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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e28982, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687135

RESUMO

In anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL), positive minimal residual disease (MRD+) after the first chemotherapy course was proven of strong prognostic significance. We aimed to validate these results in 138 French patients. Eighty-seven patients had a detectable minimal disseminated disease at diagnosis (MDD+). Early MRD assessment was performed in 33 of 87 patients and was positive in 18 and negative in 15 (MRD-). Three-year progression-free survival was significantly correlated with the MDD/MRD status: 81.1% in MDD-, 69.6% in MDD+/MRD-, and 15.2% in MDD+/MRD+ patients. In conclusion, we confirmed on an independent cohort that the MDD/MRD status has strong prognosis significance in ALK+ ALCL.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome (CMMRD) is the most aggressive cancer predisposition syndrome associated with multiorgan cancers, often presenting in childhood. There is variability in age and presentation of cancers and benign manifestations mimicking neurofibromatosis type 1. Genetic testing may not be informative and is complicated by pseudogenes associated with the most commonly associated gene, PMS2. To date, no diagnostic criteria exist. Since surveillance and immune-based therapies are available, establishing a CMMRD diagnosis is key to improve survival. METHODS: In order to establish a robust diagnostic path, a multidisciplinary international working group, with representation from the two largest consortia (International Replication Repair Deficiency (IRRD) consortium and European Consortium Care for CMMRD (C4CMMRD)), was formed to establish diagnostic criteria based on expertise, literature review and consensus. RESULTS: The working group established seven diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of CMMRD, including four definitive criteria (strong evidence) and three likely diagnostic criteria (moderate evidence). All criteria warrant CMMRD surveillance. The criteria incorporate germline mismatch repair results, ancillary tests and clinical manifestation to determine a diagnosis. Hallmark cancers for CMMRD were defined by the working group after extensive literature review and consultation with the IRRD and C4CMMRD consortia. CONCLUSIONS: This position paper summarises the evidence and rationale to provide specific guidelines for CMMRD diagnosis, which necessitates appropriate surveillance and treatment.

3.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(2): 142-154, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484663

RESUMO

Childhood malignancies are rarely related to known environmental exposures, and it has become increasingly evident that inherited genetic factors play a substantial causal role. Large-scale sequencing studies have shown that approximately 10% of children with cancer have an underlying cancer predisposition syndrome. The number of recognised cancer predisposition syndromes and cancer predisposition genes are constantly growing. Imaging and laboratory technologies are improving, and knowledge of the range of tumours and risk of malignancy associated with cancer predisposition syndromes is increasing over time. Consequently, surveillance measures need to be constantly adjusted to address these new findings. Management recommendations for individuals with pathogenic germline variants in cancer predisposition genes need to be established through international collaborative studies, addressing issues such as genetic counselling, cancer prevention, cancer surveillance, cancer therapy, psychological support, and social-ethical issues. This Review represents the work by a group of experts from the European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) and aims to summarise the current knowledge and define future research needs in this evolving field.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia/métodos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco
4.
J Mol Diagn ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246076

RESUMO

In ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas, positive qualitative PCR for NPM1-ALK in peripheral blood and/or bone marrow at diagnosis and during treatment are associated with a higher risk of treatment failure. Real-time quantitative PCR allows identification of very high risk patients. However, this latter technique initially designed for patients with lymphomas carrying the most frequent NPM1-ALK translocation necessitates calibration curves, limiting inter-laboratory reproducibility. We designed an ALK universal quantitative PCR based on 3'ALK transcript amplification to allow the detection of all ALK fusion transcripts. We validate the absolute concordance of 3'ALK quantitative PCR results with the routine NPM1-ALK qualitative and quantitative PCR on 46 samples. The universality of ALK fusion transcript detection was also validated on TPM3-, ALO17- and ATIC-ALK-positive samples, and EML4-ALK-positive cell line. Then, we show that digital droplet PCR using 3'ALK universal probe gives highly concordant results with 3'ALK universal quantitative PCR. A major benefit of digital droplet PCR is a reduced experimental set-up compared with quantitative PCR, without generation of standard curves, leading to a reliable protocol for multilaboratory validation, in multicenter clinical trials essential for this rare pathology. Our ALK universal method could be used for the screening of ALK fusion transcripts in liquid biopsy of other ALK positive tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinomas.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987765

