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1.
Womens Health Issues ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151029

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to evaluate variation in opioid prescribing rates and prescription size following childbirth across providers and hospitals. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed claims data from a single-payer Preferred Provider Organization from June 2014 to May 2019 in 84 hospitals in a statewide quality collaborative. All patients aged 12-55 years, undergoing childbirth, with continuous enrollment in pregnancy were included. The primary outcome was the predicted rate of postpartum opioid fills from 7 days before birth to 3 days after discharge. Secondary outcomes included postpartum opioid prescription size in oral morphine equivalents, a standardized measure that includes the number of pills prescribed times the strength of the medication. Multilevel regression models accounted for clustering. We calculated attributable variation in opioid fills using the intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Of 41,427 births, 15,459 patients (37.2%) filled a postpartum opioid prescription (vaginal, 4,624/27,536 [16.8%]; cesarean, 10,835/13,891 [78.0%]). The median postpartum prescription size was 150 oral morphine equivalents (interquartile range [IQR], 30) (vaginal, 135; [IQR, 45]; cesarean, 150 [IQR, 75]). In adjusted models, the rates of opioid prescribing after vaginal birth differed from cesarean birth (vaginal median, 12.1% [range, 1.1%-60.0%]; cesarean median, 80.4% [range, 43.6%-90.2%]). More variation in postpartum opioid fills was attributable to providers and hospitals for vaginal (provider, 29%; hospital, 24%) than cesarean birth (provider, 8%; hospital, 6%). Variation in prescription size was driven by providers for vaginal birth (provider, 27%; hospital, 6%) and providers and hospitals for cesarean birth (provider, 29%; hospital, 21%). CONCLUSIONS: Across a statewide quality collaborative, variation in postpartum opioid prescribing is attributable to providers and hospitals. Future efforts at the provider and hospital levels are needed to implement best practices for postpartum opioid prescribing.

2.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle relaxants (SMR) and benzodiazepines are thought to mitigate against postoperative muscle contraction. The Centers for Disease Control and the Food and Drug Administration warn against co-prescribing opioids with SMR/benzodiazepines due to increased risks of overdose and death. We evaluated the frequency of co-prescribing of opioids with SMRs/benzodiazepines after implant-based reconstruction. METHODS: We examined healthcare claims to identify women (18-64 years old) who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) between January 2008 and June 2019 to determine the frequency of co-prescribing and associated factors. We determined factors associated with co-prescribing of opioids and SMRs/benzodiazepines, and the impact on opioid refills within 90 days of reconstruction. RESULTS: 86.7% (7,574) of women who had IBBR filled an opioid prescription peri-operatively. Of these, 27.7% of women filled opioids and benzodiazepines, 14.4% filled opioids and SMRs, and 2.4% filled opioids, benzodiazepines, and SMRs. Risk factors for co-prescribing opioids and benzodiazepines include use of acellular dermal matrix, immediate reconstruction, and history of anxiety. Women who filled opioids and SMRs, opioids and benzodiazepines, and opioids with SMRs and benzodiazepines were significantly more likely to refill opioid prescriptions, even when controlling for preoperative opioid exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of women filled an opioid prescription with a benzodiazepine, SMR, or both after IBBR. Co-prescribing of opioids with SMRs may potentiate opioid use after surgery and should be avoided given the risks of sedation. Identifying strategies that avoid sedatives to manage pain following breast reconstruction is critical to mitigate high-risk prescribing practices.

3.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 47(10): 637-642, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973779

