Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 153
Filtrar
1.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medulloblastomas may occur in a predisposition context, including familial adenomatosis polyposis. Medulloblastomas related to APC germline pathogenic variant remain rare and poorly described. Their similarities with sporadic WNT medulloblastomas still require to be described. METHODS: We performed a multicentric retrospective review of 12 patients treated between 1988 and 2018 for medulloblastoma with identified or highly suspected (personal of familial history) APC germline pathogenic variant. We report personal and familial history, APC gene pathogenic variant whenever available, clinical and histological characteristics of the medulloblastoma, treatments, and long-term outcome including second tumor and late sequelae. RESULTS: Medulloblastomas associated with APC pathogenic variant are mainly classic (11/11 patients, 1 NA), non-metastatic (10/12 patients) medulloblastomas, with nuclear immunoreactivity for ß-catenin (9/9 tested cases). 10/11 assessable patients are disease-free with a median follow-up of 10.7 years [1-28]. Secondary tumors included desmoid tumors in 7 patients (9 tumors), 1 thyroid carcinoma, 2 pilomatricomas, 1 osteoma, 1 vertebral hemangioma, and 1 malignant Triton in the radiation field which caused the only cancer-related death in our series. CONCLUSIONS: Medulloblastomas associated with APC pathogenic variant have an overall favorable outcome, even for metastatic tumors. Yet, long-term survival is clouded by second tumor occurrence; treatment may play some role in some of these second malignancies. Our findings raise the question of applying de-escalation therapeutic protocol to treat patients with APC germline pathogenic variant given the excellent outcome, and reduced intensity of craniospinal irradiation may be further evaluated.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1913, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507588

RESUMO

The generation of high-affinity antibodies depends on somatic hypermutation (SHM). SHM is initiated by the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which generates uracil (U) lesions in the B-cell receptor (BCR) encoding genes. Error-prone processing of U lesions creates a typical spectrum of point mutations during SHM. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism of SHM in humans; currently available knowledge is limited by the number of mutations analyzed per patient. We collected a unique cohort of 10 well-defined patients with bi-allelic mutations in genes involved in base excision repair (BER) (UNG) or mismatch repair (MMR) (MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2) and are the first to present next-generation sequencing (NGS) data of the BCR, allowing us to study SHM extensively in humans. Analysis using ARGalaxy revealed selective skewing of SHM mutation patterns specific for each genetic defect, which are in line with the five-pathway model of SHM that was recently proposed based on mice data. However, trans-species comparison revealed differences in the role of PMS2 and MSH2 in strand targeting between mice and man. In conclusion, our results indicate a role for UNG, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 in the generation of SHM in humans comparable to their function in mice. However, we observed differences in strand targeting between humans and mice, emphasizing the importance of studying molecular mechanisms in a human setting. The here developed method combining NGS and ARGalaxy analysis of BCR mutation data forms the basis for efficient SHM analyses of other immune deficiencies.