RESUMO

With the aim of describing the long-term follow-up and to define the prognostic role of the clinical/pathological/molecular characteristics at diagnosis for childhood, adolescent and young adults affected by anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), we analyzed 420 patients aged up to 22 years homogeneously treated within the international ALCL99 trial. The 10-year progression free survival (PFS) was 70% and overall survival was 90%, rare late relapses occurred but no secondary malignancies were reported. Among clinical/pathological characteristics, only patients presenting a small cell/lymphohistiocytic (SC/LH) pattern were independently associated with risk of failure (hazard ratio = 2.49). Analysis of minimal disseminated disease (MDD), available for 162 patients, showed that both SC/LH pattern (hazard ratio = 2.4) and MDD positivity (hazard ratio = 2.15) were significantly associated with risk of failure in multivariate analysis. Considering MDD and SC/LH results, patients were separated into three biological/pathological (bp) risk groups: a high-risk group (bpHR) including MDD-positive patients with SC/LH pattern; a low-risk group (bpLR) including MDD-negative patients without SC/LH pattern; and an intermediate-risk group (bpIR) including remaining patients. The 10-year PFS was 40%, 75% and 86% for bpHR, bpIR and bpLR, respectively (p < 0.0001). These results should be considered in the design of future ALCL trials to tailor individual treatments.

6.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(34): 3999-4009, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730187

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the efficacy of a risk-stratified treatment of children with relapsed anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The ALCL-Relapse trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00317408) stratified patients according to the time of relapse and CD3 expression to prospectively test reinduction approaches combined with consolidation by allogeneic or autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and vinblastine monotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with progression during frontline therapy (very high risk) or a CD3-positive relapse (high risk) were scheduled for allogeneic SCT after reinduction chemotherapy. Patients with a CD3-negative relapse within 1 year after initial diagnosis or prior exposure to vinblastine (intermediate risk) received autologous SCT after carmustine-etoposide-cytarabine-melphalan. This arm was terminated prematurely, and subsequent patients received vinblastine monotherapy instead. Patients with a CD3-negative relapse > 1 year after initial diagnosis (low risk) received vinblastine monotherapy. RESULTS: One hundred sixteen patients met the inclusion criteria; 105 evaluable patients with CNS-negative disease had a 5-year event-free survival (EFS) of 53% ± 5% and a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 78% ± 4%. Before termination of autologous SCT, EFS rates of patients in the very-high- (n = 17), high- (n = 26), intermediate- (n = 32), and low- (n = 21) risk groups were 41% ± 12%, 62% ± 10%, 44% ± 9%, and 81% ± 9%; the respective OS rates were 59% ± 12%, 73% ± 9%, 78% ± 7%, and 90% ± 6%. Analyzing only the patients in the intermediate-risk group consolidated per protocol by autologous SCT, EFS and OS of 23 patients were 30% ± 10% and 78% ± 9%, respectively. All 5 patients with intermediate risk receiving vinblastine monotherapy after the amendment experienced relapse again. CONCLUSION: Shorter time to relapse was the strongest predictor of subsequent relapse. Allogeneic SCT offers a chance for cure in patients with high-risk ALCL relapse. For early relapsed ALCL autologous SCT was not effective. Vinblastine monotherapy achieved cure in patients with late relapse; however, it was not effective for early relapses.

7.
Sci Adv ; 6(26): eaba3231, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637605

RESUMO

Cancer risk is highly variable in carriers of the common TP53-R337H founder allele, possibly due to the influence of modifier genes. Whole-genome sequencing identified a variant in the tumor suppressor XAF1 (E134*/Glu134Ter/rs146752602) in a subset of R337H carriers. Haplotype-defining variants were verified in 203 patients with cancer, 582 relatives, and 42,438 newborns. The compound mutant haplotype was enriched in patients with cancer, conferring risk for sarcoma (P = 0.003) and subsequent malignancies (P = 0.006). Functional analyses demonstrated that wild-type XAF1 enhances transactivation of wild-type and hypomorphic TP53 variants, whereas XAF1-E134* is markedly attenuated in this activity. We propose that cosegregation of XAF1-E134* and TP53-R337H mutations leads to a more aggressive cancer phenotype than TP53-R337H alone, with implications for genetic counseling and clinical management of hypomorphic TP53 mutant carriers.

