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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 292, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with bipolar disorder (BD) have a high risk of illness relapse postpartum. The risk coincides with the period when mother-infant interactions are evolving. We compared mother-infant interactions in dyads where the mothers have BD with dyads where the mothers have no mental disorder. The association between concurrent affective symptoms of BD mothers and interaction quality was investigated. METHODS: Twenty-six women with BD and 30 comparison women with infants were included. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA) was used to assess maternal behaviour, infant behaviour and dyadic coordination in interactions at 3 months postpartum. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and Young Mania Rating Scale were used to assess affective symptoms of BD mothers at the time of interaction. RESULTS: There were significant group differences with medium to large effect sizes (0.73-1.32) on five of six subscales within the three interactional domains. Most interactional concerns were identified in dyadic coordination. No significant associations were found between maternal symptom load and interaction quality within the BD sample. Forty-six percent of the BD mothers experienced a mood episode within 0-3 months postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified challenges for mothers with BD and their infants in "finding" each other in interaction at 3 months postpartum. If sustained, this interaction pattern may have a long-term impact on children's development. We suggest interventions specifically focusing on sensitising and supporting mothers to read infants' cues on a micro-level. This may help them to respond contingently and improve dyadic coordination and synchronicity.

2.
Bone ; 127: 436-445, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a common surgical procedure for treatment of morbid obesity. RYGB induces considerable and sustained weight loss, and remission of obesity related-comorbidities. While studies have suggested negative effects of RYGB on bone health, long-term data are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of aBMD below the expected range for age, osteopenia, osteoporosis and low-energy fractures in a defined patient cohort 10 years after RYGB. Secondly, we wanted to identify factors associated with increased risk of aBMD z-score or t-score of -1.1 or lower 10 years after RYGB. METHODS: Patients undergoing RYGB surgery from June 2004 to December 2006 at the Department of Morbid Obesity and Bariatric Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, a tertiary referral centre for treatment of morbid obesity, were invited to a 10 year follow-up. Follow-up visits included morning fasting blood samples, clinical examination, anthropometric measures and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: Out of 194 patients eligible for the study, 124 attended the 10 year follow-up and 122 (63%) were examined with DXA. Mean (SD) age was 50.3 (9.0) years, 118 (97%) were of Caucasian ethnicity, 94 were females (77%), of whom 41 (44%) were postmenopausal. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) was noted in 37 participants (31%) and vitamin D deficiency (value below 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (value below 75 nmol/L) in 40 (33%) and 91 (75%), respectively. Among the 63 participants who were premenopausal females or males 49 years or younger the prevalence of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in the lower range of normal (z-score -1.1- to -1.9) was 30% (n = 19) and aBMD below the expected range for age (z-score ≤ -2.0) was noted in 8% (n = 5). Among the 59 participants who were postmenopausal females or males 50 years or older, the prevalence of osteopenia (t-score -1.1 to -2.4) was 51% (n = 30) and osteoporosis (t-score ≤ -2.5) was 27% (n = 16). The bone resorption markers CTX-1 and PINP were higher in participants with aBMD z-score or t-score of -1.1 or lower compared to participants with aBMD z-score or t-score of -1.0 or higher. Preoperative hypothyroidism, or higher age, postmenopausal status, BMI < 35 kg/m2, SHPT or higher PINP levels at 10 year follow-up were independently associated with aBMD z-score or t-score of -1.1 or lower 10 years after RYGB. Eighteen participants (15%) reported a clinical low-energy fracture after RYGB. In addition, vertebral fracture assessment by DXA revealed that 10 participants (8%) had experienced at least one moderate to severe morphometric vertebral fracture. CONCLUSION: Ten years after RYGB 27% of postmenopausal females and males 50 years or older were osteoporotic, and 8% of premenopausal females and males 49 years or younger exhibited aBMD below the expected range for age. The prevalence of fragility fractures was high. SHPT, higher age, postmenopausal status or higher PINP levels at 10 years and preoperative hypothyroidism were all independent risk factors for aBMD z-score or t-score of -1.1 or lower 10 years after RYGB.

