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1.
Syst Biol ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483631

RESUMO

The consequences of the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary (KPB) mass extinction for the evolution of plant diversity remain poorly understood, even though evolutionary turnover of plant lineages at the KPB is central to understanding assembly of the Cenozoic biota. The apparent concentration of whole genome duplication (WGD) events around the KPB may have played a role in survival and subsequent diversification of plant lineages. To gain new insights into the origins of Cenozoic biodiversity, we examine the origin and early evolution of the globally diverse legume family (Leguminosae or Fabaceae). Legumes are ecologically (co-)dominant across many vegetation types, and the fossil record suggests that they rose to such prominence after the KPB in parallel with several well-studied animal clades including Placentalia and Neoaves. Furthermore, multiple WGD events are hypothesized to have occurred early in legume evolution. Using a recently inferred phylogenomic framework, we investigate the placement of WGDs during early legume evolution using gene tree reconciliation methods, gene count data and phylogenetic supernetwork reconstruction. Using 20 fossil calibrations we estimate a revised timeline of legume evolution based on 36 nuclear genes selected as informative and evolving in an approximately clock-like fashion. To establish the timing of WGDs we also date duplication nodes in gene trees. Results suggest either a pan-legume WGD event on the stem lineage of the family, or an allopolyploid event involving (some of) the earliest lineages within the crown group, with additional nested WGDs subtending subfamilies Papilionoideae and Detarioideae. Gene tree reconciliation methods that do not account for allopolyploidy may be misleading in inferring an earlier WGD event at the time of divergence of the two parental lineages of the polyploid, suggesting that the allopolyploid scenario is more likely. We show that the crown age of the legumes dates to the Maastrichtian or early Paleocene and that, apart from the Detarioideae WGD, paleopolyploidy occurred close to the KPB. We conclude that the early evolution of the legumes followed a complex history, in which multiple auto- and/or allopolyploidy events coincided with rapid diversification and in association with the mass extinction event at the KPB, ultimately underpinning the evolutionary success of the Leguminosae in the Cenozoic.

2.
Syst Biol ; 69(4): 613-622, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065640

RESUMO

Phylogenomic analyses have helped resolve many recalcitrant relationships in the angiosperm tree of life, yet phylogenetic resolution of the backbone of the Leguminosae, one of the largest and most economically and ecologically important families, remains poor due to generally limited molecular data and incomplete taxon sampling of previous studies. Here, we resolve many of the Leguminosae's thorniest nodes through comprehensive analysis of plastome-scale data using multiple modified coding and noncoding data sets of 187 species representing almost all major clades of the family. Additionally, we thoroughly characterize conflicting phylogenomic signal across the plastome in light of the family's complex history of plastome evolution. Most analyses produced largely congruent topologies with strong statistical support and provided strong support for resolution of some long-controversial deep relationships among the early diverging lineages of the subfamilies Caesalpinioideae and Papilionoideae. The robust phylogenetic backbone reconstructed in this study establishes a framework for future studies on legume classification, evolution, and diversification. However, conflicting phylogenetic signal was detected and quantified at several key nodes that prevent the confident resolution of these nodes using plastome data alone. [Leguminosae; maximum likelihood; phylogenetic conflict; plastome; recalcitrant relationships; stochasticity; systematic error.].

3.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 146: 106752, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028029