8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(9): e28486, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with Li-Fraumeni-associated rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). METHOD: Retrospective analysis of data from 31 French patients with RMS diagnosed before the age of 20 years associated with a TP53 pathogenic germline variant. Cases were identified through the French Li-Fraumeni database. Central histologic review was performed in 16 cases. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 2.3 years, and the median follow-up was 9.1 years (0.3-34.8). The main tumor sites were head and neck (n = 13), extremities (n = 8), and trunk (n = 8). The local pathology report classified the 31 tumors in embryonal (n = 26), alveolar (n = 1), pleomorphic (n = 1), and spindle-cell (n = 1) RMS (missing = 2). After histological review, anaplasia (diffuse or focal) was reported in 12/16 patients. Twenty-five patients had localized disease, three had lymph node involvement, and three distant metastases. First-line therapy combined surgery (n = 27), chemotherapy (n = 30), and radiotherapy (n = 14) and led to RMS control in all, but one patient. Eleven patients relapsed, and 18 patients had second malignancies. The 10-year event-free, progression-free, and overall survival rates were 36% (95% CI: 20-56), 62% (95% CI: 43-77) and 76% (95% CI: 56-88), respectively. The 10-year cumulative risk of second malignancies was 40% (95% CI: 22-60). CONCLUSION: The high incidence of multiple primary tumors strongly influences the long-term prognosis of RMS associated with TP53 pathogenic germline variants. Anaplastic RMS in childhood, independently of the familial history, should lead to TP53 analysis at treatment initiation to reduce, whenever possible, the burden of genotoxic drugs and radiotherapy in carriers and to ensure the early detection of second malignancies.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Rabdomiossarcoma , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rabdomiossarcoma/genética , Rabdomiossarcoma/mortalidade , Rabdomiossarcoma/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Neurooncol Adv ; 2(Suppl 1): i98-i106, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642735

RESUMO

Background: Pediatric neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-associated optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) exhibit different clinico-radiological features, treatment, and outcome compared with sporadic OPGs. While NF1-associated OPGs are caused by complete loss-of-function of the NF1 gene, other genetic alterations of the RAS-MAPK pathway are frequently described in the sporadic cases. We identified a group of patients who presented OPGs with typical radiological features of NF1-associated OPGs but without the NF1 diagnostic criteria. We aim to investigate into the possible molecular mechanisms underlying this "NF1-like" pediatric OPGs presentation. Methods: We analyzed clinico-radiological features of 16 children with NF1-like OPGs and without NF1 diagnostic criteria. We performed targeted sequencing of the NF1 gene in constitutional samples (n = 16). The RAS-MAPK pathway major genes were sequenced in OPG tumor samples (n = 11); BRAF FISH and IHC analyses were also performed. Results: In one patient's blood and tumor samples, we identified a NF1 nonsense mutation (exon 50: c.7285C>T, p.Arg2429*) with ~8% and ~70% VAFs, respectively, suggesting a mosaic NF1 mutation limited to the brain (segmental NF1). This patient presented signs of neurodevelopmental disorder. We identified a somatic alteration of the RAS-MAPK pathway in eight tumors: four BRAF activating p.Val600Glu mutations, three BRAF:KIAA oncogenic fusions, and one putative gain-of-function complex KRAS indel inframe mutation. Conclusions: NF1-like OPGs can rarely be associated with mosaic NF1 that needs specific constitutional DNA analyses for diagnosis. Further studies are warranted to explore unknown predisposition condition leading to the NF1-like OPG presentation, particularly in patients with the association of a neurodevelopmental disorder.

10.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648260

RESUMO

Relapses involving the central nervous system (CNS) are rare in children and adolescents with ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) treated with regimens including CNS prophylaxis. Early identification of patients at high-risk for CNS relapse would enable stratification and better adaptation of initial treatment especially in the light of the upcoming targeted therapies with limited CNS penetration. We analyzed clinical and histological data of all ALK+ALCL patients with CNS relapse registered in ALCL99-database with the aim to describe risk factors and outcome. Characteristics of patients with no relapse, relapse without CNS involvement and CNS relapse were compared. At a median follow-up of 8 years (0.05-18 years), a CNS involvement was reported at first or subsequent relapse in 26/618 patients. Median interval between initial diagnosis and first CNS relapse was 8 months (IQR 5.55-10.61/range 1.31-130.69). The 5-year cumulative risk of CNS relapse was 4% (95% CI 2.9-5.5). Bone marrow involvement, peripheral blasts and CNS involvement at diagnosis were more frequent in patients with CNS relapse than in patients with no relapse or with relapse with no CNS involvement. The treatment of CNS relapse was heterogeneous. The median survival after CNS relapse was 23.7 months. Eleven patients were alive at last follow-up. Three-year overall survival after CNS relapse was 48.70% (95% CI 30.52-67.23).

11.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(9): e28549, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatoblastoma tumor rupture is a high-risk criterion in the SIOPEL 3/4 protocol. Little is known about the outcome of these children. METHODS: Radiological signs of possible tumor rupture, defined as peritoneal effusion, peritoneal nodules, or hepatic subcapsular hematoma, were reported in 24 of 150 patients treated for hepatoblastoma in France from January 2000 to December 2014 after central radiological expert review. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients with available clinical data were included (nine PRETEXT-I/II, six PRETEXT-III, seven PRETEXT-IV, and five had lung metastases). Five patients had a subcapsular hematoma only, and 17 patients had intraperitoneal rupture (subcapsular hematoma and peritoneal effusion). A hepatic biopsy was performed in 19 patients. Intraperitoneal rupture occurred before biopsy in 12 and after biopsy in three (including one with prebiopsy subcapsular hematoma) (missing data: two). All patients were treated with chemotherapy, with high-risk regimens including cisplatin or carboplatin and doxorubicin in 19 and cisplatin or carboplatin alone in three. Liver surgery was performed in 20 patients (including three liver transplants). Fifteen patients (68%) achieved complete remission. With a median follow-up of 5.5 years, 11 events occurred (six progressions and three relapses, including three peritoneal progressions/relapses, one surgical complication, and one second cancer) and eight patients died. One of eight patients with no other high-risk criterion had a relapse. The three-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 49.6% (95% CI = 30-69) and 68.2% (40-84), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor rupture is predictive of poor prognosis with risk of peritoneal progression/relapse. However, it should not be a contraindication for liver transplantation.

12.
Blood ; 136(14): 1657-1669, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573700

RESUMO

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a T-cell malignancy predominantly driven by a hyperactive anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion protein. ALK inhibitors, such as crizotinib, provide alternatives to standard chemotherapy with reduced toxicity and side effects. Children with lymphomas driven by nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1)-ALK fusion proteins achieved an objective response rate to ALK inhibition therapy of 54% to 90% in clinical trials; however, a subset of patients progressed within the first 3 months of treatment. The mechanism for the development of ALK inhibitor resistance is unknown. Through genome-wide clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) activation and knockout screens in ALCL cell lines, combined with RNA sequencing data derived from ALK inhibitor-relapsed patient tumors, we show that resistance to ALK inhibition by crizotinib in ALCL can be driven by aberrant upregulation of interleukin 10 receptor subunit alpha (IL10RA). Elevated IL10RA expression rewires the STAT3 signaling pathway, bypassing otherwise critical phosphorylation by NPM1-ALK. IL-10RA expression does not correlate with response to standard chemotherapy in pediatric patients, suggesting that a combination of crizotinib and chemotherapy could prevent ALK inhibitor resistance-specific relapse.