3.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; 105(6): 1181-1185, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign tumour whose progression involves the RANK/RANKL signalling pathway. Surgery is the reference standard treatment but carries risks that vary with the site of the tumour. Denosumab is a human monoclonal IgG2 antibody that targets the RANK/RANKL pathway and may therefore hold promise for inhibiting ABC progression. The objective of this study was to evaluate denosumab use in paediatric patients (younger than 18 years) with ABC and to describe the clinical and radiological outcomes, as well as the side effect profile. HYPOTHESIS: Denosumab is a viable option in children with ABC refractory to standard treatments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical files of paediatric patients given denosumab to treat ABC in any of 32 centres affiliated with the French Paediatric Cancer Society (Société Française du Cancer de l'Enfant, SFCE) and French Sarcoma Group (Groupe Sarcome Français, GSF-GETO). We identified 5 patients treated between March 2015 and June 2018. Median age was 8 years (range, 7-17 years). Pain was a symptom in all 5 patients and neurological deficits were present in 3 patients. Surgery was performed in 4 patients, either before (n=3) or after (n=1) denosumab therapy; the remaining patient had no surgery. Denosumab was given as monthly injections in a dosage of 70mg/m2 for a median of 12 months (range, 4-23 months). The clinical outcomes and changes in computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Abnormalities in calcium and phosphate levels secondary to the ABC occurred in 2 patients. At median of 24 months (range, 0-28 months) after denosumab initiation, all 5 patients were free of pain, and the neurological deficits in 3 patients had improved. Central remineralisation and cortical reconstitution were demonstrated consistently by the imaging studies. DISCUSSION: Denosumab is a viable treatment option in selected paediatric patients with inoperable ABC. The immediate adverse effect profile is acceptable. A larger study with a longer follow-up would be welcome to further assess the contribution of denosumab to the treatment of ABC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause a recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome known as constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD). Family members with a heterozygous MMR variant have Lynch syndrome. We aimed at estimating cancer risk in these heterozygous carriers as a novel approach to avoid complicated statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. METHODS: Cumulative colorectal cancer incidence was estimated in a cohort of PMS2- and MSH6-associated families, ascertained by the CMMRD phenotype of the index, by using mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients as analytical weights in a proportional hazard regression on the cause-specific hazards. Confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by bootstrapping at the family level. RESULTS: The estimated cumulative colorectal cancer risk at age 70 years for heterozygous PMS2 variant carriers was 8.7% (95% CI 4.3-12.7%) for both sexes combined, and 9.9% (95% CI 4.9-15.3%) for men and 5.9% (95% CI 1.6-11.1%) for women separately. For heterozygous MSH6 variant carriers these estimates are 11.8% (95% CI 4.5-22.7%) for both sexes combined, 10.0% (95% CI 1.83-24.5%) for men and 11.7% (95% CI 2.10-26.5%) for women. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with previous reports that used more complex statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. These results underline the need for MMR gene-specific surveillance protocols for Lynch syndrome.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246277

RESUMO

In the OS2006 study, patients younger than 18 years were treated with a methotrexate-based regimen (MTX), patients older than 25 years with a doxorubicin-cisplatin-ifosfamide-based regimen (API-AI), whereas patients aged 18-25 years received either API-AI or MTX. We herein report the prespecified subgroup analysis of the outcome of 106 patients treated with API-AI. Preoperative chemotherapy combined three doxorubicin-ifosfamide-cisplatin (API) and two doxorubicin-ifosfamide (AI) courses. Postoperative chemotherapy was assigned by risk group: localised patients with a good histological response (<10% viable cells) received two AI and two cisplatin-ifosfamide (PI) courses; patients with synchronous metastases, poor histological response or unresectable primary received five cycles of etoposide-ifosfamide (EI). Of the 106 patients, 61 were randomised to receive or not zoledronate. Median age was 30 years (range 18-67), 66 (62%) patients were >25 years. The primary tumours were axial in 28 patients (26%), and 28 (26%) presented with metastases. Ninety-six patients (91%) had surgery, conservative in 82 (85%); 36 patients (38%, 95% CI 28-48%) were good responders. Toxicity was manageable, with no significant difference in severe acute toxicity between patients aged >25 years and those younger. With a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 46% (95% CI 36-56) and 57% (95% CI 47-67), respectively. The primary tumour size and initial metastases correlated with a higher risk of event. In these 106 osteosarcoma adult patients, API-AI proved feasible with no excess of toxicity, and favourable activity despite poor-prognosis factors.

6.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e025877, 2019 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110092