RESUMO

The legume subfamily Detarioideae is exceptionally diverse in tropical Africa and Madagascar, compared to South America or Asia, a trend contrary to that shown by most other pantropical plant groups. We aim to elucidate the process of diversification giving rise to these high diversity levels by focussing our investigations on the Daniellia clade, which is present in both Africa and Madagascar. The Daniellia clade is an early-diverging lineage of subfamily Detarioideae (Leguminosae; pea family) and consists of three genera: Daniellia, Brandzeia and Neoapaloxylon. The species belonging to this group exhibit a wide range of habitat types. The Madagascar endemics Brandzeia (1 species) and Neoapaloxylon (3 species) occupy dry woodlands and arid succulent habitats respectively. Daniellia alsteeniana and D. oliveri are found in savannahs while the remaining eight species within Daniellia all occupy rainforest habitats. Phylogenetic analyses were generated from a dense, multi-individual species level sampling of the clade. Divergence time estimates were carried out using a molecular clock method to investigate biogeographical patterns and shifts in habitat types within the Daniellia clade, and conservation assessments were conducted to determine the levels of extinction risks these species are facing. We estimate that the Daniellia clade first emerged during the Early Eocene from an ancestor present in the rainforests of North Africa at that time, reflecting an ancestral habitat preference. There was a first major split over the course of the Eocene, giving rise to both African rainforest and Madagascan savannah lineages. With the emergence of a drier climate and vegetation type in Africa during the Eocene, it is likely that a dry-climate adapted lineage from the Daniellia clade ancestor could have dispersed through suitable savannah or woodland regions to reach Madagascar, subsequently giving rise to the savannah-adapted ancestor of Brandzeia and Neoapaloxylon in the Early Miocene. The African rainforest lineage gave rise to the genus Daniellia, which is postulated to have first diversified in the Middle Miocene, while savannah species of Daniellia emerged independently during the Pliocene, coinciding with the global rise of C4-dominated grasslands. More than half of the species in the Daniellia clade are near threatened or threatened, which highlights the need to understand the threats of anthropogenic pressures and climate change these species are facing to prioritise their conservation.

4.
New Phytol ; 225(3): 1355-1369, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665814

RESUMO

Phylogenomics is increasingly used to infer deep-branching relationships while revealing the complexity of evolutionary processes such as incomplete lineage sorting, hybridization/introgression and polyploidization. We investigate the deep-branching relationships among subfamilies of the Leguminosae (or Fabaceae), the third largest angiosperm family. Despite their ecological and economic importance, a robust phylogenetic framework for legumes based on genome-scale sequence data is lacking. We generated alignments of 72 chloroplast genes and 7621 homologous nuclear-encoded proteins, for 157 and 76 taxa, respectively. We analysed these with maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and a multispecies coalescent summary method, and evaluated support for alternative topologies across gene trees. We resolve the deepest divergences in the legume phylogeny despite lack of phylogenetic signal across all chloroplast genes and the majority of nuclear genes. Strongly supported conflict in the remainder of nuclear genes is suggestive of incomplete lineage sorting. All six subfamilies originated nearly simultaneously, suggesting that the prevailing view of some subfamilies as 'basal' or 'early-diverging' with respect to others should be abandoned, which has important implications for understanding the evolution of legume diversity and traits. Our study highlights the limits of phylogenetic resolution in relation to rapid successive speciation.

6.
Trends Ecol Evol ; 34(6): 494-496, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056219

RESUMO

Drawing upon the data deposited in publicly shared archives has the potential to transform the way we conduct ecological research. For this transformation to happen, we argue that data need to be more interoperable and easier to discover. One way to achieve these goals is to adopt domain-specific data representations.


Assuntos
Ecologia
7.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 345, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105714