3.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310352

RESUMO

The location of osteoporotic fragility fractures adds crucial information to post-fracture risk estimation. Triaging patients according to fracture site for secondary fracture prevention can therefore be of interest to prioritize patients considering the high imminent fracture risk. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were therefore to explore potential differences between central (vertebral, hip, proximal humerus, pelvis) and peripheral (forearm, ankle, other) fractures. This substudy of the Norwegian Capture the Fracture Initiative (NoFRACT) included 495 women and 119 men ≥50 years with fragility fractures. They had bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS) calculated, concomitantly vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) with semiquantitative grading of vertebral fractures (SQ1-SQ3), and a questionnaire concerning risk factors for fractures was answered. Patients with central fractures exhibited lower BMD of the femoral neck (765 versus 827 mg/cm2 ), total hip (800 versus 876 mg/cm2 ), and lumbar spine (1024 versus 1062 mg/cm2 ); lower mean TBS (1.24 versus 1.28); and a higher proportion of SQ1-SQ3 fractures (52.0% versus 27.7%), SQ2-SQ3 fractures (36.8% versus 13.4%), and SQ3 fractures (21.5% versus 2.2%) than patients with peripheral fractures (all p < 0.05). All analyses were adjusted for sex, age, and body mass index (BMI); and the analyses of TBS and SQ1-SQ3 fracture prevalence was additionally adjusted for BMD). In conclusion, patients with central fragility fractures revealed lower femoral neck BMD, lower TBS, and higher prevalence of vertebral fractures on VFA than the patients with peripheral fractures. This suggests that patients with central fragility fractures exhibit more severe deterioration of bone structure, translating into a higher risk of subsequent fragility fractures and therefore they should get the highest priority in secondary fracture prevention, although attention to peripheral fractures should still not be diminished. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310156

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) represents a major challenge in systemic sclerosis (SSc), but there are no precise, population-based data on its overall impact, limiting opportunities for screening and management strategies. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate impact of ILD in a unique, nationwide, population based SSc cohort. METHODS: ILD was assessed prospectively in the Norwegian SSc cohort (Nor-SSc) including all 815 SSc patients resident in the country in 2000-2012. Lung HRCTs were available for fibrosis quantification at baseline (n=650, 80%) and follow-up. Pulmonary function tests were assessed at baseline (n=703, 86%) and follow-up. Vital status and standardized mortality rates (SMR) were estimated at study end (2018) in the 630 incident Nor-SSc cases and 15 individually matched controls. Cumulative survival rates were computed. MEASUREMENTS/MAIN RESULTS: At baseline, 50% of the SSc patients (n=324) had ILD by HRCT and 46% displayed pulmonary function declines consistent with ILD progression. Mortality correlated with extent of lung fibrosis as SMR increased from 2.2 with no fibrosis to 8.0 with >25% fibrosis. SMR was inversely related to baseline FVC% and increased at all FVC levels below 100%. In patients with normal range baseline FVC (80-100%) the 5- and 10-years survival rates correlated with presence or absence of lung fibrosis, being 83% and 80% with no fibrosis; and 69% and 56% with lung fibrosis (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: The mere presence of ILD at baseline appears to affect outcome in SSc, suggesting that all SSc patients should undergo baseline PFT and lung HRCT screening to diagnose ILD early and tailor further management.

5.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(10): 1815-1823, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216081

RESUMO

Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) has been postulated to mediate skeletal fragility in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induces a substantial weight loss and resolution of comorbidities. However, the procedure induces increased bone turnover and fracture rates. No previous study has evaluated biopsy-measured BMAT fraction preoperatively and after RYGB. In this study, we aimed to investigate BMAT fraction of the hip in participants with and without T2D preoperatively and 1 year after RYGB and explore factors associated with BMAT change. Patients with morbid obesity scheduled for RYGB were examined preoperatively and 1 year after RYGB. Forty-four participants were included and preoperative examinations were possible in 35. Of these, 33 (94%) met for follow-up, 2 were excluded, and BMAT estimation was not possible in 1. Eighteen (60%) of the participants were females and 11 (37%) had T2D. Preoperative BMAT fraction was positively associated with glycosylated hemoglobin and negatively associated with areal bone mineral density (aBMD). After RYGB, BMAT fraction decreased from 40.4 ± 1.7% to 35.6 ± 12.8%, p = 0.042, or with mean percent change of 10.7% of preoperative BMAT fraction. Change in BMAT fraction was positively associated with change in body mass index (BMI) and total body fat. In females, we observed a mean percent reduction of 22.4 ± 19.6%, whereas in males BMAT increased with a mean percent of 6.8 ± 37.5%, p = 0.009. For males, changes in estradiol were associated with BMAT change; this was not observed for females. In participants with and without T2D, the mean percent BMAT reduction was 5.8 ± 36.9% and 13.5 ± 28.0%, respectively, p = 0.52. We conclude that a high BMAT seems to be associated with lower aBMD and poorer glycemic control in obese subjects. After RYGB, we observed a significant decrease in BMAT. The reduction in BMAT did not differ between participants with and without T2D, but appeared sex specific. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