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The controversial results on the mifamurtide efficacy associated with chemotherapy, issued from the American INT-0133-study, in localised osteosarcomas, and the underpowered analysis performed separately in metastatic patients, should be clarified to homogenise international use of this promising drug. The European Commission has granted a marketing authorisation to mifamurtide combined with postoperative chemotherapy in localised osteosarcomas but not in metastatic patients, while the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has denied this authorisation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Sarcome-13/OS2016 trial is a multicentre randomised open-label phase II trial evaluating the survival benefit of mifamurtide administered during 36 weeks in combination with postoperative chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone, in patients >2 and ≤50 years with newly diagnosed high-risk localised or metastatic osteosarcoma. The main objective is to evaluate the impact on event-free survival (EFS) of mifamurtide on intention-to-treat population. The secondary objectives are to evaluate the impact of mifamurtide on overall survival, to evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of the planned treatment, to correlate biology/immunology with the mifamurtide efficacy/toxicity. With a total of 126 enrolled patients and 51 events, the power is 80% if mifamurtide is associated with an 18% improvement of the 3-year EFS (52%vs70%, equivalent to an HR=0.55), with a one-sided logrank test alpha=10%. As relevant historical data are available (aggregate treatment effect from the INT-0133 trial and individual data from the control group of the Sarcome-09/OS2006 trial), a Bayesian analysis is also planned. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the 'Comité de Protection des Personnes Ile de France I' (12/06/2018), complies with the Declaration of Helsinki and French laws and regulations, and follows the International Conference on Harmonisation E6 Guideline for Good Clinical Practice. The trial results, even if they are inconclusive, as well as biological ancillary studies will be presented at appropriate international congresses and published in international peer-review journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EudraCT 2017-001165-24, NCT03643133.

7.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 98(5): 630-637, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The preservation of fertility is an integral part of care of children requiring gonadotoxic treatments for cancer or non-malignant diseases. In France, the cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been considered and has been offered as a clinical treatment since its inception. The aim of this study is to review 20 years of activity in fertility preservation by ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) for children and the feasibility of oocyte isolation and cryopreservation from the ovarian tissue at a single center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study including patients aged 15 years or younger who underwent OTC, combined for some with oocyte cryopreservation of isolated oocytes, before a highly gonadotoxic treatment for malignant or non-malignant disease was initiated. We describe the evolution of activities in our program for fertility preservation and patient characteristics at the time of OTC and follow up. RESULTS: From April 1998 to December 2018, 418 girls and adolescents younger than 15 years of age underwent OTC, representing 40.5% of all females who have had ovarian tissue cryopreserved at our center. In all, 313 patients had malignant diseases and 105 had benign conditions. Between November 2009 and July 2013, oocytes were isolated and also cryopreserved in 50 cases. The mean age of patients was 6.9 years (range 0.3-15). The most frequent diagnoses in this cohort included neuroblastoma, acute leukemia and hemoglobinopathies; neuroblastoma being the most common diagnosis in very young patients. During follow up, three patients requested the use of their cryopreserved ovarian tissue. All had undergone ovarian tissue transplantation, one for puberty induction and the two others for restoring fertility. So far, no pregnancies have been achieved. Eighty-four patients who had OTC died. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only available technique for preserving fertility of girls. To our knowledge this is the largest series of girls and adolescents younger than 15 years so far reported on procedures of OTC before highly gonadotoxic treatment in a single center.

