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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(3): 235-246, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721378

RESUMO

Early menopause is associated with an increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Few studies have investigated the converse. We examined whether premenopausal CVD events are associated with early age at menopause. We pooled the individual data of 177,131 women from nine studies. We used multinomial logistic regression models to estimate multivariable relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between age at onset of premenopausal CVD events-including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke-and age at natural menopause. Altogether 1561 (0.9%) premenopausal participants reported CVD events (including 1130 CHD and 469 stroke) at a mean age of 41.3 years. Compared with women without any premenopausal CVD events, women who experienced a first CVD event before age 35 years had a twofold risk of menopause before age 45 years (early menopause); adjusted RRR (95% CI) of 1.92 (1.17, 3.14) for any CVD, 1.86 (1.01, 3.43) for CHD and 2.17 (1.43, 3.30) for stroke. Women who experienced a first premenopausal CVD event after age 40 years underwent a natural menopause at the expected age (around 51 years). These associations were robust to adjustment for smoking status, BMI, educational level, race/ethnicity, age at menarche, parity, hypertension and family history of CVD. For premenopausal women, a first CVD event before age 35 years is associated with a doubling of the risk of an early menopause, while a first CVD event occurred after 35 years indicates a normal menopause at around 51 years. Shared genetic and environmental factors (such as smoking), as well as compromised vasculature following CVD events, may contribute to this outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
2.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002724, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several obesity-related factors have been associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but it is unclear which individual factors directly influence risk. We addressed this question using genetic markers as proxies for putative risk factors and evaluated their relation to RCC risk in a mendelian randomization (MR) framework. This methodology limits bias due to confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic markers associated with obesity measures, blood pressure, lipids, type 2 diabetes, insulin, and glucose were initially identified as instrumental variables, and their association with RCC risk was subsequently evaluated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 10,784 RCC patients and 20,406 control participants in a 2-sample MR framework. The effect on RCC risk was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORSD) for a standard deviation (SD) increment in each risk factor. The MR analysis indicated that higher body mass index increases the risk of RCC (ORSD: 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-1.70), with comparable results for waist-to-hip ratio (ORSD: 1.63, 95% CI 1.40-1.90) and body fat percentage (ORSD: 1.66, 95% CI 1.44-1.90). This analysis further indicated that higher fasting insulin (ORSD: 1.82, 95% CI 1.30-2.55) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; ORSD: 1.28, 95% CI 1.11-1.47), but not systolic blood pressure (ORSD: 0.98, 95% CI 0.84-1.14), increase the risk for RCC. No association with RCC risk was seen for lipids, overall type 2 diabetes, or fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence for an etiological role of insulin in RCC, as well as confirmatory evidence that obesity and DBP influence RCC risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco
3.
PLoS Med ; 15(11): e1002704, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is associated with earlier menopause, but the impact of being a former smoker and any dose-response relationships on the degree of smoking and age at menopause have been less clear. If the toxic impact of cigarette smoking on ovarian function is irreversible, we hypothesized that even former smokers might experience earlier menopause, and variations in intensity, duration, cumulative dose, and age at start/quit of smoking might have varying impacts on the risk of experiencing earlier menopause. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 207,231 and 27,580 postmenopausal women were included in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. They were from 17 studies in 7 countries (Australia, Denmark, France, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States) that contributed data to the International collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE). Information on smoking status, cigarettes smoked per day (intensity), smoking duration, pack-years (cumulative dose), age started, and years since quitting smoking was collected at baseline. We used multinomial logistic regression models to estimate multivariable relative risk ratios (RRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between each smoking measure and categorised age at menopause (<40 (premature), 40-44 (early), 45-49, 50-51 (reference), and ≥52 years). The association with current and former smokers was analysed separately. Sensitivity analyses and two-step meta-analyses were also conducted to test the results. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) was used to compare the fit of the models of smoking measures. Overall, 1.9% and 7.3% of women experienced premature and early menopause, respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had around twice the risk of experiencing premature (RRR 2.05; 95% CI 1.73-2.44) (p < 0.001) and early menopause (1.80; 1.66-1.95) (p < 0.001). The corresponding RRRs in former smokers were attenuated to 1.13 (1.04-1.23; p = 0.006) and 1.15 (1.05-1.27; p = 0.005). In both current and former smokers, dose-response relationships were observed, i.e., higher intensity, longer duration, higher cumulative dose, earlier age at start smoking, and shorter time since quitting smoking were significantly associated with higher risk of premature and early menopause, as well as earlier menopause at 45-49 years. Duration of smoking was a strong predictor of age at natural menopause. Among current smokers with duration of 15-20 years, the risk was markedly higher for premature (15.58; 11.29-19.86; p < 0.001) and early (6.55; 5.04-8.52; p < 0.001) menopause. Also, current smokers with 11-15 pack-years had over 4-fold (4.35; 2.78-5.92; p < 0.001) and 3-fold (3.01; 2.15-4.21; p < 0.001) risk of premature and early menopause, respectively. Smokers who had quit smoking for more than 10 years had similar risk as never smokers (1.04; 0.98-1.10; p = 0.176). A limitation of the study is the measurement errors that may have arisen due to recall bias. CONCLUSIONS: The probability of earlier menopause is positively associated with intensity, duration, cumulative dose, and earlier initiation of smoking. Smoking duration is a much stronger predictor of premature and early menopause than others. Our findings highlight the clear benefits for women of early smoking cessation to lower their excess risk of earlier menopause.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(9)2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134598