6.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 54(5): 571-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050907

RESUMO

Introduction: Patients with coeliac disease commonly report symptoms of 'brain fog'. The aim of this study was to assess self-reported symptoms of impaired concentration in coeliac disease before and after treatment with gluten-free diet, compared with healthy controls and patient controls. Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease were included consecutively from two out-patient clinics. The patients completed the questionnaires Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1 Symptoms Checklist (ASRS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) prior to start of a gluten-free diet and after at least 12 months on the diet. Patients with an established diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease served as patient controls (n = 36). Health care personnel at Oslo University Hospital served as healthy controls (n = 60) and filled out ASRS and HADS. Results: A total of 31 newly diagnosed coeliac patients were included in the study. Of these, 26 patients met for follow-up and repeated the questionnaires. Prior to treatment, patients with coeliac disease had significantly higher scores than healthy controls on both the ASRS (p = .0014) and HADS (p=.0004). After a gluten-free diet, their scores improved and were not significantly different from healthy controls. There were no significant differences between patients with coeliac disease prior to treatment and patient controls with inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusion: Prior to treatment, coeliac disease patients reported significantly more symptoms than healthy controls on ASRS and HADS. The differences disappeared after a minimum of 12 months on a gluten-free diet.

7.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 51(6): 425-434, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Norway, the epidemiological situation of candidemia is followed closely. We have previously demonstrated the highest incidence of candidemia in elderly >65 years of age. However, knowledge of other aspects of this infection is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this nationwide, retrospective study was to examine risk factors, therapeutic practice and outcome in adult candidemia patients according to age. METHODS: We retrieved data from medical records from patients who developed candidemia in Norway between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2012. Data were analyzed according to age, younger patients being between 18 and 65 years, elderly being ≥65 years of age. RESULTS: From 771 eligible patients, 738 patients (95.7%) were included (58% men, mean age 65.2 years, 58.1% being ≥65 years). Exposure to health-care related risk factors for candidemia were significantly more common in the younger patients (neutropenia, central venous catheter, mechanical ventilation and chemotherapy) who received empirical treatment more often than the elderly (29.8% vs. 21.7%, p = .01). More elderly did not received any antifungal therapy (27.3% vs 16.8%, p < 0001) and had higher mortality compared to younger patients (45.5% vs 23.9%, p < .0001). In the study population, mortality was higher with age (per 10-years increase, OR 1.43;1.28-1.59, p < 0.0001), in patients not receiving targeted therapy (OR 2.5; CI 1.82-3.36, p < .0001) or any therapy at all (OR 4.64; 3.23-6.68, p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for candidemia, treatment and outcome differed significantly according to age. Given the increasing numbers of elderly, scrutiny on our clinical practice is warranted.

8.
Bone ; 122: 14-21, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743015

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Norway has among the highest incidence rates of fractures in the world. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) and trabecular bone score (TBS) provide information about fracture risk, but their importance have not been studied in Norwegian patients with fragility fractures. The objectives of this study were to examine the clinical characteristics of a cohort of women and men with fragility fractures, their prevalence of vertebral fractures using VFA and prevalence of low TBS, and explore the differences between the sexes and patients with and without vertebral fractures. METHODS: This cross-sectional sub-study of the Norwegian Capture the Fracture Initiative (NoFRACT) included 839 patients with fragility fractures. Of these, 804 patients had bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, femoral neck and/or spine assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, 679 underwent concomitant VFA, 771 had TBS calculated and 696 responded to a questionnaire. RESULTS: Mean age was 65.8 (SD 8.8) years and 80.5% were women. VFA revealed vertebral fractures in 34.8% of the patients and 34.0% had low TBS (≤ 1.23), with no differences between the sexes. In all patients with valid measures of both VFA and TBS, 53.8% had either vertebral fractures, low TBS, or both. In the patients with osteopenia at the femoral neck, 53.6% had either vertebral fractures, low TBS, or both. Femoral neck BMD T-score ≤ -2.5 was found in 13.8% of all patients, whereas the corresponding figure was 27.4% using the skeletal site with lowest T-score. Women exhibited lower BMD at all sites and lower TBS than men (1.27 vs. 1.29), (all p < 0.05). Patients with prevalent vertebral fractures were older (69.4 vs. 64.0 years), exhibited lower BMD at all sites and lower TBS (1.25 vs.1.29) than those without vertebral fractures (all p < 0.05). Before assessment, 8.2% were taking anti-osteoporotic drugs (AOD), and after assessment, the prescription rate increased to 56.2%. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the patients with fragility fractures had vertebral fractures, low TBS or both. The prescription of AOD increased seven fold from before assessment to after assessment, emphasizing the importance of risk assessment after a fragility fracture.