8.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 42(1): 41-47, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Conventional treatments of systemic chemotherapy and surgical resection for recurrent or metastatic hepatoblastoma (HB) may be inhibitive for the pediatric patient and family who have already been through extensive therapies. This single-institution case series evaluates the safety and efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the management of metastatic HB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2008 and February 2015, RFA was used as part of multidisciplinary management for HB recurrence or metastasis in 5 children (median 5.0 years old) in an attempt to provide locoregional control and preclude additional surgery. Combined local treatments of 38 metachronous metastases included surgical metastasectomy (14 lesions: 7 lung, 7 liver), percutaneous RFA (23 lesions: 21 lung, 1 liver, 1 bone), and stereotactic radiotherapy (1 liver lesion). RESULTS: For lesions treated with RFA (median diameter 6 mm, range 3-15 mm), local control was achieved in 22/23 metastases (95.6%) with median follow-up of 30.1 months after RFA (range 18.9-65.7). Median hospitalization was 3 days (2-7), with major complications limited to 1 pneumothorax requiring temporary small-caliber chest tube. Four children remain in complete remission with median follow-up of 67 months (range 41.2-88.8) after primary tumor resection, with mean disease-free survival of 31.7 months after last local treatment. One child succumbed to rapidly progressive disease 12 months after RFA (23.9 months after primary tumor resection). CONCLUSION: RFA provides a safe and effective reiterative treatment option in the multidisciplinary management of children with metastatic HB.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Hepatoblastoma/secundário , Hepatoblastoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Ablação por Radiofrequência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hepatoblastoma/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Colaboração Intersetorial , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 106: 126-132, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the impact of a microscopically positive resection margin (microPRM) on the outcome of hepatoblastoma patients pretreated with chemotherapy. METHODS: Local recurrence and survival rates of 431 children treated in the SIOPEL 2 and 3 trials were analysed comparing 58 patients with microPRM with 371 who had a complete resection (CR) and who were then stratified by risk category. The tumour was standard-risk in 312 patients and high-risk (PRETEXT IV and/or extrahepatic disease and/or α-fetoprotein [AFP]<100 ng/ml) in 117 patients. All received cisplatinum-based neoadjuvant and postoperative chemotherapy as per protocol. Apart from one microPRM patient who went on to transplant, none received any additional local treatment. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 67 months, local relapse occurred in 3/58 patients with microPRM (5%) and in 23/371 (6%) patients with CR. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI] 80%-96%) for the microPRM and 92% (95% CI 89%-95%) for the CR group. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was 86% (95% CI 74%-93%) for the microPRM and 86% (95% CI 82%-89%) for the CR group. Neither OS nor EFS was statistically significantly different between the two groups, neither overall nor when risk group stratified. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, the presence of microPRM did not influence the outcome even without additional local treatment. Although CR remains the aim, microPRM does not necessitate mandatory second look surgery. A 'wait and see policy' is warranted if postoperative chemotherapy is administered and AFP levels and imaging become normal.

10.
Br J Haematol ; 183(4): 608-617, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421536

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative (ND) complications in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are a late-onset but dramatic sequelae for which incidence and risk factors are not well defined. Based on a national prospective registry of paediatric LCH patients, we determined the incidence rate of clinical ND LCH (cND-LCH) and analysed risk factors, taking into account disease extent and molecular characteristics. Among 1897 LCH patients, 36 (1·9%) were diagnosed with a cND-LCH. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cND-LCH was 4·1%. cND-LCH typically affected patients previously treated for a multisystem, risk organ-negative LCH, represented in 69·4% of cND-LCH cases. Pituitary gland, skin and base skull/orbit bone lesions were more frequent (P < 0·001) in cND-LCH patients compared to those without cND-LCH (respectively 86·1% vs. 12·2%, 75·0% vs. 34·2%, and 63·9% vs. 28·4%). The 'cND susceptible patients' (n = 671) i.e., children who had experienced LCH disease with pituitary or skull base or orbit bone involvement, had a 10-year cND risk of 7·8% vs. 0% for patients who did not meet these criteria. Finally, BRAFV 600E status added important information among these cND susceptible patients, with the 10-year cND risk of 33·1% if a BRAFV 600E mutation was present compared to 2·9% if it was absent (P = 0·002).

11.
Mod Pathol ; 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401946

RESUMO

The prognosis of malignant pediatric adrenocortical tumors is closely related to disease stage, which is used to guide perioperative treatment recommendations. However, current scoring systems are inadequate to distinguish between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors. Robust microscopic prognostic features that could help determine perioperative therapy are also lacking. The aim of this national study was to review the prognostic value of the Wieneke scoring criteria and Ki67 labeling index in unselected pediatric adrenocortical tumors. Using strict definitions previously defined by expert pathologists, a Wieneke score was re-attributed to each tumor after an independent and centralized review. In addition, Ki67 proliferation index was performed and reviewed for each case. A total of 95 cases were selected; all were treated between 2000 and 2018 and had histopathologic material and sufficient outcome-related information available. Localized disease was found in 88% of patients. Among those with advanced disease, 6% had tumor extension into adjacent organs and 5% had metastases at diagnosis. Median follow-up was 5 years and 3 months. The 5-year PFS was 82%, 95% CI [73%-91%]. Tumor stage significantly correlated with PFS (p < 0.0001). Tumor weight up to 200 g, extra-adrenal extension and initial non-complete surgical resection were statistically associated with worse outcomes. No recurrences nor metastases occurred when the Ki67 index was < 15%. Up to two of the following five factors including tumor necrosis, adrenal capsular invasion, venous invasion, mitotic count > 15/20 high-power fields, and Ki67 index > 15%, significantly correlated with worse outcomes. We propose a pathological scoring system incorporating the Ki67 index as part of a two-step approach after disease staging to guide adjuvant treatment in pediatric adrenocortical tumors, especially after incomplete resection. These results should be validated in an independent cohort.