RESUMO

Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is a crucial enzyme for DNA synthesis. TYMS expression is regulated by its antisense mRNA, ENOSF1. Disrupted regulation may promote uncontrolled DNA synthesis and tumor growth. We sought to replicate our previously reported association between rs495139 in the TYMS-ENOSF1 3' gene region and increased risk of mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC) in an independent sample. Genotypes from 24,351 controls to 15,000 women with invasive OC, including 665 MOC, were available. We estimated per-allele odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional logistic regression, and meta-analysis when combining these data with our previous report. The association between rs495139 and MOC was not significant in the independent sample (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.97⁻1.22; p = 0.15; N = 665 cases). Meta-analysis suggested a weak association (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.03⁻1.24; p = 0.01; N = 1019 cases). No significant association with risk of other OC histologic types was observed (p = 0.05 for tumor heterogeneity). In expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis, the rs495139 allele was positively associated with ENOSF1 mRNA expression in normal tissues of the gastrointestinal system, particularly esophageal mucosa (r = 0.51, p = 1.7 × 10-28), and nonsignificantly in five MOC tumors. The association results, along with inconclusive tumor eQTL findings, suggest that a true effect of rs495139 might be small.

5.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0197561, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29979793

RESUMO

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality in American women. Normal ovarian physiology is intricately connected to small GTP binding proteins of the Ras superfamily (Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, and Ran) which govern processes such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, cell motility, and vesicle transport. We hypothesized that common germline variation in genes encoding small GTPases is associated with EOC risk. We investigated 322 variants in 88 small GTPase genes in germline DNA of 18,736 EOC patients and 26,138 controls of European ancestry using a custom genotype array and logistic regression fitting log-additive models. Functional annotation was used to identify biofeatures and expression quantitative trait loci that intersect with risk variants. One variant, ARHGEF10L (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 like) rs2256787, was associated with increased endometrioid EOC risk (OR = 1.33, p = 4.46 x 10-6). Other variants of interest included another in ARHGEF10L, rs10788679, which was associated with invasive serous EOC risk (OR = 1.07, p = 0.00026) and two variants in AKAP6 (A-kinase anchoring protein 6) which were associated with risk of invasive EOC (rs1955513, OR = 0.90, p = 0.00033; rs927062, OR = 0.94, p = 0.00059). Functional annotation revealed that the two ARHGEF10L variants were located in super-enhancer regions and that AKAP6 rs927062 was associated with expression of GTPase gene ARHGAP5 (Rho GTPase activating protein 5). Inherited variants in ARHGEF10L and AKAP6, with potential transcriptional regulatory function and association with EOC risk, warrant investigation in independent EOC study populations.