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although perioperative anxiety is common, its trajectory and influence on postoperative pain and opioid use are not well understood. We sought to examine the association and trajectory of perioperative anxiety, pain and opioid use following common surgical procedures. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1771 patients undergoing elective surgical procedures. Self-reported opioid use, pain (Brief Pain Inventory) and anxiety (Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Anxiety) were recorded on the day of surgery and at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months postsurgery. Clinically significant anxiety was defined as a PROMIS Anxiety T-score ≥55. We examined postoperative opioid use in the context of surgical site pain and anxiety using mixed-effects regression models adjusted for covariates, and examined anxiety as a mediator between pain and opioid use. RESULTS: In this cohort, 65% of participants completed all follow-ups and 30% reported clinically significant anxiety at baseline. Anxiety and surgical site pain were highest on the day of surgery (anxiety: mean=49.3, SD=9.0; pain: mean=4.3, SD=3.3) and declined in the follow-up period. Those with anxiety reported higher opioid use (OR=1.40; 95% CI 1.0, 1.9) and 1.14-point increase in patient-reported surgical pain (95% CI 1.0, 1.3) compared with those without anxiety. Anxiety had no significant mediation effect on the relationship of pain and opioid use. DISCUSSION: Anxiety is an independent risk factor for increased pain and opioid use after surgery. Future studies examining targeted behavioral therapies to reduce anxiety during the perioperative period may positively impact postoperative pain and opioid use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Ann Surg ; 2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed concordance in perioperative opioid fulfillment data between Michigan's prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) and a national pharmacy prescription database. BACKGROUND: PDMPs and pharmacy dispensation databases are widely utilized, yet no research has compared their opioid fulfilment data postoperatively. METHODS: This retrospective study included participants (N=19,823) from 2 registry studies at Michigan Medicine between July 1, 2016, and February 7, 2019. We assessed the concordance of opioid prescription fulfilment between the Michigan PDMP and a national pharmacy prescription database (Surescripts). The primary outcome was concordance of opioid fill data in the 91 to 180 days after surgical discharge, a time period frequently used to define persistent opioid use. Secondary outcomes included concordance of opioid dose and number of prescriptions fulfilled. Multinomial logistic regression analysis examined concordance across key subgroups. RESULTS: In total, 3076 participants had ≥1 opioid fulfillments 91 to 180 days after discharge, with 1489 (49%) documented in PDMP only, 243 (8%) in Surescripts only, and 1332 (43%) in both databases. Among participants with fulfillments in both databases, there were differences in the number (n=239; 18%) and dose (n=227; 17%). The PDMP database was more likely to capture fulfillment among younger and publicly insured participants, while Surescripts was more likely to capture fulfillment from counties bordering neighboring states. The prevalence of persistent opioid use was 10.7% using PDMP data, 5.5% using Surescripts data only, and 11.7% using both data resources. CONCLUSIONS: The state PDMP appears reliable for detecting opioid fulfillment after surgery, detecting 2 times more patients with persistent opioid use compared with Surescripts.

6.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 47(8): 475-483, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697386

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In patients undergoing surgical procedures, transitions in opioid prescribing occur across multiple providers during the months before and after surgery. These transitions often result in high-risk and uncoordinated prescribing practices, especially for surgical patients with prior opioid exposure. However, perspectives of relevant providers about screening and care coordination to address these risks are unknown. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with 24 surgery, primary care, and anesthesia providers in Michigan regarding behaviors and attitudes about screening surgical patients to inform perioperative opioid prescribing in relation to transitions of care. We used an interpretive description framework to topically code interview transcripts and synthesize underlying themes in analytical memos. RESULTS: Providers believed that coordinated, multidisciplinary approaches to identify patients at risk of poor pain and opioid-related outcomes could improve transitions of care for surgical opioid prescribing. Anesthesia and primary care providers saw value in knowing patients' preoperative risk related to opioid use, while surgeons' perceptions varied widely. Across specialties, most providers favored a screening tool if coupled with actionable recommendations, sufficient resources, and facilitated coordination between specialties. Providers identified a lack of pain specialists and a dearth of actionable guidelines to direct interventions for patients at high opioid-related risk as major limitations to the value of patient screening. DISCUSSION: These findings provide context to address risk from prescription opioids in surgical transitions of care, which should include identifying high-risk patients, implementing a coordinated plan, and emphasizing actionable recommendations.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2219701, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771572