13.
Oncotarget ; 9(56): 30883-30893, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112115

RESUMO

Platinum is extensively used in the treatment of several childhood cancers. However, ototoxicity is one of the most notable adverse effects, especially in children. Several studies suggest that genetics may predict its occurrence. Here, polymorphisms associated with platinum-induced ototoxicity were selected from the literature and were investigated in a pediatric population treated with platinum-based agents. In this retrospective study, patients treated with cisplatin and/or carboplatin were screened. The patients with pre- and post-treatment audiogram (Brock criteria) available were included. We selected polymorphisms that have previously been associated with cisplatin ototoxicity with a minor allele frequency ≥30%. Deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1, rs1799735 (GSTM3), rs1695 (GSTP1), rs4880 (SOD2), rs2228001 (XPC), rs1799793 (XPD) and rs4788863 (SLC16A5) were investigated. Data of one hundred and six children matching the eligible criteria were analyzed. Thirty-three patients (31%) developed ototoxicity (with a Brock grade ≥2). The probability of hearing loss increased significantly in patients carrying the null genotype for GSTT1 (P = 0.03), A/A genotype at rs1695 (P = 0.01), and C/C genotype at rs1799793 (P = 0.008). We also showed an association of the cumulative doses of carboplatin with cisplatin ototoxicity (P <0.05). To conclude, deletion of GSTT1, rs1695 and rs1799793 may constitute potential predictors of platinum-induced ototoxicity.

14.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1506, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013564

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutations (SHMs) are prerequisites for antibody and immunoglobulin receptor maturation and adaptive immune diversity. The mismatch repair (MMR) machinery, consisting of homologs of MutSα, MutLα, and MutSß (MSH2/MSH6, MLH1/PMS2, and MSH2/MSH3, respectively) and other proteins, is involved in CSR, primarily acting as a backup for nonhomologous end-joining repair of activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA mismatches and, furthermore, in addition to error-prone polymerases, in the repair of SHM-induced DNA breaks. A varying degree of antibody formation defect, from IgA or selective IgG subclass deficiency to common variable immunodeficiency and hyper-IgM syndrome, has been detected in a small number of patients with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) due to biallelic loss-of-function mutations in one of the MMR genes (PMS2, MSH6, MLH1, or MSH2). To elucidate the clinical relevance of a presumed primary immunodeficiency (PID) in CMMRD, we systematically collected clinical history and laboratory data of a cohort of 15 consecutive, unrelated patients (10 not previously reported) with homozygous/compound heterozygous mutations in PMS2 (n = 8), MSH6 (n = 5), and MLH1 (n = 2), most of whom manifested with typical malignancies during childhood. Detailed descriptions of their genotypes, phenotypes, and family histories are provided. Importantly, none of the patients showed any clinical warning signs of PID (infections, immune dysregulation, inflammation, failure to thrive, etc.). Furthermore, we could not detect uniform or specific patterns of laboratory abnormalities. The concentration of IgM was increased in 3 out of 12, reduced in 3 out of 12, and normal in 6 out of 12 patients, while concentrations of IgG and IgG subclasses, except IgG4, and of IgA, and specific antibody formation were normal in most. Class-switched B memory cells were reduced in 5 out of 12 patients, and in 9 out of 12 also the CD38hiIgM- plasmablasts were reduced. Furthermore, results of next generation sequencing-based analyses of antigen-selected B-cell receptor rearrangements showed a significantly reduced frequency of SHM and an increased number of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) transcripts that use IGHG3, IGHG1, and IGHA1 subclasses. T cell subsets and receptor repertoires were unaffected. Together, neither clinical nor routine immunological laboratory parameters were consistently suggestive of PID in these CMMRD patients, but previously shown abnormalities in SHM and rearranged heavy chain transcripts were confirmed.

