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ChemSusChem ; : e202202215, 2023 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36892133


High performance alkali metal anode solid-state batteries require solid/solid interfaces with fast ion transfer that are morphologically and chemically stable upon electrochemical cycling. Void formation at the alkali metal/solid-state electrolyte interface during alkali metal stripping is responsible for constriction resistances and hotspots that can facilitate dendrite propagation and failure. Both externally applied pressures (35 - 400 MPa) and temperatures above the melting point of the alkali metal have been shown to improve the interfacial contact with the solid electrolyte, preventing the formation of voids. However, the extreme pressure and temperature conditions required can be difficult to meet for commercial solid-state battery applications. In this review, we highlight the importance of interfacial adhesion or 'wetting' at alkali metal/solid electrolyte interfaces for achieving solid-state batteries that can withstand high current densities without cell failure.  The intrinsically poor adhesion at metal/ceramic interfaces poses fundamental limitations on many inorganics solid-state electrolyte systems in the absence of applied pressure. Suppression of alkali metal voids can only be achieved for systems with high interfacial adhesion (i.e. 'perfect wetting') where the contact angle between the alkali metal and the solid-state electrolyte surface goes to q = 0°. We identify key strategies to improve interfacial adhesion and suppress void formation including the adoption of interlayers, alloy anodes and 3D scaffolds. Computational modelling techniques have been invaluable for understanding the structure, stability and adhesion of solid-state battery interfaces and we provide an overview of key techniques. Although focused on alkali metal solid-state batteries, the fundamental understanding of interfacial adhesion discussed in this review has broader applications across the field of chemistry and material science from corrosion to biomaterials development.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(29): 32806-32816, 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573199


Garnet-type structured lithium ion conducting ceramics represent a promising alternative to liquid-based electrolytes for all-solid-state batteries. However, their performance is limited by their polycrystalline nature and inherent inhomogeneous current distribution due to different ion dynamics at grains, grain boundaries, and interfaces. In this study, we use a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, distribution of relaxation time analysis, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), in order to understand the role that bulk, grain boundary, and interfacial processes play in the ionic transport and electrochemical performance of garnet-based cells. Variable temperature impedance analysis reveals the lowest activation energy for Li transport in the bulk of the garnet electrolyte (0.15 eV), consistent with pulsed field gradient NMR spectroscopy measurements (0.14 eV). We also show a decrease in grain boundary activation energy at temperatures below 0 °C, that is followed by the total conductivity, suggesting that the bottleneck to ionic transport resides in the grain boundaries. We reveal that the grain boundary activation energy is heavily affected by its composition that, in turn, is mainly affected by the segregation of dopants and Li. We suggest that by controlling the grain boundary composition, it would be possible to pave the way toward targeted engineering of garnet-type electrolytes and ameliorate their electrochemical performance in order to enable their use in commercial devices.