RESUMO

Importance: In prior studies, decreasing the default number of doses in opioid prescriptions written in electronic health record systems reduced opioid prescribing. However, these studies did not rigorously assess patient-reported outcomes, and few included pediatric patients. Objective: To evaluate the association between decreasing the default number of doses in opioid prescriptions written in electronic health record systems and opioid prescribing and patient-reported outcomes among adolescents and young adults undergoing tonsillectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nonrandomized clinical trial included adolescents and young adults aged 12 to 50 years undergoing tonsillectomy from October 1, 2019, through July 31, 2021, at a tertiary medical center. The treatment group comprised patients from a pediatric otolaryngology service (mostly aged 12-21 years) and the control group comprised patients from a general otolaryngology service (mostly aged 18-25 years). Interventions: Data on patient-reported opioid consumption and outcomes were collected via a survey on postoperative day 14. Based on opioid consumption among pediatric otolaryngology patients before the intervention, the default number of opioid doses was decreased from 30 to 12 in a tonsillectomy order set. This change occurred only for pediatric otolaryngology patients. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of patients with 12 doses in the discharge opioid prescription, number of doses in this prescription, and refills and pain-related visits within 2 weeks of surgery. In a secondary analysis of patients completing the postoperative survey, patient-reported opioid consumption, pain control, sleep disturbance, anxiety, and depression were assessed. Linear or log-linear difference-in-differences models were fitted, adjusting for patients' demographic characteristics and presence of a mental health or substance use disorder. Results: The study included 237 patients (147 female patients [62.0%]; mean [SD] age, 17.3 [3.6] years). Among 131 pediatric otolaryngology patients, 1 of 70 (1.4%) in the preintervention period and 27 of 61 (44.3%) in the postintervention period had 12 doses in the discharge opioid prescription (differential change, 45.5 percentage points; 95% CI, 32.2-58.8 percentage points). Among pediatric otolaryngology patients, the mean (SD) number of doses prescribed in the preintervention period was 22.3 (7.4) and in the postintervention period was 16.1 (6.5) (differential percentage change, -29.2%; 95% CI, -43.2% to -11.7%). The intervention was not associated with changes in refills or pain-related visits. The secondary analysis included 150 patients. The intervention was not associated with changes in patient-reported outcomes except for a 3.5-point (95% CI, 1.5-5.5 points) differential increase in a sleep disturbance score that ranged from 4 to 20, with higher scores indicating poorer sleep quality. Conclusions and Relevance: This nonrandomized clinical trial suggests that evidence-based default dosing settings may decrease perioperative opioid prescribing among adolescents and young adults undergoing tonsillectomy, without compromising analgesia. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04066829.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Tonsilectomia , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Criança , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto Jovem
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2214311, 2022 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622363

RESUMO

Importance: Dispensing of opioid prescriptions from dentists and surgeons more than 30 days after writing, or delayed dispensing, could be a potential indicator that opioids were used for reasons or during a time frame other than that intended by the prescriber. The prevalence of delayed dispensing is unknown. Whether laws can prevent delayed dispensing by shortening the maximum period between prescription writing and dispensing is also unknown. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of delayed dispensing among opioid prescriptions from surgeons and dentists, assess the maximum period US states allow between controlled substance prescription writing and dispensing, and evaluate whether laws shortening this period decrease delayed dispensing of opioid prescriptions from surgeons and dentists. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional analysis, data from the IQVIA Formulary Impact Analyzer (representing 63% of US prescriptions) were used to identify opioid prescriptions from surgeons and dentists dispensed from 2014 through 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Among opioid prescriptions dispensed in 2019, the proportion with delayed dispensing was calculated. Using legal databases, the maximum state-allowed period between controlled substance prescription writing and dispensing as of December 2019 was examined. Using a difference-in-differences design and 2014 to 2019 data, changes in delayed dispensing prevalence were evaluated among opioid prescriptions from surgeons and dentists after a Minnesota law was enacted in July 2019 precluding opioid prescription dispensing more than 30 days after writing. Control states allowed dispensing beyond this period. Results: In 2019, the database included 20 858 413 opioid prescriptions from surgeons and dentists for 14 789 984 patients; 8 582 029 (58.0%) were female. The mean (SD) patient age was 47.1 (19.3) years. Of prescriptions included, 194 452 (0.9%) had delayed dispensing. As of December 2019, the maximum period between drug writing and dispensing was 180 days in 18 and 43 states for Schedule II and III drugs, respectively. Compared with control states, Minnesota's law decreased delayed dispensing prevalence by 0.22 percentage points (95% CI, -0.32 to -0.13 percentage points). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, 194 452 opioid prescriptions from surgeons and dentists were dispensed more than 30 days after writing. To mitigate any prescription opioid misuse associated with delayed dispensing, policy makers could shorten the maximum period between writing and dispensing of opioid prescriptions from surgeons and dentists.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Cirurgiões , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Controladas , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prescrições , Prevalência
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 849214, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547202