15.
N Engl J Med ; 378(25): 2376-2385, 2018 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin chemotherapy and surgery are effective treatments for children with standard-risk hepatoblastoma but may cause considerable and irreversible hearing loss. This trial compared cisplatin with cisplatin plus delayed administration of sodium thiosulfate, aiming to reduce the incidence and severity of cisplatin-related ototoxic effects without jeopardizing overall and event-free survival. METHODS: We randomly assigned children older than 1 month and younger than 18 years of age who had standard-risk hepatoblastoma (≤3 involved liver sectors, no metastatic disease, and an alpha-fetoprotein level of >100 ng per milliliter) to receive cisplatin alone (at a dose of 80 mg per square meter of body-surface area, administered over a period of 6 hours) or cisplatin plus sodium thiosulfate (at a dose of 20 g per square meter, administered intravenously over a 15-minute period, 6 hours after the discontinuation of cisplatin) for four preoperative and two postoperative courses. The primary end point was the absolute hearing threshold, as measured by pure-tone audiometry, at a minimum age of 3.5 years. Hearing loss was assessed according to the Brock grade (on a scale from 0 to 4, with higher grades indicating greater hearing loss). The main secondary end points were overall survival and event-free survival at 3 years. RESULTS: A total of 109 children were randomly assigned to receive cisplatin plus sodium thiosulfate (57 children) or cisplatin alone (52) and could be evaluated. Sodium thiosulfate was associated with few high-grade toxic effects. The absolute hearing threshold was assessed in 101 children. Hearing loss of grade 1 or higher occurred in 18 of 55 children (33%) in the cisplatin-sodium thiosulfate group, as compared with 29 of 46 (63%) in the cisplatin-alone group, indicating a 48% lower incidence of hearing loss in the cisplatin-sodium thiosulfate group (relative risk, 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 0.81; P=0.002). At a median of 52 months of follow-up, the 3-year rates of event-free survival were 82% (95% CI, 69 to 90) in the cisplatin-sodium thiosulfate group and 79% (95% CI, 65 to 88) in the cisplatin-alone group, and the 3-year rates of overall survival were 98% (95% CI, 88 to 100) and 92% (95% CI, 81 to 97), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of sodium thiosulfate, administered 6 hours after cisplatin chemotherapy, resulted in a lower incidence of cisplatin-induced hearing loss among children with standard-risk hepatoblastoma, without jeopardizing overall or event-free survival. (Funded by Cancer Research UK and others; SIOPEL 6 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00652132 ; EudraCT number, 2007-002402-21 .).


Assuntos
Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Perda Auditiva/prevenção & controle , Hepatoblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Tiossulfatos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente , Hepatoblastoma/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego , Análise de Sobrevida , Tiossulfatos/administração & dosagem , Tiossulfatos/efeitos adversos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922990

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chemotherapy dosing in neonates represents a major clinical challenge because of a lack of clinical pharmacology information in this patient population. In this study, we investigate the use of cisplatin dose adaptation based on therapeutic drug monitoring in a 2-week-old neonate with localized hepatoblastoma. METHODS: Cisplatin concentrations were determined in plasma and ultrafiltrate samples collected on each of six cycles of a monotherapy regimen, beginning with a dose of 1.6 mg/kg at 16 days of age. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed to generate clearance (CL) and area under the curve (AUC0-∞) for each administration. Toxicity and clinical response were monitored. RESULTS: The first cisplatin dose (1.6 mg/kg) resulted in an AUC0-∞ of 535 µg/mL · min, was well tolerated and associated with a good response. This AUC was, therefore, considered as an appropriate target for this patient. Increases in cisplatin CL were observed across consecutive treatment cycles, and, therefore, dose was gradually increased to finally reach 2.5 mg/kg on the sixth cycle. Treatment was well tolerated over the six courses and resulted in a good response, with the patient remaining in remission at 15 months. Cisplatin CL was significantly correlated to age (p = 0.013) and weight (p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides useful data on the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin monotherapy in neonates treated within the first few weeks of life. These data provide a reference point to support clinicians in determining appropriate dosing regimens for neonates and support the implementation of therapeutic drug monitoring in such challenging patients.

