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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150383

RESUMO

Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) with bright bandgap photoluminescence (PL) are of current interest for a range of potential applications, from solar windows to biomedical contrast agents. Here, we use the liquid precursor cyclohexasilane (Si6H12) for the plasma synthesis of colloidal SiNCs with exemplary core emission. Through size separation executed in an oxygen-shielded environment, we achieve PL quantum yields (QYs) approaching 70% while exposing intrinsic constraints on efficient core emission from smaller SiNCs. Time-resolved PL spectra of these fractions in response to femtosecond pulsed excitation reveal a zero-phonon radiative channel that anticorrelates with QY, which we model using advanced computational methods applied to a 2 nm SiNC. Our results offer additional insight into the photophysical interplay of the nanocrystal surface, quasi-direct recombination, and efficient SiNC core PL.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(50): 19728-19735, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743009

RESUMO

The synthesis of periodic two-dimensional (2D) polymers and characterization of their optoelectronic behaviors are challenges at the forefront of polymer chemistry and materials science. Recently, we showed that layered 2D polymers known as 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) can be synthesized as single crystals by preparing COF particles as colloidal suspensions. Here we expand this approach from the condensation of boronic acids and catechols to the dehydrative trimerization of polyboronic acids. The resulting boroxine-linked colloids are the next class of 2D COFs to be obtained as single-crystalline particles, as demonstrated here for four 2D COFs and one 3D COF. Colloidal stabilization enables detailed structural analysis by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Solution fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the COF crystallites are highly emissive compared to their respective monomer solutions. Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the origin of this enhanced emission can be attributed to through-space communication of chromophores between COF sheets. These observations will motivate the development of colloidal COF systems as a platform to organize functional aromatic systems into precise and predictable assemblies with emergent properties.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(25): 9764-9768, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244134

RESUMO

Low-dimensional metal halides have been researched as optoelectronic materials for the past two decades. Zero-dimensional halides of ns2 elements (Sn, Pb, Sb) have recently gained attention as highly efficient broadband light emitters. These compounds comprise discrete metal halide centers, isolated by bulky organic cations. Herein, we report isostructural halide complexes of Ge(II), Sn(II), and Pb(II) with a 1-butyl-1-methyl-piperidinium cation (Bmpip), featuring unusual disphenoidal coordination with a highly stereoactive lone pair. Spectrally broad, bright emission from highly localized excitons, with quantum efficiencies of up to 75%, is observed in blue to red spectral regions for bromides (for Pb, Sn, and Ge, respectively) and extends into the near-infrared for Bmpip2SnI4 (peak at 730 nm). In the case of Sn(II) and Ge(II), both singlet and triplet excitonic emission bands have been observed. Furthermore, Bmpip2SnBr4 and Bmpip2PbBr4 exhibit X-ray-excited luminescence (radioluminescence) with brightness being commensurate with that of a commercial inorganic X-ray scintillator (NaI:Tl).

4.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 8589-8596, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251582

RESUMO

Colloidal, two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplatelets (NPLs) exhibit quantum confinement in only one dimension, which results in an electronic structure that is significantly altered compared to that of other quantum-confined nanomaterials. Whereas it is often assumed that the lack of quantum confinement in the lateral plane yields a spatially extended exciton, reduced dielectric screening potentially challenges this picture. Here, we implement absorption spectroscopy in pulsed magnetic fields up to 60 T for three different CdSe NPL thicknesses and lateral areas. Based on diamagnetic shifts, we find that the exciton lateral extent is comparable to NPL thickness, indicating that the quantum confinement and reduced screening concomitant with few-monolayer thickness strongly reduces the exciton lateral extent. Atomistic electronic structure calculations of the exciton size for varying lengths, widths, and thicknesses support the substantially smaller in-plane exciton extent.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 150(20): 204509, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153179