RESUMO

Chronic pain has become a global health problem contributing to years lived with disability and reduced quality of life. Advances in the clinical management of chronic pain have been limited due to incomplete understanding of the multiple risk factors and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the development of chronic pain. The Acute to Chronic Pain Signatures (A2CPS) Program aims to characterize the predictive nature of biomarkers (brain imaging, high-throughput molecular screening techniques, or "omics," quantitative sensory testing, patient-reported outcome assessments and functional assessments) to identify individuals who will develop chronic pain following surgical intervention. The A2CPS is a multisite observational study investigating biomarkers and collective biosignatures (a combination of several individual biomarkers) that predict susceptibility or resilience to the development of chronic pain following knee arthroplasty and thoracic surgery. This manuscript provides an overview of data collection methods and procedures designed to standardize data collection across multiple clinical sites and institutions. Pain-related biomarkers are evaluated before surgery and up to 3 months after surgery for use as predictors of patient reported outcomes 6 months after surgery. The dataset from this prospective observational study will be available for researchers internal and external to the A2CPS Consortium to advance understanding of the transition from acute to chronic postsurgical pain.

10.
J Dent Educ ; 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533070

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dental students learn to prescribe pain management medications in dental school, including opioids. Given the current state of opioid-related morbidity and mortality in the US, dental schools should evaluate the context and implementation of opioid prescribing in their dental school clinics (DSCs). METHODS: A nationwide survey of deans of clinical operations at all US dental schools was conducted in 2020 related to pain management in their DSC. The Michigan Medicine Institutional Review Board deemed this study unregulated (HUM00151607). RESULTS: Of the 68 accredited dental schools in the United States, 26 deans of DSCs responded to the survey, yielding a 40% response rate. The survey results showed differences in the levels of education for dental students on opioid prescribing and patient education requirements. A comprehensive curriculum regarding safe opioid prescribing and patient education training was reported by 12 schools. Four dental programs did not have a single guideline or policy in relation to opioids for their dental students. CONCLUSION: The implementation of opioid prescribing guidelines and the surrounding context are different among DSCs, which could result in knowledge gaps and confusion for novice providers. Although many dental programs provide extensive opioid safety training, there is room for improvement and standardization to further advance patient care.

12.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 48(4): 454-463, 2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405078