17.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(9): e27235, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to evaluate at the population level the impact of the actions developed in France since 2004 to organize the care of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, we conducted the present study to provide an unbiased view of the pathway of care of these patients. METHODS: Using a population-based registry, we conducted a review of all cases of cancer diagnosed during 2012 and 2013 in 15- to 24-year-old patients living in nineteen French administrative areas. RESULTS: The median times for diagnosis and treatment of the 993 included AYAs were 9 weeks (3-22) and 1 day (0-20), respectively. Delays in diagnosis were significantly longer in young adults than in adolescents, especially for soft-tissue sarcomas (48.7 weeks vs. 15.4 weeks, P = 0.04) and bone tumors (21.4 weeks vs. 10.1 weeks, P = 0.04). The first physicians seen by patients were mostly general practitioners (67.4%). Most patients (77.5%) were treated in adult units. Management decisions were taken within the context of a multidisciplinary team (MDT) in 85.3% of cases. MDT meetings that involved both pediatric and adult oncologists were uncommon (15.7% of patients). Twenty-six percent of patients were included in randomized or nonrandomized clinical studies. The proportion of inclusion was significantly higher in adolescents (39.5%) than in young adults (16.8%). CONCLUSION: In France, pathways of care for AYAs are heterogeneous. It is necessary to organize a national network of expert centers with adequate medical skills and specific psychosocial support and facilities to provide the best possible care for these patients.

18.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(6): 785-798, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is associated with rare hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, consensus medulloblastoma predisposition genes have not been defined and screening guidelines for genetic counselling and testing for paediatric patients are not available. We aimed to assess and define these genes to provide evidence for future screening guidelines. METHODS: In this international, multicentre study, we analysed patients with medulloblastoma from retrospective cohorts (International Cancer Genome Consortium [ICGC] PedBrain, Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium [MAGIC], and the CEFALO series) and from prospective cohorts from four clinical studies (SJMB03, SJMB12, SJYC07, and I-HIT-MED). Whole-genome sequences and exome sequences from blood and tumour samples were analysed for rare damaging germline mutations in cancer predisposition genes. DNA methylation profiling was done to determine consensus molecular subgroups: WNT (MBWNT), SHH (MBSHH), group 3 (MBGroup3), and group 4 (MBGroup4). Medulloblastoma predisposition genes were predicted on the basis of rare variant burden tests against controls without a cancer diagnosis from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). Previously defined somatic mutational signatures were used to further classify medulloblastoma genomes into two groups, a clock-like group (signatures 1 and 5) and a homologous recombination repair deficiency-like group (signatures 3 and 8), and chromothripsis was investigated using previously established criteria. Progression-free survival and overall survival were modelled for patients with a genetic predisposition to medulloblastoma. FINDINGS: We included a total of 1022 patients with medulloblastoma from the retrospective cohorts (n=673) and the four prospective studies (n=349), from whom blood samples (n=1022) and tumour samples (n=800) were analysed for germline mutations in 110 cancer predisposition genes. In our rare variant burden analysis, we compared these against 53 105 sequenced controls from ExAC and identified APC, BRCA2, PALB2, PTCH1, SUFU, and TP53 as consensus medulloblastoma predisposition genes according to our rare variant burden analysis and estimated that germline mutations accounted for 6% of medulloblastoma diagnoses in the retrospective cohort. The prevalence of genetic predispositions differed between molecular subgroups in the retrospective cohort and was highest for patients in the MBSHH subgroup (20% in the retrospective cohort). These estimates were replicated in the prospective clinical cohort (germline mutations accounted for 5% of medulloblastoma diagnoses, with the highest prevalence [14%] in the MBSHH subgroup). Patients with germline APC mutations developed MBWNT and accounted for most (five [71%] of seven) cases of MBWNT that had no somatic CTNNB1 exon 3 mutations. Patients with germline mutations in SUFU and PTCH1 mostly developed infant MBSHH. Germline TP53 mutations presented only in childhood patients in the MBSHH subgroup and explained more than half (eight [57%] of 14) of all chromothripsis events in this subgroup. Germline mutations in PALB2 and BRCA2 were observed across the MBSHH, MBGroup3, and MBGroup4 molecular subgroups and were associated with mutational signatures typical of homologous recombination repair deficiency. In patients with a genetic predisposition to medulloblastoma, 5-year progression-free survival was 52% (95% CI 40-69) and 5-year overall survival was 65% (95% CI 52-81); these survival estimates differed significantly across patients with germline mutations in different medulloblastoma predisposition genes. INTERPRETATION: Genetic counselling and testing should be used as a standard-of-care procedure in patients with MBWNT and MBSHH because these patients have the highest prevalence of damaging germline mutations in known cancer predisposition genes. We propose criteria for routine genetic screening for patients with medulloblastoma based on clinical and molecular tumour characteristics. FUNDING: German Cancer Aid; German Federal Ministry of Education and Research; German Childhood Cancer Foundation (Deutsche Kinderkrebsstiftung); European Research Council; National Institutes of Health; Canadian Institutes for Health Research; German Cancer Research Center; St Jude Comprehensive Cancer Center; American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities; Swiss National Science Foundation; European Molecular Biology Organization; Cancer Research UK; Hertie Foundation; Alexander and Margaret Stewart Trust; V Foundation for Cancer Research; Sontag Foundation; Musicians Against Childhood Cancer; BC Cancer Foundation; Swedish Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare; Swedish Research Council; Swedish Cancer Society; the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority; Danish Strategic Research Council; Swiss Federal Office of Public Health; Swiss Research Foundation on Mobile Communication; Masaryk University; Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic; Research Council of Norway; Genome Canada; Genome BC; Terry Fox Research Institute; Ontario Institute for Cancer Research; Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario; The Family of Kathleen Lorette and the Clark H Smith Brain Tumour Centre; Montreal Children's Hospital Foundation; The Hospital for Sick Children: Sonia and Arthur Labatt Brain Tumour Research Centre, Chief of Research Fund, Cancer Genetics Program, Garron Family Cancer Centre, MDT's Garron Family Endowment; BC Childhood Cancer Parents Association; Cure Search Foundation; Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation; Brainchild; and the Government of Ontario.