7.
Med J Aust ; 208(10): 424, 2018 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848242
8.
Carcinogenesis ; 2018 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800239

RESUMO

Diets with high inflammatory potential are suspected to increase risk for pancreatic cancer (PC). Using pooled analyses, we examined whether this association applies to populations from different geographic regions and population subgroups with varying risks for PC, including variation in ABO blood type. Data from six case-control studies (cases, n=2,414; controls, n=4,528) in the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) were analyzed, followed by replication in five nested case-control studies (cases, n=1,268; controls, n=4,215) from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan). Two polymorphisms in the ABO locus (rs505922 and rs8176746) were used to infer participants' blood types. Dietary questionnaire-derived nutrient/food intake was used to compute energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (DII®) scores to assess inflammatory potential of diet. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. Higher E-DII scores, reflecting greater inflammatory potential of diet, were associated with increased PC risk in PanC4 (ORQ5 vs. Q1=2.20, 95% CI=1.85-2.61, Ptrend<0.0001; ORcontinuous=1.20, 95% CI=1.17-1.24), and PanScan (ORQ5 vs. Q1=1.23, 95% CI=0.92-1.66, Ptrend=0.008; ORcontinuous=1.09, 95% CI=1.02-1.15). As expected, genotype-derived non-O blood type was associated with increased PC risk in both the PanC4 and PanScan studies. Stratified analyses of associations between E-DII quintiles and PC by genotype-derived ABO blood type did not show interaction by blood type (Pinteraction=0.10 in PanC4 and Pinteraction=0.13 in PanScan). The results show that consuming a pro-inflammatory diet and carrying non-O blood type are each individually, but not interactively, associated with increased PC risk.

9.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 20(9): 2103-2112, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696756

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the prospective associations between aspects of a woman's reproductive history and incident diabetes. METHODS: We pooled individual data from 126 721 middle-aged women from eight cohort studies contributing to the International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events (InterLACE). Associations between age at menarche, age at first birth, parity and menopausal status with incident diabetes were examined using generalized linear mixed models, with binomial distribution and robust variance. We stratified by body mass index (BMI) when there was evidence of a statistical interaction with BMI. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 9 years, 4073 cases of diabetes were reported. Non-linear associations with diabetes were observed for age at menarche, parity and age at first birth. Compared with menarche at age 13 years, menarche at ≤10 years was associated with an 18% increased risk of diabetes (relative risk [RR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.37) after adjusting for BMI. After stratifying by BMI, the increased risk was only observed in women with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 . A U-shaped relationship was observed between parity and risk of diabetes. Compared with pre-/peri-menopausal women, women with a hysterectomy/oophorectomy had an increased risk of diabetes (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.29). CONCLUSIONS: Several markers of a woman's reproductive history appear to be modestly associated with future risk of diabetes. Maintaining a normal weight in adult life may ameliorate any increase in risk conferred by early onset of menarche.

10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 33(8): 699-710, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460096

RESUMO

Current evidence on the association between body mass index (BMI) and age at menopause remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between BMI and age at menopause using data from 11 prospective studies. A total of 24,196 women who experienced menopause after recruitment was included. Baseline BMI was categorised according to the WHO criteria. Age at menopause, confirmed by natural cessation of menses for ≥ 12 months, was categorised as < 45 years (early menopause), 45-49, 50-51 (reference category), 52-53, 54-55, and ≥ 56 years (late age at menopause). We used multinomial logistic regression models to estimate multivariable relative risk ratios (RRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between BMI and age at menopause. The mean (standard deviation) age at menopause was 51.4 (3.3) years, with 2.5% of the women having early and 8.1% late menopause. Compared with those with normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), underweight women were at a higher risk of early menopause (RRR 2.15, 95% CI 1.50-3.06), while overweight (1.52, 1.31-1.77) and obese women (1.54, 1.18-2.01) were at increased risk of late menopause. Overweight and obesity were also significantly associated with around 20% increased risk of menopause at ages 52-53 and 54-55 years. We observed no association between underweight and late menopause. The risk of early menopause was higher among obese women albeit not significant (1.23, 0.89-1.71). Underweight women had over twice the risk of experiencing early menopause, while overweight and obese women had over 50% higher risk of experiencing late menopause.

11.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 8, 2018 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the suitability of DNA extracted from saliva for high throughput molecular genotyping and DNA methylation platforms by comparing its performance with that of DNA extracted from blood. The genome-wide methylation profile, using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip array® (Illumina, San Diego, CA), was measured for 20 DNA samples. Common genetic variation was measured, using the Infinium HumanCore Beadchip® (Illumina, San Diego, CA) for 4 samples (matching samples from 2 people). RESULTS: DNA from blood and saliva returned genotyping call rates and reproducibility frequencies of > 99%. High-quality DNA methylation data was obtained from both saliva and blood DNA, with average detection p-values for each sample ranging from 0.001 to 0.006. Slightly higher global DNA methylation levels were observed in whole blood DNA than saliva DNA. Correlations between individuals for each sample type were generally greater than correlations between two sample types from the same individual (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.9696 in 10 pairs of matched blood and saliva derived DNA, r = 0.9702 between saliva samples, and r = 0.9769 between blood derived DNA). Saliva yields DNA of sufficient quantity and quality to compare favourably with blood as a source of DNA for genetic and epigenetic research purposes.


Assuntos
Sangue/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Saliva/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Humanos
12.
Eur Urol ; 72(5): 747-754, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28797570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been evaluated as a potential biomarker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk in several studies, with conflicting findings. OBJECTIVE: We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with leukocyte telomere length to assess the relationship between telomere length and RCC risk using Mendelian randomization, an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Genotypes from nine telomere length-associated variants for 10 784 cases and 20 406 cancer-free controls from six genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of RCC were aggregated into a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) predictive of leukocyte telomere length. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Odds ratios (ORs) relating the GRS and RCC risk were computed in individual GWAS datasets and combined by meta-analysis. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Longer genetically inferred telomere length was associated with an increased risk of RCC (OR=2.07 per predicted kilobase increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]:=1.70-2.53, p<0.0001). As a sensitivity analysis, we excluded two telomere length variants in linkage disequilibrium (R2>0.5) with GWAS-identified RCC risk variants (rs10936599 and rs9420907) from the telomere length GRS; despite this exclusion, a statistically significant association between the GRS and RCC risk persisted (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.36-2.21, p<0.0001). Exploratory analyses for individual histologic subtypes suggested comparable associations with the telomere length GRS for clear cell (N=5573, OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.50-2.49, p<0.0001), papillary (N=573, OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.01-3.81, p=0.046), and chromophobe RCC (N=203, OR=2.37, 95% CI=0.78-7.17, p=0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation adds to the growing body of evidence indicating some aspect of longer telomere length is important for RCC risk. PATIENT SUMMARY: Telomeres are segments of DNA at chromosome ends that maintain chromosomal stability. Our study investigated the relationship between genetic variants associated with telomere length and renal cell carcinoma risk. We found evidence suggesting individuals with inherited predisposition to longer telomere length are at increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Homeostase do Telômero , Telômero/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Leucócitos/química , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Telômero/patologia
13.
Fam Cancer ; 16(3): 411-416, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063109

RESUMO

An apparently balanced t(2;3)(q37.3;q13.2) translocation that appears to segregate with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has indicated potential areas to search for the elusive genetic basis of clear cell RCC. We applied Hi-Plex targeted sequencing to analyse germline DNA from 479 individuals affected with clear cell RCC for this breakpoint translocation and genetic variants in neighbouring genes on chromosome 2, ACKR3 and COPS8. While only synonymous variants were found in COPS8, one of the missense variants in ACKR3:c.892C>T, observed in 4/479 individuals screened (0.8%), was predicted likely to damage ACKR3 function. Identification of causal genes for RCC has potential clinical utility, where risk assessment and risk management can offer better outcomes, with surveillance for at-risk relatives and nephron sparing surgery through earlier intervention.


Assuntos
Complexo do Signalossomo COP9/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Proteínas/genética , Receptores CXCR/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Hum Reprod ; 32(3): 679-686, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28119483

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Are parity and the timing of menarche associated with premature and early natural menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER: Early menarche (≤11 years) is a risk factor for both premature menopause (final menstrual period, FMP <40 years) and early menopause (FMP 40-44 years), a risk that is amplified for nulliparous women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Women with either premature or early menopause face an increased risk of chronic conditions in later life and of early death. Findings from some studies suggest that early menarche and nulliparity are associated with early menopause, however overall the evidence is mixed. Much of the evidence for a direct relationship is hampered by a lack of comparability across studies, failure to adjust for confounding factors and inadequate statistical power. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This pooled study comprises 51 450 postmenopausal women from nine observational studies in the UK, Scandinavia, Australia and Japan that contribute to the International collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Age at menarche (categorized as ≤11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 or more years) and parity (categorized as no children, one child and two or more children) were exposures of interest. Age at FMP was confirmed by at least 12 months of cessation of menses where this was not the result of an intervention (such as surgical menopause due to bilateral oophorectomy or hysterectomy) and categorized as premature menopause (FMP before age 40), early menopause (FMP 40-44 years), 45-49 years, 50-51 years, 52-53 years and 54 or more years. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression models to estimate relative risk ratio (RRR) and 95% CI for associations between menarche, parity and age at FMP adjusting for within-study correlation. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The median age at FMP was 50 years (interquartile range 48-53 years), with 2% of the women experiencing premature menopause and 7.6% early menopause. Women with early menarche (≤11 years, compared with 12-13 years) were at higher risk of premature menopause (RRR 1.80, 95% CI 1.53-2.12) and early menopause (1.31, 1.19-1.44). Nulliparity was associated with increased risk of premature menopause (2.26, 1.84-2.77) and early menopause (1.32, 1.09-1.59). Women having early menarche and nulliparity were at over 5-fold increased risk of premature menopause (5.64, 4.04-7.87) and 2-fold increased risk of early menopause (2.16, 1.48-3.15) compared with women who had menarche at ≥12 years and two or more children. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Most of the studies (except the birth cohorts) relied on retrospectively reported age at menarche, which may have led to some degree of recall bias. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our findings support early monitoring of women with early menarche, especially those who have no children, for preventive health interventions aimed at mitigating the risk of adverse health outcomes associated with early menopause. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): InterLACE project is funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council project grant (APP1027196). G.D.M. is supported by Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (FT120100812). There are no competing interests.


Assuntos
Menarca/fisiologia , Menopausa Precoce/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Paridade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
15.
Maturitas ; 92: 176-185, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27621257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events (InterLACE) project is a global research collaboration that aims to advance understanding of women's reproductive health in relation to chronic disease risk by pooling individual participant data from several cohort and cross-sectional studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of contributing studies and to present the distribution of demographic and reproductive factors and chronic disease outcomes in InterLACE. STUDY DESIGN: InterLACE is an individual-level pooled study of 20 observational studies (12 of which are longitudinal) from ten countries. Variables were harmonized across studies to create a new and systematic synthesis of life-course data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Harmonized data were derived in three domains: 1) socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, 2) female reproductive characteristics, and 3) chronic disease outcomes (cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes). RESULTS: InterLACE pooled data from 229,054 mid-aged women. Overall, 76% of the women were Caucasian and 22% Japanese; other ethnicities (of 300 or more participants) included Hispanic/Latin American (0.2%), Chinese (0.2%), Middle Eastern (0.3%), African/black (0.5%), and Other (1.0%). The median age at baseline was 47 years (Inter-quartile range (IQR): 41-53), and that at the last follow-up was 56 years (IQR: 48-64). Regarding reproductive characteristics, half of the women (49.8%) had their first menstruation (menarche) at 12-13 years of age. The distribution of menopausal status and the prevalence of chronic disease varied considerably among studies. At baseline, most women (57%) were pre- or peri-menopausal, 20% reported a natural menopause (range 0.8-55.6%) and the remainder had surgery or were taking hormones. By the end of follow-up, the prevalence rates of CVD and diabetes were 7.2% (range 0.9-24.6%) and 5.1% (range 1.3-13.2%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The scale and heterogeneity of InterLACE data provide an opportunity to strengthen evidence concerning the relationships between reproductive health through life and subsequent risks of chronic disease, including cross-cultural comparisons.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Criança , China , Doença Crônica , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , América Latina , Estilo de Vida , Menarca , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prevalência
16.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12675, 2016 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27601076

RESUMO

A locus at 19p13 is associated with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) risk. Here we analyse 438 SNPs in this region in 46,451 BC and 15,438 OC cases, 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 73,444 controls and identify 13 candidate causal SNPs associated with serous OC (P=9.2 × 10(-20)), ER-negative BC (P=1.1 × 10(-13)), BRCA1-associated BC (P=7.7 × 10(-16)) and triple negative BC (P-diff=2 × 10(-5)). Genotype-gene expression associations are identified for candidate target genes ANKLE1 (P=2 × 10(-3)) and ABHD8 (P<2 × 10(-3)). Chromosome conformation capture identifies interactions between four candidate SNPs and ABHD8, and luciferase assays indicate six risk alleles increased transactivation of the ADHD8 promoter. Targeted deletion of a region containing risk SNP rs56069439 in a putative enhancer induces ANKLE1 downregulation; and mRNA stability assays indicate functional effects for an ANKLE1 3'-UTR SNP. Altogether, these data suggest that multiple SNPs at 19p13 regulate ABHD8 and perhaps ANKLE1 expression, and indicate common mechanisms underlying breast and ovarian cancer risk.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 45(5): 1619-1630, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27594614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In vitro and observational epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D may play a role in cancer prevention. However, the relationship between vitamin D and ovarian cancer is uncertain, with observational studies generating conflicting findings. A potential limitation of observational studies is inadequate control of confounding. To overcome this problem, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and risk of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We employed SNPs with well-established associations with 25(OH)D concentration as instrumental variables for MR: rs7944926 (DHCR7), rs12794714 (CYP2R1) and rs2282679 (GC). We included 31 719 women of European ancestry (10 065 cases, 21 654 controls) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, who were genotyped using customized Illumina Infinium iSelect (iCOGS) arrays. A two-sample (summary data) MR approach was used and analyses were performed separately for all ovarian cancer (10 065 cases) and for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (4121 cases). RESULTS: The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer risk (10 065 cases) estimated by combining the individual SNP associations using inverse variance weighting was 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 1.51) per 20 nmol/L decrease in 25(OH)D concentration. The estimated odds ratio for high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (4121 cases) was 1.54 (1.19, 2.01). CONCLUSIONS: Genetically lowered 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were associated with higher ovarian cancer susceptibility in Europeans. These findings suggest that increasing plasma vitamin D levels may reduce risk of ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/sangue , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
18.
Oncotarget ; 7(43): 69097-69110, 2016 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27533245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and, thus, variants in genes encoding Treg cell immune molecules could be associated with ovarian cancer. METHODS: In a population of 15,596 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cases and 23,236 controls, we measured genetic associations of 1,351 SNPs in Treg cell pathway genes with odds of ovarian cancer and tested pathway and gene-level associations, overall and by histotype, for the 25 genes, using the admixture likelihood (AML) method. The most significant single SNP associations were tested for correlation with expression levels in 44 ovarian cancer patients. RESULTS: The most significant global associations for all genes in the pathway were seen in endometrioid ( p = 0.082) and clear cell ( p = 0.083), with the most significant gene level association seen with TGFBR2 ( p = 0.001) and clear cell EOC. Gene associations with histotypes at p < 0.05 included: IL12 ( p = 0.005 and p = 0.008, serous and high-grade serous, respectively), IL8RA ( p = 0.035, endometrioid and mucinous), LGALS1 ( p = 0.03, mucinous), STAT5B ( p = 0.022, clear cell), TGFBR1 ( p = 0.021 endometrioid) and TGFBR2 ( p = 0.017 and p = 0.025, endometrioid and mucinous, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Common inherited gene variation in Treg cell pathways shows some evidence of germline genetic contribution to odds of EOC that varies by histologic subtype and may be associated with mRNA expression of immune-complex receptor in EOC patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo II , Fatores de Risco , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 45(3): 884-95, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27401727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have reported a positive association between body mass index (BMI) and ovarian cancer risk. However, questions remain as to whether this represents a causal effect, or holds for all histological subtypes. The lack of association observed for serous cancers may, for instance, be due to disease-associated weight loss. Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic markers as proxies for risk factors to overcome limitations of observational studies. We used MR to elucidate the relationship between BMI and ovarian cancer, hypothesizing that genetically predicted BMI would be associated with increased risk of non-high grade serous ovarian cancers (non-HGSC) but not HGSC. METHODS: We pooled data from 39 studies (14 047 cases, 23 003 controls) in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We constructed a weighted genetic risk score (GRS, partial F-statistic = 172), summing alleles at 87 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with BMI, weighting by their published strength of association with BMI. Applying two-stage predictor-substitution MR, we used logistic regression to estimate study-specific odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted BMI and risk, and pooled these using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Higher genetically predicted BMI was associated with increased risk of non-HGSC (pooled OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1.61 per 5 units BMI) but not HGSC (pooled OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.88-1.27). Secondary analyses stratified by behaviour/subtype suggested that, consistent with observational data, the association was strongest for low-grade/borderline serous cancers (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.33-2.81). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that higher BMI increases risk of non-HGSC, but not the more common and aggressive HGSC subtype, confirming the observational evidence.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/complicações , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hum Genet ; 135(7): 741-56, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27075448