RESUMO

Background: Pharmacy standing order policies allow pharmacists to dispense naloxone, thereby increasing access to naloxone. Objectives: To describe pharmacy standing order participation and associations of pharmacy and community characteristics that predict naloxone availability and dispensing across eight counties in Michigan. Methods: We conducted a telephone survey of 662 standing order pharmacies with a response rate of 81% (n = 539). Pharmacies were linked with census tract-level demographics, overdose fatality rates, and dispensing data. County maps were created to visualize pharmacy locations relative to fatality rates. Regression models analyzed associations between pharmacy type, neighborhood characteristics, fatality rates, and these outcomes: naloxone availability, having ever dispensed naloxone, and counts of naloxone dispensed. Results: The prevalence of standing order pharmacies was 54% (n = 662/1231). Maps revealed areas with higher fatality rates had fewer pharmacies participating in the standing order or lacked any pharmacy access. Among standing order pharmacies surveyed, 85% (n = 458/539) had naloxone available and 82% had ever dispensed (n = 333/406). The mean out-of-pocket cost of Narcan® was $127.77 (SD: 23.93). National chains were more likely than regional chains to stock naloxone (AOR = 3.75, 95%CI = 1.77, 7.93) and to have ever dispensed naloxone (AOR 3.02, 95%CI = 1.21,7.57). Higher volume of naloxone dispensed was associated in neighborhoods with greater proportions of public health insurance (IRR = 1.38, 95%CI = 1.21, 1.58) and populations under 44 years old (IRR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.04, 1.48). There was no association with neighborhood overdose fatality rates or race in regression models. Conclusion: As deaths from the opioid epidemic continue to escalate, efforts to expand naloxone access through greater standing order pharmacy participation are warranted.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Farmácias , Farmácia , Prescrições Permanentes , Adulto , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Michigan , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico
13.
J Arthroplasty ; 37(6S): S147-S154, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Duloxetine, a serotonin-norepinephrine dual reuptake inhibitor, may improve analgesia after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Previous studies had one primary outcome, did not consistently use multimodal analgesia, and used patient-controlled analgesia devices, potentially delaying discharge. We investigated whether duloxetine would reduce opioid consumption or pain with ambulation. METHODS: A total of 160 patients received 60 mg duloxetine or placebo daily, starting from the day of surgery and continuing 14 days postoperatively. Patients received neuraxial anesthesia, peripheral nerve blocks, acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and oral opioids as needed. The dual primary outcomes were Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) scores with movement on postoperative days 1, 2, and 14, and cumulative opioid consumption surgery through postoperative day 14. RESULTS: Duloxetine was noninferior to placebo for both primary outcomes and was superior to placebo for opioid consumption. Opioid consumption (mean ± SD) was 288 ± 226 mg OME [94, 385] vs 432 ± 374 [210, 540] (duloxetine vs placebo) P = .0039. Pain scores on POD14 were 4.2 ± 2.0 vs 4.8 ± 2.2 (duloxetine vs placebo) P = .018. Median satisfaction with pain management was 10 (8, 10) and 8 (7, 10) (duloxetine vs placebo) P = .046. Duloxetine reduced interference by pain with walking, normal work, and sleep. CONCLUSION: The 29% reduction in opioid use corresponds to 17 fewer pills of oxycodone, 5 mg, and was achieved without increasing pain scores. Considering the ongoing opioid epidemic, duloxetine can be used to reduce opioid usage after knee arthroplasty in selected patients that can be appropriately monitored for potential side effects of the medication.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente , Analgésicos Opioides , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Cloridrato de Duloxetina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia
14.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 47(6): 346-352, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of prescription opioid use in the year before surgery on opioid consumption after surgery. BACKGROUND: Recently developed postoperative opioid prescribing guidelines rely on data from opioid-naïve patients. However, opioid use in the USA is common, and the impact of prior opioid exposure on the consumption of opioids after surgery is unclear. METHODS: Population-based cohort study of 26,001 adults 18 years of age and older who underwent one of nine elective general or gynecologic surgical procedures between January 1, 2017 and October 31, 2019, with prospectively collected patient-reported data from the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative (MSQC) linked to state prescription drug monitoring program at 70 MSQC-participating hospitals on 30-day patient-reported opioid consumption in oral morphine equivalents (OME) (primary outcome). RESULTS: Compared with opioid-naïve participants, opioid-exposed participants (26% of sample) consumed more prescription opioids after surgery (adjusted OME difference 12, 95% CI 10 to 14). Greater opioid exposure was associated with higher postoperative consumption in a dose-dependent manner, with chronic users reporting the greatest consumption (additional OMEs 32, 95% CI 21 to 42). However, for eight of nine procedures, 90% of opioid-exposed participants consumed ≤150 OMEs. Among those receiving perioperative prescriptions, opioid-exposed participants had higher likelihood of refill (adjusted OR 4.7, 95% CI 4.4 to 5.1), number of refills (adjusted incidence rate ratio 4.0, 95% CI 3.7 to 4.3), and average refill amount (adjusted OME difference 333, 95% CI 292 to 374)). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative opioid use is associated with small increases in patient-reported opioid consumption after surgery for most patients, though greater differences exist for patients with chronic use. For most patients with preoperative opioid exposure, existing guidelines may meet their postoperative needs. However, guidelines may need tailoring for patients with chronic use, and providers should anticipate a higher likelihood of postoperative refills for all opioid-exposed patients.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/induzido quimicamente , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Surgery ; 172(1): 241-248, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 100 million surgeries take place annually in the United States, and more than 90% of surgical patients receive an opioid prescription. A sizable minority of these patients will go on to use opioids long-term, contributing to the national opioid epidemic. METHODS: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model to predict persistent opioid use after surgery. Participants included surgical patients (≥18 years old) enrolled in a cohort study at an academic medical center between 2015 and 2018. Persistent opioid use was defined as filling opioid prescriptions in postdischarge days 4 to 90 and 91 to 180. Predictors included electronic health record data, state prescription drug monitoring data, and patient-reported measures. Three models were developed: a full, a restricted, and a minimal model using a derivation and validation cohort. RESULTS: Of 24,040 patients, 4,879 (20%) experienced persistent opioid use. In the validation cohort, the full, restricted, and minimal model had C-statistics of 0.87 (95% CI 0.86-0.88), 0.86 (0.85-0.88), and 0.85 (0.84-0.87), respectively. All models performed better among patients with preoperative opioid use compared to opioid-naive patients (P < .001). The models slightly overpredicted risk in the validation cohort. The net benefit of using the restricted model to refer patients for preoperative counseling was 0.072 to 0.092, which is superior to evaluating no patients (net benefit of 0) or all patients (net benefit of -0.22 to -0.63). CONCLUSION: This study developed and validated a prediction model for persistent opioid use using accessible data resources. The models achieved strong performance, outperforming prior published models.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adolescente , Assistência ao Convalescente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Alta do Paciente , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Am J Prev Med ; 62(3): 317-325, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190099

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is unknown whether certain dentists account for disproportionate shares of dental opioid prescriptions and high-risk prescriptions. Identifying and characterizing such dentists could inform the targeting of initiatives to improve the appropriateness and safety of dental opioid prescribing. METHODS: In May 2021, the authors conducted a cross-sectional analysis using the IQVIA Longitudinal Prescription Database, which reports dispensing from 92% of U.S. pharmacies, and 2 provider databases (IQVIA OneKey, National Plan and Provider Enumeration System). Analyses included opioid prescriptions from dentists dispensed in 2019 to patients aged >12 years. High-risk prescriptions were those considered high risk by any of 3 metrics (prescriptions to opioid-naïve patients exceeding a 3-day supply, prescriptions with daily opioid dosage ≥50 morphine milligram equivalents, opioid prescriptions with benzodiazepine overlap). Among all prescriptions and high-risk prescriptions, the authors calculated the proportion accounted for by high-volume dentists -- those with prescription counts in the 95th percentile or higher. Using logistic regression, the characteristics associated with being a high-volume dentist were identified. RESULTS: In 2019, a total of 141,345 dentists accounted for 10,736,743 opioid prescriptions dispensed to patients aged >12 years; 4,242,634 (39.5%) were high-risk prescriptions. The 7,079 high-volume dentists, a group representing 5.0% of the 141,345 dentists, accounted for 46.9% of all prescriptions and 47.5% of high-risk prescriptions. Male sex, younger age, non‒Northeast location, and specialization in oral and maxillofacial surgery were associated with a higher risk of being a high-volume dentist. CONCLUSIONS: In 2019, high-volume dentists accounted for almost half of dental opioid prescriptions and high-risk prescriptions. Quality improvement initiatives targeting these dentists may be warranted.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Padrões de Prática Médica , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prescrições
17.
Ann Surg ; 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the association between postoperative opioid prescribing and new persistent opioid use. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Opioid-naïve patients who develop new persistent opioid use after surgery are at increased risk of opioid-related morbidity and mortality. However, the extent to which postoperative opioid prescribing is associated with persistent postoperative opioid use is unclear. METHODS: Retrospective study of opioid-naïve adults undergoing surgery in Michigan from 1/1/2017-10/31/2019. Postoperative opioid prescriptions were identified using a statewide clinical registry and prescription fills were identified using Michigan's prescription drug monitoring program. The primary outcome was new persistent opioid use, defined as filling at least one opioid prescription between post-discharge days 4-90 and filling at least one opioid prescription between post-discharge days 91-180. RESULTS: 37,654 patients underwent surgery with a mean age of 52.2 (16.7) years and 20,923 (55.6%) female patients. 31,920 (84.8%) patients were prescribed opioids at discharge. 622 (1.7%) patients developed new persistent opioid use after surgery. Being prescribed an opioid at discharge was not associated with new persistent opioid use (aOR 0.88 [95% CI 0.71-1.09]). However, among patients prescribed an opioid, patients prescribed the second largest (12 [IQR 3] pills) and largest (20 [IQR 7] pills) quartiles of prescription size had higher odds of new persistent opioid use compared to patients prescribed the smallest quartile (7 [IQR 1] pills) of prescription size (aOR 1.39 [95% CI 1.04-1.86]) and aOR 1.97 [95% CI 1.44-2.70], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of opioid-naïve patients undergoing common surgical procedures, the risk of new persistent opioid use increased with the size of the prescription. This suggests that while opioid prescriptions in and of themselves may not place patients at risk of long-term opioid use, excessive prescribing does. Consequently, these findings support ongoing efforts to mitigate excessive opioid prescribing after surgery to reduce opioid-related harms.

19.
Anesth Analg ; 134(1): 8-17, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioids remain the primary mode of analgesia intraoperatively. There are limited data on how patient, procedural, and institutional characteristics influence intraoperative opioid administration. The aim of this retrospective, longitudinal study from 2012 to 2016 was to assess how intraoperative opioid dosing varies by patient and clinical care factors and across multiple institutions over time. METHODS: Demographic, surgical procedural, anesthetic technique, and intraoperative analgesia data as putative variables of intraoperative opioid utilization were collected from 10 institutions. Log parenteral morphine equivalents (PME) was modeled in a multivariable linear regression model as a function of 15 covariates: 3 continuous covariates (age, anesthesia duration, year) and 12 factor covariates (peripheral block, neuraxial block, general anesthesia, emergency status, race, sex, remifentanil infusion, major surgery, American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA] physical status, non-opioid analgesic count, Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group [MPOG] institution, surgery category). One interaction (year by MPOG institution) was included in the model. The regression model adjusted simultaneously for all included variables. Comparison of levels within a factor were reported as a ratio of medians with 95% credible intervals (CrI). RESULTS: A total of 1,104,324 cases between January 2012 and December 2016 were analyzed. The median (interquartile range) PME and standardized by weight PME per case for the study period were 15 (10-28) mg and 200 (111-347) µg/kg, respectively. As estimated in the multivariable model, there was a sustained decrease in opioid use (mean, 95% CrI) dropping from 152 (151-153) µg/kg in 2012 to 129 (129-130) µg/kg in 2016. The percent of variability in PME due to institution was 25.6% (24.8%-26.5%). Less opioids were prescribed in men (130 [129-130] µg/kg) than women (144 [143-145] µg/kg). The men to women PME ratio was 0.90 (0.89-0.90). There was substantial variability in PME administration among institutions, with the lowest being 80 (79-81) µg/kg and the highest being 186 (184-187) µg/kg; this is a PME ratio of 0.43 (0.42-0.43). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a reduction in intraoperative opioid administration over time, with variability in dose ranging between sexes and by procedure type. Furthermore, there was substantial variability in opioid use between institutions even when adjusting for multiple variables.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adulto , Analgesia/estatística & dados numéricos , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Análise Multivariada , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios
20.
Pain Med ; 23(1): 19-28, 2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most studies on preoperative opioid use only describe whether or not patients use opioids without characterizing reasons for use. Knowing why patients use opioids can help inform perioperative opioid management. The objective of this study was to explore pain specific reasons for preoperative opioid use prior to total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) and their association with persistent use. METHODS: This is a prospective study of 197 patients undergoing THA (n = 99) or TKA (n = 98) enrolled in the Analgesic Outcomes Study between December 2015 and November 2018. All participants reported preoperative opioid use. RESULTS: Reasons for preoperative opioid use were categorized as surgical site pain only (81 [41.1%]); pain in other body areas only (22 [11.2%]); and combined pain (94 [47.7%]). Compared to patients taking opioids for surgical site pain, those with combined reasons for use had 1.24 (P = .40) and 2.28 (P = .16) greater odds of persistent use at 3 and 6 months postoperatively, adjusting for relevant covariates. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel insights into the heterogeneity of reasons for presurgical opioid use in patients undergoing a THA or TKA. One key take away is that not all preoperative opioid use is the same and many patients are taking opioids preoperatively for more than just pain at the surgical site. Combined reasons for use was associated with long-term use, suggesting nonsurgical pain, in part, drives persistent opioid use after surgery. Future directions in perioperative care should focus on pain and non-pain reasons for presurgical opioid use to create tailored postoperative opioid weaning plans.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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