13.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(8): e28416, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452165

RESUMO

Pediatric-type follicular (PTFL), marginal zone (MZL), and peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) account each for <2% of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We present clinical and histopathological features of PTFL, MZL, and few subtypes of PTCL and provide treatment recommendations. For localized PTFL and MZL, watchful waiting after complete resection is the therapy of choice. For PTCL, therapy is subtype-dependent and ranges from a block-like anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL)-derived and, alternatively, leukemia-derived therapy in PTCL not otherwise specified and subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma to a block-like mature B-NHL-derived or, preferentially, ALCL-derived treatment followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first remission in hepatosplenic and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B , Linfoma Folicular , Linfoma de Células T Periférico , Adolescente , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/terapia , Linfoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/terapia , Masculino
14.
Leukemia ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393843

RESUMO

Data on the spectrum of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after primary childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are scarce. One-hundred-and-eighty-nine NHL patients diagnosed in a 30 years period of 1980-2010 developing an SMN were retrieved from 19 members of the European Intergroup for Childhood NHL and/or the international Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group. Five subgroups of SMNs were identified: (1) myeloid neoplasms (n = 43; 23%), (2) lymphoid neoplasms (n = 51; 27%), (3) carcinomas (n = 48; 25%), (4) central nervous system (CNS) tumors (n = 19; 10%), and (5) "other" SMNs (n = 28; 15%). In 37 patients (20%) preexisting disorders were reported with 90% having any kind of cancer predisposition syndrome (CPS). For the 189 primary NHL patients, 5-year overall survival (OS) after diagnosis of an SMN was 56 ± 4%, being worst for patients with preexisting disorders at 28 ± 8%. Five-year OS rates were 38 ± 8%, 59 ± 7%, 79 ± 8%, 34 ± 12%, and 62 ± 11%, respectively, for patients with myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, carcinomas, CNS tumors, and "other" SMNs (p < 0.0001). Patients with SMNs after childhood NHL having a reported CPS, mostly mismatch repair disorders, carried a very poor prognosis. Moreover, although outcome was favorable in some subtypes of SMNs after childhood NHL (carcinomas, lymphoid neoplasms), other SMNs such as myeloid neoplasms and CNS tumors had a dismal prognosis.

15.
J Endocr Soc ; 4(5): bvaa039, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432211

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this work is to assess the clinical outcome of pediatric patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) detected in France since 2000. Methods: A retrospective multicenter study was conducted that included all patients younger than 18 years with PPGL diagnosed in France between 2000 and 2016. Patients were identified from 4 different sources: the National Registry of Childhood Solid Tumors, the French Pediatric Rare Tumors Database, the French registry of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-related hereditary paraganglioma, and the nationwide TenGen network. Results: Among 113 eligible patients, 81 children with available data were enrolled (41 with adrenal and 40 with extra-adrenal PPGL). At diagnosis, 11 had synchronous metastases. After a median follow-up of 53 months, 27 patients experienced a new event (n = 7 second PPGL, n = 1 second paraganglioma [PGL], n = 8 local recurrences, n = 10 metastatic relapses, n = 1 new tumor) and 2 patients died of their disease. The 3- and 10-year event-free survival rates were 80% (71%-90%) and 39% (20%-57%),respectively, whereas the overall survival rate was 97% (93%-100%)at 3 and 10 years. A germline mutation in one PPGL-susceptibility gene was identified in 53 of the 68 (77%) patients who underwent genetic testing (SDHB [n = 25], VHL [n = 21], RET [n = 2], HIF2A [n = 2], SDHC [n = 1], SDHD [n = 1], NF1 [n = 1]). Incomplete resection and synchronous metastases were associated with higher risk of events (P = .011, P = .004), but presence of a germline mutation was not (P = .11). Conclusions: Most pediatric PPGLs are associated with germline mutations and require specific follow-up because of the high risk of tumor recurrence.

16.
Eur J Cancer ; 125: 58-68, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of high-dose chemotherapy in relapsing osteosarcomas has not been established. We evaluated the efficacy and tolerance of high-dose thiotepa (HDTp) after standard chemotherapy (SCT) in patients with relapsed osteosarcoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomised open-label phase II study enrolled patients 1-50 years, with local or metastatic relapse of a high-grade osteosarcoma, not progressive after two cycles of SCT, for whom a complete surgery can be achievable following treatment. The trial assigned enrolled patients in a 1:1 ratio to receive two additional courses of SCT + HDTp and autologous transplantation (Arm A), or SCT alone (Arm B). Surgery for complete resection was scheduled as soon as feasible. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary objectives included progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. RESULTS: From September 2009 to November 2016, 44 patients were randomised (A:22; B:22). In total, 54.5% were males, and the median age was 16 years (9-32years). The two-year OS rate was 66.7% (95% CI 42.5-82.5) (SCT + HDTp, Arm A) versus 50.0% (95% CI 28.2-68.4) for SCT alone (Arm B). Median OS was 27.4 and 24.8 months, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] 0.826, 95% CI 0.393-1.734; p = 0.6123). Median PFS was 15.6 (8.9-24.9) months in Arm A versus 7.2 (4.8-33.3) months in Arm B, p = 0.3845. Among the 22 patients treated with SCT + HDTp, 16 (72.7%) experienced at least one grade ≥3 adverse events versus 18/22 (81.8%) patients treated with SCT. No toxic death occurred. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant HDTp failed to significantly improve OS and PFS in resectable relapsed osteosarcomas. Despite a trend of prolonged survival and an acceptable toxicity, thiotepa cannot be recommended. KEY MESSAGE: HDTp and autologous transplantation added to SCT did not improve OS and PFS in patients with resectable relapsed osteosarcomas. Despite a trend of prolonged survival, thiotepa cannot be recommended.


Assuntos
Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Tiotepa/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Tiotepa/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 9(2): 172-182, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702419

RESUMO

Purpose: The French standard chemotherapy for osteosarcoma combines high-dose methotrexate (HDM) and etoposide-ifosfamide (EI) in children and adolescents, and API-AI (doxorubicin-cisplatin-ifosfamide) in adults. We herein present the results of M-EI and API-AI in 18- to 25-year-old patients. Methods: Patients, 18-25 years old, received either M-EI or API-AI regimens. M-EI comprised seven M and two EI doses preoperatively then M-EI in standard-risk patients (good histological response without metastasis) and five M-AP (methotrexate-doxorubicin-cisplatin) in high-risk patients (poor histological response, metastasis, and/or unresectable primary), postoperatively. API-AI comprised three API and two AI doses preoperatively, then two AI and two PI in standard-risk patients and five EI in high-risk patients, postoperatively. Results: We analyzed 95 patients 18-25 years of age: 55 received M-EI and 40 API-AI. The groups had similar baseline characteristics. Eighty-nine patients (94%) had surgery. Twenty-nine of 55 M-EI patients (60%) and 16/40 API-AI patients (41%) had good histological responses to preoperative chemotherapy. At 5 years, event-free survival was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 39-60) and overall survival was 65% (95% CI: 54-74). Acute toxicity was similar, without treatment-related deaths. Conclusions: Survival outcomes with M-EI and API-AI were not significantly different. Tolerance was acceptable with both regimens. HDM is thus feasible for young adults. However, our study limitations preclude any definitive conclusions.

18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(2): e28086, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738008

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric adrenal cortical tumors are characterized by a wide spectrum of behavior. Questions remain regarding intermediate disease stages with isolated tumor rupture or relapse. OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics, treatment strategy, and outcome of patients depending on disease stage, tumor rupture, or in case of a refractory tumor, to discuss optimal management. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pediatric patients with histological material reviewed and treated between 2000 and 2018 in 23 French oncology centers were included. RESULTS: Among 95 cases, 59% of patients had stage I tumors (n = 55), 16% had stage II tumors (n = 16), 19% had stage III tumors (n = 17), and 5% had stage IV tumors (n = 5) (missing data: 2). Overall, 27% of patients (n = 25) had an unfavorable histology. Initial tumor resection was performed for 90% of patients (n = 86). Systemic therapies included mitotane in 20 cases and chemotherapy in 13 cases. Among 17 stage III patients, 12 had microscopic residual tumor due to an initial biopsy (n = 5), intraoperative rupture (n = 8), or surgical resection with microscopic residue or tumor spillage surgery (n = 1) (two patients with two modalities). After a median follow-up of 96 months (25-119), four early progressions and two relapses occurred. A total of seven patients died, including five of disease. Stage III diseases due to microscopic residual disease correlated with a worse prognosis: 5-year progression-free survival 44% (95% CI, 22-87%) versus 82% (95% CI, 73-91%) for the whole cohort (P < .0001). Among the 14 patients with refractory disease, only 3 were alive and free of disease after multimodal second-line therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Stage III diseases due to a microscopic residual tumor have a dismal prognosis, arguing for the systematic use of adjuvant therapy. Patients with a relapsed disease should be included in experimental studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/classificação , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasia Residual/patologia , Terapia de Salvação , Adolescente , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasia Residual/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(1): 43-50, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609649

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The identification of a heritable tumor predisposition often leads to changes in management and increased surveillance of individuals who are at risk; however, for many rare entities, our knowledge of heritable predisposition is incomplete. METHODS: Families with childhood medulloblastoma, one of the most prevalent childhood malignant brain tumors, were investigated to identify predisposing germline mutations. Initial findings were extended to genomes and epigenomes of 1,044 medulloblastoma cases from international multicenter cohorts, including retrospective and prospective clinical studies and patient series. RESULTS: We identified heterozygous germline mutations in the G protein-coupled receptor 161 (GPR161) gene in six patients with infant-onset medulloblastoma (median age, 1.5 years). GPR161 mutations were exclusively associated with the sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma (MBSHH) subgroup and accounted for 5% of infant MBSHH cases in our cohorts. Molecular tumor profiling revealed a loss of heterozygosity at GPR161 in all affected MBSHH tumors, atypical somatic copy number landscapes, and no additional somatic driver events. Analysis of 226 MBSHH tumors revealed somatic copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1q as the hallmark characteristic of GPR161 deficiency and the primary mechanism for biallelic inactivation of GPR161 in affected MBSHH tumors. CONCLUSION: Here, we describe a novel brain tumor predisposition syndrome that is caused by germline GPR161 mutations and characterized by MBSHH in infants. Additional studies are needed to identify a potential broader tumor spectrum associated with germline GPR161 mutations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Meduloblastoma/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Meduloblastoma/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(1): 128-138, 2020 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medulloblastomas may occur in a predisposition context, including familial adenomatosis polyposis. Medulloblastomas related to a germline pathogenic variant of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) remain rare and poorly described. Their similarities with sporadic WNT medulloblastomas still require description. METHODS: We performed a multicentric retrospective review of 12 patients treated between 1988 and 2018 for medulloblastoma with an identified or highly suspected (personal or familial history) APC germline pathogenic variant. We report personal and familial history APC gene pathogenic variants whenever available: clinical and histologic characteristics of the medulloblastoma, treatments, and long-term outcome, including second tumor and late sequelae. RESULTS: Medulloblastomas associated with APC pathogenic variants are mainly classic (11/11 patients, 1 not available), nonmetastatic (10/12 patients) medulloblastomas, with nuclear immunoreactivity for ß-catenin (9/9 tested cases). Ten of 11 assessable patients are disease free with a median follow-up of 10.7 years (range, 1-28 y). Secondary tumors included desmoid tumors in 7 patients (9 tumors), 1 thyroid carcinoma, 2 pilomatricomas, 1 osteoma, 1 vertebral hemangioma, and 1 malignant triton in the radiation field, which caused the only cancer-related death in our series. CONCLUSIONS: Medulloblastomas associated with an APC pathogenic variant have an overall favorable outcome, even for metastatic tumors. Yet, long-term survival is clouded by second tumor occurrence; treatment may play some role in some of these second malignancies. Our findings raise the question of applying a de-escalation therapeutic protocol to treat patients with APC germline pathogenic variants given the excellent outcome, and reduced intensity of craniospinal irradiation may be further evaluated.

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