RESUMO

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadliest common cancers. The five most common types of disease are high-grade and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell carcinoma. Each of these subtypes present distinct molecular pathogeneses and sensitivities to treatments. Recent studies show that certain genetic variants confer susceptibility to all subtypes while other variants are subtype-specific. Here, we perform an extensive analysis of the genetic architecture of EOC subtypes. To this end, we used data of 10,014 invasive EOC patients and 21,233 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium genotyped in the iCOGS array (211,155 SNPs). We estimate the array heritability (attributable to variants tagged on arrays) of each subtype and their genetic correlations. We also look for genetic overlaps with factors such as obesity, smoking behaviors, diabetes, age at menarche and height. We estimated the array heritabilities of high-grade serous disease ([Formula: see text] = 8.8 ± 1.1 %), endometrioid ([Formula: see text] = 3.2 ± 1.6 %), clear cell ([Formula: see text] = 6.7 ± 3.3 %) and all EOC ([Formula: see text] = 5.6 ± 0.6 %). Known associated loci contributed approximately 40 % of the total array heritability for each subtype. The contribution of each chromosome to the total heritability was not proportional to chromosome size. Through bivariate and cross-trait LD score regression, we found evidence of shared genetic backgrounds between the three high-grade subtypes: serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated. Finally, we found significant genetic correlations of all EOC with diabetes and obesity using a polygenic prediction approach.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Patologia Molecular , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/classificação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/classificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
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