19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(8): e27073, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741220

RESUMO

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies with high incidence in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The most common diseases include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. In comparison to younger children and adults, AYAs (15-39 years) with NHL present a specific set of challenges including variations in tumor biology, inconsistent treatment, pharmacodynamics, and psychosocial barriers. While survival of AYAs with NHL has improved, cure rates remain suboptimal. Incorporation of novel agents into pediatric-inspired treatment regimens specifically designed for NHL in AYAs has led to improved outcomes. Consideration of AYAs as a distinct population in the diagnosis and treatment of NHL is encouraged.

20.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 58(12): 1541-1549, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791011

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that polymorphisms of genes coding for transporters or enzymes may partially explain the large between subject variability reported for methotrexate (MTX) pharmacokinetics (PK). This prospective study aimed to develop a population PK-pharmacogenetic model to evaluate the part of between-subject variability due to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in transporters and enzyme genes implicated in MTX distribution and elimination. MTX concentrations and 54 SNPs (located in ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, ABCG2, SLC19A1, SLCO1B1, and UGT1A1 genes) were analyzed in patients treated with MTX included in the OS2006/sarcoma-09 trial (a multicenter, open-label, phase III trial, ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00470223). PK data were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed-effect modeling software program Monolix. The influence of each SNP was evaluated using a stepwise procedure under additive, recessive, or dominant genetic model. The likelihood ratio test was used to test the effect of each SNP on PK parameters. Overall, 187 patients with 7898 MTX blood concentrations were included in the PK-pharmacogenetic analysis. A 2-compartment model adequately described the data. Although high-dose MTX dosing recommendations in pediatric patients are currently based on body surface area, body weight was more predictive of clearance between-subject variability than body surface area. The most significant polymorphism associated with MTX clearance was rs13120400 (on the ABCG2 gene) under the recessive genetic model (P < .0001). GG genotype carriers for rs13120400 appeared to have a moderate decrease in MTX exposure compared to AA or GA carriers.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA