task-shifting, and enhanced public health campaigns. RESULTS: When projected to 2030, the baseline needs-based estimate is approximately 75,000 workers (5788 physicians and 69,399 nurses). This workforce equates to 2.05 physicians and nurses per 1000 population. Alternative models based on different scenarios and policy decisions indicate that the actual needs for physicians and nurses may range from 1.64 to 3.05 per 1000 population in 2030. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our projections, the KSA will not face a needs-based health worker shortage in 2030. However, alternative model projections raise important policy and planning issues regarding various strategies the KSA may pursue in improving quality and efficiency of the existing workforce. More broadly, where country-level data are available, our needs-based strategy can serve as a useful step-by-step workforce planning tool to complement more economic demand-based workforce projections.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Médicos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Arábia Saudita , Recursos Humanos
15.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(5): 531-537, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796979

RESUMO

Much theory asserts that sexual intimacy sustains mental health. Experimental tests of such theory remain rare and have not provided compelling evidence because ethical, practical, and cultural constraints bias samples and results. An epidemiologic approach would, therefore, seem indicated given the rigor the discipline brings to quasi-experimental research. For reasons that remain unclear, however, epidemiologist have largely ignored such theory despite the plausibility of the processes implicated, which engender, for example, happiness, feelings of belonging and self-worth, and protection against depression. We use an intent-to-treat design, implemented via interrupted time-series methods, to test the hypothesis that the monthly incidence of suicide, a societally important distal measure of mental health in a population, decreased among Swedish men aged 50-59 after July 2013 when patent rights to sildenafil (i.e., Viagra) ceased, prices fell, and its use increased dramatically. The test uses 102 pre, and 18 post, price-drop months. 65 fewer suicides than expected occurred among men aged 50-59 over test months following the lowering of sildenafil prices. Our findings could not arise from shared trends or seasonality, biased samples, or reverse causation. Our results would appear by chance fewer than once in 10,000 experiments. Our findings align with theory indicating that sexual intimacy reinforces mental health. Using suicide as our distal measure of mental health further implies that public health programming intended to address the drivers of self-destructive behavior should reduce barriers to intimacy in the middle-aged populations.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Citrato de Sildenafila/efeitos adversos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Causas de Morte , Disfunção Erétil/psicologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Comportamento Sexual , Suécia/epidemiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3081, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542329

RESUMO

Clinic-based estimates of SARS-CoV-2 may considerably underestimate the total number of infections. Access to testing in the US has been heterogeneous and symptoms vary widely in infected persons. Public health surveillance efforts and metrics are therefore hampered by underreporting. We set out to provide a minimally biased estimate of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among adults for a large and diverse county (Orange County, CA, population 3.2 million). We implemented a surveillance study that minimizes response bias by recruiting adults to answer a survey without knowledge of later being offered SARS-CoV-2 test. Several methodologies were used to retrieve a population-representative sample. Participants (n = 2979) visited one of 11 drive-thru test sites from July 10th to August 16th, 2020 (or received an in-home visit) to provide a finger pin-prick sample. We applied a robust SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Microarray technology, which has superior measurement validity relative to FDA-approved tests. Participants include a broad age, gender, racial/ethnic, and income representation. Adjusted seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 11.5% (95% CI: 10.5-12.4%). Formal bias analyses produced similar results. Prevalence was elevated among Hispanics (vs. other non-Hispanic: prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.47, 95% CI 1.22-1.78) and household income < $50,000 (vs. > $100,000: PR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.79). Results from a diverse population using a highly specific and sensitive microarray indicate a SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of ~ 12 percent. This population-based seroprevalence is seven-fold greater than that using official County statistics. In this region, SARS-CoV-2 also disproportionately affects Hispanic and low-income adults.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , COVID-19 , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Viés , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Health Place ; 68: 102503, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493964

RESUMO

Previous work reports an inverse association between neighborhood greenness and obesity. Limitations of this work, which relies largely on cross-sectional data, include that studies often lack control for unmeasured genetic and sociodemographic factors that may confound associations, and cannot disentangle temporal order between neighborhood greenness and obesity. We move beyond a cross-sectional approach and leverage a longitudinal sibling-linked dataset with health, residential, and demographic information on women with two births in California between 2007 and 2015 (N = 552,929). We used a sibling comparison design to control for unmeasured stable characteristics of women and tested whether a positive change in neighborhood greenness (i.e., "upward green mobility") precedes a reduction in obesity risk. Models also adjusted for baseline obesity risk and time-varying individual- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic factors. As hypothesized, we find that upward green mobility varies inversely with the odds of obesity. Results indicate that small decreases in neighborhood greenness may also show protective associations with obesity risk. Our findings, if replicated, suggest that changing levels (particularly increases) of greenness in the residential environment may combat the rise of obesity.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Características de Residência , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 269: 113561, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309152

RESUMO

Previous literature on racism and adverse mental health largely focuses on individual-level exposures. We investigate whether and to what extent structural racism, as measured by police killings of unarmed African Americans, affect a severe and acute mental health outcome among African Americans: depression-related Emergency Department (ED) visits. We used police killings of unarmed African Americans as our exposure and depression-related ED visits (per 100,000 population) as our outcome. We examined the relation across 75 counties from five US states between 2013 and 2015 (2700 county-months). Linear fixed effect analyses controlled for time-invariant county-factors as well as the number of hospitals and arrests for violent crimes (per 100,000 population). Police killings of unarmed African Americans correspond with an 11% increase in ED visits per 100,000 population related to depression among African Americans in the concurrent month and three months following the exposure (p < 0.05). Researchers and policymakers may want to consider prevention efforts to reduce racial bias in policing and implement surveillance of fatal police encounters. These encounters, moreover, may worsen mental health and help-seeking in the ED among African Americans not directly connected to the encounter.


Assuntos
Polícia , Racismo , Afro-Americanos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Homicídio , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Evol Med Public Health ; 2020(1): 225-233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376596

RESUMO

Background and objectives: The sex ratio of human birth cohorts predicts the health and longevity of their members. Most literature invokes natural selection in support of the argument that heritable tendencies to produce male or female offspring induce oscillation in the sex ratio and its sequelae. Tests of the argument remain exceedingly rare because they require vital statistics describing many generations of a population both unaffected by migration and exposed to an exogenous stressor virulent enough to change the sex ratio at birth. We contribute to the literature by using time-series modeling to detect oscillation in the best data currently available for such a test. Methodology: We apply rigorous time-series methods to data describing Sweden from 1751 through 1830, a period when the population not only aged in place without migration, but also exhibited the effects of an Icelandic volcanic eruption including a historically low secondary sex ratio. That very low sex ratio should have induced oscillation if heritable mechanisms appear in humans. Results: We detected oscillation in the ratio but not that predicted by heritable tendencies to produce males or females. We found peak-to-trough oscillation at 14 rather than the approximately 32 years expected from the heritable tendencies argument. Conclusions and implications: Our findings suggest that mechanisms other than perturbation of heritable tendencies to produce males or females induce oscillation in the human secondary sex ratio. These other mechanisms may include reproductive suppression and selection in utero. LAY SUMMARY: The male to female ratio in human birth cohorts predicts longevity but its variation over time remains unexplained. We test the long-held theory that the ratio oscillates due to heritable tendencies to produce males or females. We find oscillation, but it appears due to social processes rather than heritable mechanisms.

20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(11): 1021-1024, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165759

RESUMO

Lay persons and policy makers have speculated on how national differences in the imposition of social distancing to reduce SARS CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection has affected non-COVID-19 deaths. No rigorous estimation of the effect appears in the scholarly literature. We use time-series methods to compare non-COVID-19 deaths in Norway during its 9 weeks of mandated social distancing to those expected from history as well as from non-COVID-19 deaths in relatively less restricted Sweden. We estimate that 430 fewer Norwegians than expected died from causes other than COVID-19. We argue that failing to account for averted non-COVID-19 deaths will lead to an underestimate of the benefits of social distancing policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Mortalidade/tendências , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social , Suécia
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