9.
Resuscitation ; 136: 112-118, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708074

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Guidelines recommend constant or escalating energy levels for shocks after the initial defibrillation attempt. Studies comparing survival to hospital discharge with escalating vs fixed high energy level shocks are lacking. We compared survival to hospital discharge for 200 J escalating to 360 J vs fixed 360 J in patients with initial ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia in a post-hoc analysis of the Circulation Improving Resuscitation Care trial database. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pre-shock rhythm, rhythm 5 s after shock, shock energy levels, termination of ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (TOF), and survival to hospital discharge were recorded. Association between defibrillation strategy and survival to hospital discharge was investigated with multivariable logistic regression. The escalating energy group included 260 patients and 883 shocks vs 478 patients and 1736 shocks in the fixed-high energy group. There was no difference in survival to hospital discharge between escalating (70/255 patients, 28%) and fixed energy group (132/478 patients, 28%) (unadjusted OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.72-1.42 and adjusted OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.54-1.22, p = 0.32). First shock TOF was 86% in the escalating group compared to 83% in the fixed-high group, p = 0.27. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in survival to hospital discharge or the frequency of TOF between escalating energy and fixed-high energy group. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00597207.

10.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 63(5): 630-638, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore occurrence, risk factors and outcome of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: Prospective observational study of ICU patients receiving thromboprophylaxis at Oslo University Hospital in Norway. Adult medical and surgical patients with ICU length of stay (LOS) longer than 48 hours were included. For detection of VTE, Doppler ultrasound screening of neck, upper and lower extremity veins was used, and computed tomography angiography when clinically indicated for any medical reason. RESULTS: Among 70 included patients, 79% were males and mean age was 62 (±12.1) years. All received thromboprophylaxis with dalteparin, and 44 (63%) used graduated compression stockings. VTE was found in 19 (27%) patients; deep vein thrombosis in 15 (21%) and pulmonary embolism in 4 (6%). Among the VTEs, 11 (58%) presented within the first 48 hours after admission, two (11%) were located in the lower limbs and five (26%) were symptomatic. Risk factors for VTE in multivariable analyses were malignancy, abdominal surgery and SAPS II score <41 with an AuROC (95% CI) of 0.72 (0.58-0.85, P = 0.01). Patients with and without VTE had comparable ICU LOS (13 vs 11 days, P = 0.27) and mortality (16% vs 20%, P = 0.72). CONCLUSION: Venous thromboembolism was observed in 27% of ICU patients receiving thromboprophylaxis. Factors associated with increased risk of VTE were malignancy, abdominal surgery and SAPS II score <41. Presence of VTE did not impact on patient outcome.

11.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206523, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Endothelial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is typically present in older adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). In young adults, we aimed to assess the impact of T1D on endothelial function as detected by digital peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) and its relationship with cardiovascular risk factors and long term glycemic control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reactive hyperemia index (RHI) as a measure of endothelial function was assessed by PAT in 46 T1D patients and 32 healthy controls. All were participants in the "Atherosclerosis and Childhood Diabetes" study, with baseline values registered five years previously. Annual measurements of HbA1c for assessment of glycemic burden were provided by the Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry. RESULTS: The diabetes patients had a mean age of 20.8 years, a median duration of diabetes of 10.0 years and a mean HbA1c of 8.7%. RHI was not significantly decreased in the diabetes group, mean 2.00 (SD = 0.59) vs. 2.21 (SD = 0.56), p = .116. There was no gender difference or any associations with traditional risk factors. Furthermore, there was no significant association between RHI and either HbA1c or long term glycemic burden. CONCLUSIONS: RHI as a measure of endothelial function was preserved in young adults with T1D compared with healthy controls.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281089