RESUMO

The crystallization kinetics of transiently heated, nanoscale water films were investigated for 188 K < Tpulse < 230 K, where Tpulse is the maximum temperature obtained during a heat pulse. The water films, which had thicknesses ranging from approximately 15-30 nm, were adsorbed on a Pt(111) single crystal and heated with ∼10 ns laser pulses, which produced heating and cooling rates of ∼109-1010 K/s in the adsorbed water films. Because the ice growth rates have been measured independently, the ice nucleation rates could be determined by modeling the observed crystallization kinetics. The experiments show that the nucleation rate goes through a maximum at T = 216 K ± 4 K, and the rate at the maximum is 1029±1 m-3 s-1. The maximum nucleation rate reported here for flat, thin water films is consistent with recent measurements of the nucleation rate in nanometer-sized water drops at comparable temperatures. However, the nucleation rate drops rapidly at lower temperatures, which is different from the nearly temperature-independent rates observed for the nanometer-sized drops. At T ∼ 189 K, the nucleation rate for the current experiments is a factor of ∼104-5 smaller than the rate at the maximum. The nucleation rate also decreases for Tpulse > 220 K, but the transiently heated water films are not very sensitive to the smaller nucleation rates at higher temperatures. The crystallization kinetics are consistent with a "classical" nucleation and growth mechanism indicating that there is an energetic barrier for deeply supercooled water to convert to ice.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(13): 5092-5096, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882213

RESUMO

Zero-dimensional PbSe quantum dots are heterogeneously nucleated and grown onto two-dimensional zincblende CdSe nanoplatelets. Electron microscopy shows ad-grown dots predominantly decorate edges and corners of the nanoplatelets. Spectroscopic characterizations relate type I electronic alignment as demonstrated via photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy enhancement of near-infrared emission. Transient photoluminescence and absorption convey ultrafast transfer of excitons to the lower energy semiconductor dots. These structures combine benefits of large absorption cross sections of nanoplatelets and efficient near-infrared emission of PbSe with quantum confinement tuning of energy gap.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 504, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700706

RESUMO

Significant interest exists in lead trihalides that present the perovskite structure owing to their demonstrated potential in photovoltaic, lasing, and display applications. These materials are also notable for their unusual phase behavior often displaying easily accessible phase transitions. In this work, time-resolved X-ray diffraction, performed on perovskite cesium lead bromide nanocrystals, maps the lattice response to controlled excitation fluence. These nanocrystals undergo a reversible, photoinduced orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition which is discernible at fluences greater than 0.34 mJ cm-2 through the loss of orthorhombic features and shifting of high-symmetry peaks. This transition recovers on the timescale of 510 ± 100 ps. A reversible crystalline-to-amorphous transition, observable through loss of Bragg diffraction intensity, occurs at higher fluences (greater than 2.5 mJ cm-2). These results demonstrate that light-driven phase transitions occur in perovskite materials, which will impact optoelectronic applications and enable the manipulation of non-equilibrium phase characteristics of the broad perovskite material class.

8.
ACS Nano ; 12(10): 10008-10015, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226751

RESUMO

The optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) have led to efforts to integrate them as the active material in light-emitting diodes, solid-state lighting, and lasers. Understanding related high carrier injection conditions is therefore critical as resultant thermal effects can impact optical properties. The physical integrity of NCs is indeed questionable as recent transient X-ray diffraction studies have suggested that nanoscopic particles reversibly lose crystalline order, or melt, under high fluence photoexcitation. Informed by such studies, here, we examine CdSe NCs under elevated fluences to determine the impact of lattice disordering on optical properties. To this end, we implement intensity-dependent transient absorption using both one- and two-pump methods where the latter effectively subtracts out the NC optical signatures associated with lower fluence photoexcitation, especially band-edge features. At elevated fluences, we observe a long-lived induced absorption at a lower energy than the crystalline-NC bandgap across a wide range of sizes that follows power-dependent trends and kinetics consistent with the prior transient X-ray measurements. NC photoluminescence studies provide further evidence that melting influences optical properties. These methods of characterizing bandgap narrowing caused by lattice disordering could facilitate routes to improved optical amplification and band-edge emission at high excitation density.

9.
Nano Lett ; 18(11): 6948-6953, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244582

RESUMO

Excimers, a portmanteau of "excited dimer", are transient species that are formed from the electronic interaction of a fluorophore in the excited state with a neighbor in the ground state, which have found extensive use as laser gain media. Although common in molecular fluorophores, this work presents evidence for the formation of excimers in a new class of materials: atomically precise two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplatelets. Colloidal nanoplatelets of CdSe display two-color photoluminescence resolved at low temperatures with one band attributed to band-edge fluorescence and a second, red band attributed to excimer fluorescence. Previously reasonable explanations for two-color fluorescence, such as charging, are shown to be inconsistent with additional evidence. As with excimers in other materials systems, excimer emission is increased by increasing nanoplatelet concentration and the degree of cofacial stacking. Consistent with their promise as low-threshold gain media, amplified spontaneous emission emerges from the excimer emission line.

10.
Nano Lett ; 18(8): 4771-4776, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944381

RESUMO

Films containing mixtures of zero- or two-dimensional nanostructures (quantum dots or nanoplatelets) were prepared in order to investigate the impacts of dimensionality on electronic interactions. Electron transfer from CsPbBr3 to CdSe was observed in all of the mixtures, regardless of particle dimensionality, and characterized via both static and transient absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies. We find that mixtures containing nanoplatelets as the electron acceptor (CdSe) undergo charge transfer more rapidly than those containing quantum dots. We believe the faster charge transfer observed with nanoplatelets may arise from the extended spatial area of the CdSe nanoplatelets and/or the continuous density of acceptor states that are present in nanoplatelets. These results bolster the use of one- or two-dimensional nanomaterials in the place of zero-dimensional quantum dots in the design of related optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and photocatalysts and further offer the prospect of fewer required hopping events to transport carriers due to the larger spatial extent of the particles.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(21): 5349-5354, 2017 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487487

RESUMO

Physics and chemistry of ice surfaces are not only of fundamental interest but also have important impacts on biological and environmental processes. As ice surfaces-particularly the two prism faces-come under greater scrutiny, it is increasingly important to connect the macroscopic faces with the molecular-level structure. The microscopic structure of the ubiquitous ice Ih crystal is well-known. It consists of stacked layers of chair-form hexagonal rings referred to as molecular hexagons. Crystallographic unit cells can be assembled into a regular right hexagonal prism. The bases are labeled crystallographic hexagons. The two hexagons are rotated 30° with respect to each other. The linkage between the familiar macroscopic shape of hexagonal snowflakes and either hexagon is not obvious per se. This report presents experimental data directly connecting the macroscopic shape of ice crystals and the microscopic hexagons. Large ice single crystals were used to fabricate samples with the basal, primary prism, or secondary prism faces exposed at the surface. In each case, the same sample was used to capture both a macroscopic etch pit image and an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) orientation density function (ODF) plot. Direct comparison of the etch pit image and the ODF plot compellingly connects the macroscopic etch pit hexagonal profile to the crystallographic hexagon. The most stable face at the ice-water interface is the smallest area face at the ice-vapor interface. A model based on the molecular structure of the prism faces accounts for this switch.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(45): E6096-100, 2015 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26512102

RESUMO

The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih--a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface--due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid.

14.
J Phys Chem B ; 118(28): 7972-80, 2014 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24784996

RESUMO

The ice-water interface plays an important role in determining the outcome of both biological and environmental processes. Under ambient pressure, the most stable form of ice is hexagonal ice (Ih). Experimentally probing the surface free energy between each of the major faces of Ih ice and the liquid is both experimentally and theoretically challenging. The basis for the challenge is the near-equality of the surface free energy for the major faces along with the tendency of water to supercool. As a result, morphology from crystallization initiated below 0 °C is kinetically controlled. The reported work circumvents supercooling consequences by providing a polycrystalline seed, followed by isothermal, equilibrium growth. Natural selection among seeded faces results in a single crystal. A record of the growth front is preserved in the frozen boule. Crystal orientation at the front is revealed by examining the boule cross section with two techniques: (1) viewing between crossed polarizers to locate the optical axis and (2) etching to distinguish the primary-prism face from the secondary-prism face. Results suggest that the most stable ice-water interface at 0 °C is the secondary-prism face, followed by the primary-prism face. The basal face that imparts the characteristic hexagonal shape to snowflakes is a distant third. The results contrast with those from freezing the vapor where the basal and primary-prism faces have comparable free energy followed by the secondary-prism face.

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