RESUMO

Objectives: Studies assessing relative mortality risks across the spectrum of systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases are largely missing. In this study, we wanted to estimate standard mortality ratios (SMRs) and causes of death in an ethnically homogeneous cohort covering all major CTDs and primary systemic vasculitides (PSVs). Methods: We prospectively followed all incident CTD and PSV cases included in the Norwegian CTD and vasculitis registry (NOSVAR) between 1999 and 2015. Fifteen controls for each patient matched for sex and age were randomly drawn from the Norwegian National Population Registry. Causes of death were obtained from the National Cause of Death Register, death certificates and hospital charts. Results: The cohort included 2140 patients (1534 with CTD, 606 with PSV). During a mean follow-up time of 9 years, 279 of the patients (13%) died, compared with 2864 of 32 086 (9%) controls (P < 0.001). Ten years after diagnosis, the lowest survival was 60% in dcSSc, 73% in anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) and 75% in lcSSc. In the CTD group, the highest SMRs were observed in dcSSc (SMR 5.8) and ASS (SMR 4.1). In the PSV group, Takayasu arteritis (SMR 2.5) and ANCA-associated vasculitis (SMR 1.5) had the highest SMRs. Major causes of death were cardiovascular disease (CTD 27%, PSV 28%), neoplasms (CTD 25%, PSV 27%), chronic respiratory disease (CTD 20%, PSV10%) and infections (CTD 9%, PSV 16%). Conclusion: We observed premature deaths across the spectrum of CTDs and PSVs, with highest SMRs in dcSSc and ASS. The overall mortality was highest in the CTD group.

13.
Ann Surg ; 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the prognostic impact of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) for patients with presumed resectable pancreatic and periampullary cancers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Initial treatment decisions for this group are currently taken without a reliable prognostic marker. The CellSearch system allows standardized CTC-testing and has shown excellent specificity and prognostic value in other applications. METHODS: Preoperative blood samples from 242 patients between September 2009 and December 2014 were analyzed. One hundred seventy-nine patients underwent tumor resection, of whom 30 with stage-I tumors and duodenal cancer were assigned to the low-risk group, and the others to the high-risk group. Further 33 had advanced disease, 30 benign histology. Observation ended in December 2016. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were calculated by log-rank and Cox regression. RESULTS: CTCs (CTC-positive; ≥1 CTC/7.5 mL) were detected in 6.8% (10/147) of the high-risk patients and 6.2% (2/33) with advanced disease. No CTCs (CTC-negative) were detected in the low-risk patients or benign disease. In high-risk patients, median CSS for CTC-positive versus CTC-negative was 8.1 versus 20.0 months (P < 0.0001), and DFS 4.0 versus 10.5 months (P < 0.001). Median CSS in advanced disease was 7.7 months. Univariate hazard ratio (HR) of CTC-positivity was 3.4 (P < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, CTC-status remained independent (HR: 2.4, P = 0.009) when corrected for histological type (HR: 2.7, P = 0.030), nodal status (HR: 1.7, P = 0.016), and vascular infiltration (HR: 1.7, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients testing CTC-positive preoperatively showed a detrimental outcome despite successful tumor resections. Although the low CTC-rate seems a limiting factor, results indicate high specificity. Thus, preoperative analysis of CTCs by this test may guide treatment decisions and warrants further testing in clinical trials.

14.
Atherosclerosis ; 2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Measures of HDL function are emerging tools for assessing cardiovascular disease (CVD) event risk. HDL-apoA-I exchange (HAE) reflects HDL capacity for reverse cholesterol transport. METHODS: HAE was measured in 93 participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and at least one additional CVD risk factor in the Asker and Bærum Cardiovascular Diabetes study. At baseline and after seven years, the atherosclerotic burden was assessed by invasive coronary angiography. Major CVD events were registered throughout the study. RESULTS: Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse association between HAE and atherosclerotic burden. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed a significant association between HAE and a composite of major CVD events when controlling for waist-hip ratio, HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80-1.00 and p=0.040. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the relatively small size of the study population and the limited number of CVD events, these findings suggest that HAE provides valuable information in determining CVD risk.

15.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 27(5): 650-656, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study addressed the assumption of increased morbidity and mortality after surgical aortic valve replacement in patients older than 80 years with severe aortic stenosis. METHODS: This prospective study was performed in consecutive patients referred for aortic valve replacement. The age-dependent change in cognitive and physical function, quality of life and rehospitalization and complication rates during the following year and 5-year all-cause mortality were documented. RESULTS: A total of 351 patients underwent surgical aortic valve replacement. The death risk at 5 years was 10%, 20% and 34% in patients aged <70 years, 70-79 years and ≥80 years, respectively. Patients aged 70-79 years and ≥80 years had a hazard ratio of 1.88 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.92-3.83, P = 0.08] and 2.90 [95% CI 1.42-5.92, P = 0.003] for mortality, respectively, when compared with patients aged <70 years. The length of stay and rehospitalization rate during the following year were similar between the groups. Patients ≥80 years of age experienced more delirium and infections, whereas the risks of new pacemaker, transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure were comparable between the age groups. All groups exhibited reduced New York Heart Association class, improved physical quality of life and unchanged mental scores without any clinically significant Mini Mental Status reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients (≥80 years of age) have important gains in health measures and satisfactory 5-year survival with an acceptable complications rate during the year following surgery. Active respiratory mobilization and the removal of an indwelling urethra catheter can prevent adverse effects, and measures should be taken to prevent delirium and confusion in elderly patients. Clinical trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01794832).

16.
Transplant Direct ; 4(4): e351, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707622

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to evaluate changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients 65 years or older from time of kidney transplantation (KTx) until 1 year postengraftment. Methods: A single-center prospective study was conducted. HRQoL was measured pre-KTx and at 2, 6, and 12 months postengraftment using self-reported Kidney Disease and Quality of Life short-form version 1.3. Intraindividual scores before and after KTx were evaluated. Liu Comorbidity Index was registered at enlisting. short-form-36 scores were additionally compared with scores from an age-matched population. Results: From January 1, 2013, until November 30, 2016, a total of 289 waitlisted patients were included. By September 1, 2017, 134 had reached 1 year postengraftment, and valid questionnaires were available in 120 (90%) patients. Mean age at KTx was 71.6 years (±4.3 years), 71% were male. Living donor was used in 21%, and preemptive KTx was performed in 30% of the recipients. Median waiting time for KTx from deceased donor was 16 months (range, 0.6-50.5 months). A total of 79 (66%) recipients had a Liu Comorbidity Index score of 3 or less.All HRQoL scores except the domain social function improved at 2 months postengraftment and remained stable or continued to improve at 1 year.HRQoL scores 12 months postengraftment were similar to those described in an age-matched general population except for the domain social function which remained at a significantly lower level. Time in dialysis was the most important variable associated with impaired HRQoL postengraftment. Conclusions: HRQoL scores showed clinically significant improvement in older KTx recipients 1 year posttransplant.

17.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 30(6): 450-456, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635304

RESUMO

Objective: Investigate whether gastroenterologists rate the quality of referral letters higher if electronic dynamic checklist items are added to a standard free-text referral letter. Assess how this affects the gastroenterologists' assessment of the patient's need for healthcare and the agreement between their assessments. Design: Randomized vignette study. Setting: Norwegian primary gastroenterology services. Participants: Thirty-two Norwegian gastroenterologists. Intervention: Between June 2015 and January 2016, participants were recruited through an open invitation to all members of the Norwegian Society of Gastroenterology. They were asked to rate 16 referral letters (vignettes) in a web interface: eight letters in free text following a general template and eight letters based on a general referral template combined with diagnosis-specific checklist items. The study was completed in two subsequent rounds ≥3 months apart. Main Outcome Measures: Quality of referral letters assessed on a rating scale from 0 to 10. Agreement in the referral assessment and accuracy of the selection of correct preliminary diagnosis and appropriate work-up. Results: The mean quality assesses on the rating scale was 7.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8-7.2) for all letters combined (n = 511), 6.5(CI 6.2-6.8) for the free-text referrals (n = 256) and 7.5(CI 7.3-7.7) for the checklist referrals (n = 255) (P < 0.001, paired t-test). No difference was observed in the triage of the patients, but fewer gastroenterologists felt the need to collect additional information about the patients in the checklist group. Conclusion: Checklist items may ease the assessment of the referrals for gastroenterologists. We were not able to show that checklists significantly influence the management of patients.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Gastroenterologistas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Melhoria de Qualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(10): 1644-1653, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a major cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Murine models indicate key roles for chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their receptor CCR7 in lung inflammation leading to PAH. The objective of this study was to assess the chemokine CCL19-CCL21 axis in patients with SSc-related PAH. METHODS: Serum samples obtained from 2 independent prospective SSc cohorts (n = 326), patients with idiopathic PAH (n = 12), and healthy control subjects (n = 100) were analyzed for CCL19/CCL21 levels, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels were defined as either high or low, using the mean + 2 SD value in controls as the cutoff value. Risk stratification at the time of PAH diagnosis and PAH-related events were performed. Descriptive and Cox regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: CCL21 levels were higher in patients with SSc compared with controls and were elevated prior to the diagnosis of PAH. PAH was more frequent in patients with high CCL21 levels (≥0.4 ng/ml) than in those with low CCL21 levels (33.3% versus 5.3% [P < 0.001]). In multivariate analyses, CCL21 was associated with PAH (hazard ratio [HR] 5.1, 95% CI 2.39-10.76 [P < 0.001]) and occurrence of PAH-related events (HR 4.7, 95% CI 2.12-10.46, P < 0.001). Risk stratification at the time of PAH diagnosis alone did not predict PAH-related events. However, when risk at diagnosis was combined with high or low CCL21 level, there was a significant predictive effect (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.03-1.60 [P = 0.027]). A high CCL21 level was associated with decreased survival (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: CCL21 appears to be a promising marker for predicting the risk of SSc-related PAH and PAH progression. CCL21 may be part of a dysregulated immune pathway linked to the development of lung vascular damage in SSc.

19.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 59(9): 1012-1023, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being in a period with extensive brain maturation, adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (EOS) provide unique neurodevelopmental data that may contribute to a better understanding of schizophrenia at all ages. Cognitive dysfunction is a central feature of schizophrenia and is more pronounced in EOS than in later onset illness. However, there is limited research on both the long-term course of global cognition in EOS, and how cognition over time is influenced by clinical characteristics during the early illness period. METHODS: Thirty-one EOS patients and 73 controls (age 12-18) were assessed on clinical variables at baseline (PANSS, duration of untreated psychosis [DUP], hospitalizations, suicide attempts, and remission). Neuropsychological assessments with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) were conducted at baseline and after both 1 and 2 years, and composite scores of total performances were calculated. The analyses were performed with a linear mixed model. RESULTS: The present study found that global cognition followed a stable course over the first years of the disease in EOS, though at a significantly lower level in EOS compared with the controls. We did not detect a relationship between DUP, remission, positive/negative symptoms, and hospitalizations on one hand, and long-term cognition on the other hand, but PANSS-general and suicide attempt history at baseline were identified as risk factors of longitudinal cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: Though at different levels, the EOS group and the controls had a similar cognitive course over 2 years. Some baseline characteristics (psychotic symptoms, DUP, remission, and hospitalization) had no influence on cognition within the first 2 years of illness. In contrast, general symptoms and a history of suicide attempts at baseline were more potent risk factors of the cognitive course than the psychotic-specific symptoms, and should, therefore, be subject to specific attention in the evaluation and treatment of patients with early-onset psychosis.

20.
Pain Manag Nurs ; 19(4): 366-376, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29455923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies have addressed the long-term consequences of intensive care unit (ICU) treatment, but few have studied the prevalence of chronic pain and pain characteristics longitudinally. AIMS: The goal of the work described here was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain in ICU survivors 3 months and 1 year after ICU discharge and to identify risk factors for chronic pain 1 year after ICU discharge. DESIGN: The design used was an explorative and longitudinal study. SETTING/PATIENTS: The patients in this work had stayed >48 hours in two mixed ICUs in Oslo University Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital. METHODS: Patients completed a survey questionnaire 3 months and 1 year after ICU discharge. Pain was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form. RESULTS: At 3 months after discharge, 58 of 118 ICU survivors (49.2%) reported pain, and at 1 year after discharge, 34 of 89 survivors (38.2%) reported pain. The most common sites of pain at 3 months were the shoulder and abdomen; the shoulder remained the second most common site at 1 year. There was an increase in the interference of pain with daily life at 1 year. Possible risk factors for chronic pain at 1 year were increased severity of illness, organ failure, ventilator time >12 days, and ICU length of stay >15 days. The most common sites of pain were not linked to the admission diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may enable health care providers to improve care and rehabilitation for this patient group.

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