RESUMO

Based on evolutionary, phylogenomic, and synteny analyses of genome sequences for more than a dozen diverse legume species as well as analysis of chromosome counts across the legume family, we conclude that the genus Cercis provides a plausible model for an early evolutionary form of the legume genome. The small Cercis genus is in the earliest-diverging clade in the earliest-diverging legume subfamily (Cercidoideae). The Cercis genome is physically small, and has accumulated mutations at an unusually slow rate compared to other legumes. Chromosome counts across 477 legume genera, combined with phylogenetic reconstructions and histories of whole-genome duplications, suggest that the legume progenitor had 7 chromosomes - as does Cercis. We propose a model in which a legume progenitor, with 7 chromosomes, diversified into species that would become the Cercidoideae and the remaining legume subfamilies; then speciation in the Cercidoideae gave rise to the progenitor of the Cercis genus. There is evidence for a genome duplication in the remaining Cercidoideae, which is likely due to allotetraploidy involving hybridization between a Cercis progenitor and a second diploid species that existed at the time of the polyploidy event. Outside the Cercidoideae, a set of probably independent whole-genome duplications gave rise to the five other legume subfamilies, at least four of which have predominant counts of 12-14 chromosomes among their early-diverging taxa. An earlier study concluded that independent duplications occurred in the Caesalpinioideae, Detarioideae, and Papilionoideae. We conclude that Cercis may be unique among legumes in lacking evidence of polyploidy, a process that has shaped the genomes of all other legumes thus far investigated.

8.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 137: 210-221, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102688

RESUMO

Astragalus, a highly diverse genus of flowering plants with its highest center of diversity in West Asia, is a classic example of rapid species-level radiation and adaptation to a diversity of habitats throughout the world. We examined the historical biogeography of Astragalus using molecular dating and ancestral area reconstruction to understand how past climate changes, geographical patterns and transition in life history have provoked diversification of Astragalus. Our results suggest that Astragalus probably originated during the middle Miocene in West Asia, underwent rapid diversification, subsequently and repeatedly expanded its range in the Mediterranean region, and later to North America through West Europe. This distribution range was also extended toward central and eastern Asia from the Middle Miocene to Pleistocene. Several climatic and geological processes during the Miocene-Pliocene may be implicated in the diversification of the major Astragalus clades. In particular, the annual lineages, which are important elements in the Mediterranean flora of Africa and Europe and in the deserts of southwest to central Asia, have arisen in response to progressing aridity from the late Miocene onwards (between 8.6 Ma and 2.98 Ma). Diversification rate analyses indicate three rapid and recent diversification events, one at c. 11 Ma in the clade that groups most of the Astragalus s.s. (all except the Ophiocarpus sister lineage), one at c. 5 Ma in the crown group of the Hypoglottis clade, including herbaceous annual and perennial species, and the most recent one at c. 3 Ma in the spiny cushion forming Astracantha clade. Our study highlights the complexity of processes and factors shaping diversifications in Astragalus; a complex interaction among climatic modifications providing opportunities for diversification and likely coincident with the evolution of key morphological and physiological adaptations.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/anatomia & histologia , Mudança Climática , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Sequência de Bases , Variação Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 137: 156-167, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075505

RESUMO

Detarioideae is well known for its high diversity of floral traits, including flower symmetry, number of organs, and petal size and morphology. This diversity has been characterized and studied at higher taxonomic levels, but limited analyses have been performed among closely related genera with contrasting floral traits due to the lack of fully resolved phylogenetic relationships. Here, we used four representative transcriptomes to develop an exome capture (target enrichment) bait for the entire subfamily and applied it to the Anthonotha clade using a complete data set (61 specimens) representing all extant floral diversity. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered congruent topologies using ML and Bayesian methods. Anthonotha was recovered as monophyletic contrary to the remaining three genera (Englerodendron, Isomacrolobium and Pseudomacrolobium), which form a monophyletic group sister to Anthonotha. We inferred a total of 35 transitions for the seven floral traits (pertaining to flower symmetry, petals, stamens and staminodes) that we analyzed, suggesting that at least 30% of the species in this group display transitions from the ancestral condition reconstructed for the Anthonotha clade. The main transitions were towards a reduction in the number of organs (petals, stamens and staminodes). Despite the high number of transitions, our analyses indicate that the seven characters are evolving independently in these lineages. Petal morphology is the most labile floral trait with a total of seven independent transitions in number and seven independent transitions to modification in petal types. The diverse petal morphology along the dorsoventral axis of symmetry within the flower is not associated with differences at the micromorphology of petal surface, suggesting that in this group all petals within the flower might possess the same petal identity at the molecular level. Our results provide a solid evolutionary framework for further detailed analyses of the molecular basis of petal identity.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Fabaceae/genética , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Genômica , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia , Flores/ultraestrutura , Fenótipo , Epiderme Vegetal/anatomia & histologia , Epiderme Vegetal/ultraestrutura
10.
New Phytol ; 222(4): 1994-2008, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536385

RESUMO

The extent to which phylogenetic biome conservatism vs biome shifting determines global patterns of biodiversity remains poorly understood. To address this question, we investigated the biogeography and trajectories of biome and growth form evolution across the Caesalpinia Group (Leguminosae), a clade of 225 species of trees, shrubs and lianas distributed across the Rainforest, Succulent, Temperate and Savanna Biomes. We focused especially on the little-known Succulent Biome, an assemblage of succulent-rich, grass-poor, seasonally dry tropical vegetation distributed disjunctly across the Neotropics, Africa, Arabia and Madagascar. We reconstructed a time-calibrated phylogeny, assembled species occurrence data and assigned species to areas, biomes and growth forms. These data are used to estimate the frequency of transcontinental disjunctions, biome shifts and evolutionary transitions between growth forms and test for phylogenetic biome conservatism and correlated evolution of growth forms and biome shifts. We uncovered a pattern of strong phylogenetic Succulent Biome conservatism. We showed that transcontinental disjunctions confined within the Succulent Biome are frequent and that biome shifts to the Savanna, Rainforest and Temperate Biomes are infrequent and closely associated with shifts in plant growth forms. Our results suggest that the Succulent Biome comprises an ecologically constrained evolutionary arena spanning large geographical disjunctions across the tropics.


Assuntos
Caesalpinia/classificação , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Clima Tropical , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Geografia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6884, 2018 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720687

RESUMO

Detarioideae (81 genera, c. 760 species) is one of the six Leguminosae subfamilies recently reinstated by the Legume Phylogeny Working Group. This subfamily displays high morphological variability and is one of the early branching clades in the evolution of legumes. Using previously published and newly generated sequences from four loci (matK-trnK, rpL16, trnG-trnG2G and ITS), we develop a new densely sampled phylogeny to assess generic relationships and tribal delimitations within Detarioideae. The ITS phylogenetic trees are poorly resolved, but the plastid data recover several strongly supported clades, which also are supported in a concatenated plastid + ITS sequence analysis. We propose a new phylogeny-based tribal classification for Detarioideae that includes six tribes: re-circumscribed Detarieae and Amherstieae, and the four new tribes Afzelieae, Barnebydendreae, Saraceae and Schotieae. An identification key and descriptions for each of the tribes are also provided.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Fabaceae/genética , Genes de Plantas , Plastídeos/genética
12.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 126: 279-292, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702213

RESUMO

The flora of the Neotropics is unmatched in its diversity, however the mechanisms by which diversity has accumulated are debated and largely unclear. The Brownea clade (Leguminosae) is a characteristic component of the Neotropical flora, and the species within it are diverse in their floral morphology, attracting a wide variety of pollinators. This investigation aimed to estimate species divergence times and infer relationships within the group, in order to test whether the Brownea clade followed the 'cradle' or 'museum' model of diversification, i.e. whether species evolved rapidly over a short time period, or gradually over many millions of years. We also aimed to trace the spatio-temporal evolution of the clade by estimating ancestral biogeographical patterns in the group. We used BEAST to build a dated phylogeny of 73 Brownea clade species using three molecular markers (ITS, trnK and psbA-trnH), resulting in well-resolved phylogenetic relationships within the clade, as well as robust divergence time estimates from which we inferred diversification rates and ancestral biogeography. Our analyses revealed an Eocene origin for the group, after which the majority of diversification happened in Amazonia during the Miocene, most likely concurrent with climatic and geological changes caused by the rise of the Andes. We found no shifts in diversification rate over time, suggesting a gradual accumulation of lineages with low extinction rates. These results may help to understand why Amazonia is host to the highest diversity of tree species on Earth.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fabaceae/classificação , Árvores/classificação , Clima Tropical , Biodiversidade , Calibragem , Fósseis , Filogenia , Filogeografia , América do Sul , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Am J Bot ; 104(7): 1019-1041, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710127

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The Dialioideae is an early diverging clade of caesalpinioid legumes containing approximately 85 species in 17 genera. Dialioideae floral morphology is highly variable and may provide clues to caesalpinioid evolution, but a well-resolved phylogeny is needed. Here, we have carried out a comprehensive morphological study of 78 Dialioideae and four outgroup species. METHODS: For all available Dialioideae DNA samples, the plastid rpS16 and trnL introns were sequenced. A combined phylogenetic analysis using the parsimony criterion was completed on a reduced taxon set for which both molecular and morphological data were available. Highly supported clades from the strict consensus tree of this analysis were then used to constrain the nodes of a second analysis on an expanded taxon set with missing molecular data for some taxa. KEY RESULTS: Several new, highly supported relationships have been discovered at the species and genus levels. The loss of the antepetalous stamen whorl was found to be a synapomorphy for most of the clade. CONCLUSIONS: A high degree of organ loss is common in the Dialioideae and often results in a bilaterally symmetrical flower. The absence of consistent morphological features in the Dialioideae, coupled with the small size of each florally diagnosed genus, suggests a lack of canalization in the floral evolution in early diverging legume lineages.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fabaceae/genética , Flores/genética , Filogenia , DNA de Plantas/genética , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Íntrons , Plastídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Clima Tropical
14.
New Phytol ; 214(4): 1722-1735, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323330

RESUMO

African tropical forests are generally considered less diverse than their Neotropical and Asian counterparts. By contrast, the Detarioideae is much more diverse in Africa than in South America and Asia. To better understand the evolution of this contrasting diversity pattern, we investigated the biogeographical and ecological origin of this subfamily, testing whether they originated in dry biomes surrounding the Tethys Seaway as currently hypothesized for many groups of Leguminosae. We constructed the largest time-calibrated phylogeny for the subfamily to date, reconstructed ancestral states for geography and biome/habitat, estimated diversification and extinction rates, and evaluated biome/habitat and geographic shifts in Detarioideae. The ancestral habitat of Detarioideae is postulated to be a primary forest (terra firme) originated in Africa-South America, in the early Palaeocene, after which several biome/habitat and geographic shifts occurred. The origin of Detarioideae is older than previous estimates, which postulated a dry (succulent) biome origin according to the Tethys Seaway hypothesis, and instead we reveal a post Gondwana and terra firme origin for this early branching clade of legumes. Detarioideae include some of the most dominant trees in evergreen forests and have likely played a pivotal role in shaping continental African forest diversity.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Filogenia , África , Ecossistema , Extinção Biológica , Filogeografia , Árvores , Clima Tropical
15.
PhytoKeys ; (71): 1-160, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28814915

RESUMO

The Caesalpinia group is a large pantropical clade of ca. 205 species in subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae) in which generic delimitation has been in a state of considerable flux. Here we present new phylogenetic analyses based on five plastid and one nuclear ribosomal marker, with dense taxon sampling including 172 (84%) of the species and representatives of all previously described genera in the Caesalpinia group. These analyses show that the current classification of the Caesalpinia group into 21 genera needs to be revised. Several genera (Poincianella, Erythrostemon, Cenostigma and Caesalpinia sensu Lewis, 2005) are non-monophyletic and several previously unclassified Asian species segregate into clades that merit recognition at generic rank. In addition, the near-completeness of our taxon sampling identifies three species that do not belong in any of the main clades and these are recognised as new monospecific genera. A new generic classification of the Caesalpinia group is presented including a key for the identification of genera, full generic descriptions, illustrations (drawings and photo plates of all genera), and (for most genera) the nomenclatural transfer of species to their correct genus. We recognise 26 genera, with reinstatement of two previously described genera (Biancaea Tod., Denisophytum R. Vig.), re-delimitation and expansion of several others (Moullava, Cenostigma, Libidibia and Erythrostemon), contraction of Caesalpinia s.s. and description of four new ones (Gelrebia, Paubrasilia, Hererolandia and Hultholia), and make 75 new nomenclatural combinations in this new generic system.

16.
Ann Bot ; 115(2): 275-91, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25550144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The genus Rosa (150-200 species) is widely distributed throughout temperate and sub-tropical habitats from the northern hemisphere to tropical Asia, with only one tropical African species. In order to better understand the evolution of roses, this study examines infrageneric relationships with respect to conventional taxonomy, considers the extent of allopolyploidization and infers macroevolutionary processes that have led to the current distribution of the genus. METHODS: Phylogenetic relationships among 101 species of the genus Rosa were reconstructed using sequences from the plastid psbA-trnH spacer, trnL intron, trnL-F spacer, trnS-G spacer and trnG intron, as well as from nuclear glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which was used to identify putative allopolyploids and infer their possible origins. Chloroplast phylogeny was used to estimate divergence times and reconstruct ancestral areas. KEY RESULTS: Most subgenera and sections defined by traditional taxonomy are not monophyletic. However, several clades are partly consistent with currently recognized sections. Allopolyploidy seems to have played an important role in stabilizing intersectional hybrids. Biogeographic analyses suggest that Asia played a central role as a genetic reservoir in the evolution of the genus Rosa. CONCLUSIONS: The ancestral area reconstruction suggests that despite an early presence on the American continent, most extant American species are the results of a later re-colonization from Asia, probably through the Bering Land Bridge. The results suggest more recent exchanges between Asia and western North America than with eastern North America. The current distribution of roses from the Synstylae lineage in Europe is probably the result of a migration from Asia approx. 30 million years ago, after the closure of the Turgai strait. Directions for a new sectional classification of the genus Rosa are proposed, and the analyses provide an evolutionary framework for future studies on this notoriously difficult genus.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Poliploidia , Rosa/classificação , Rosa/genética , Ásia , Evolução Biológica , Cloroplastos/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Europa (Continente) , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/genética , Íntrons , Dados de Sequência Molecular , América do Norte , Filogeografia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Rosa/enzimologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 14(2): 221-32, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24118947

RESUMO

Ten years after DNA barcoding was initially suggested as a tool to identify species, millions of barcode sequences from more than 1100 species are available in public databases. While several studies have reviewed the methods and potential applications of DNA barcoding, most have focused on species identification and discovery, and relatively few have addressed applications of DNA barcoding data to ecology. These data, and the associated information on the evolutionary histories of taxa that they can provide, offer great opportunities for ecologists to investigate questions that were previously difficult or impossible to address. We present an overview of potential uses of DNA barcoding relevant in the age of ecoinformatics, including applications in community ecology, species invasion, macroevolution, trait evolution, food webs and trophic interactions, metacommunities, and spatial ecology. We also outline some of the challenges and potential advances in DNA barcoding that lie ahead.


Assuntos
Biota , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Ecologia/métodos
18.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 65(1): 149-62, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22699157

RESUMO

The Caesalpinieae grade (Leguminosae) forms a morphologically and ecologically diverse group of mostly tropical tree species with a complex evolutionary history. This grade comprises several distinct lineages, but the exact delimitation of the group relative to subfamily Mimosoideae and other members of subfamily Caesalpinioideae, as well as phylogenetic relationships among the lineages are uncertain. With the aim of better resolving phylogenetic relationships within the Caesalpinieae grade, we investigated the utility of several nuclear markers developed from genomic studies in the Papilionoideae. We cloned and sequenced the low copy nuclear gene sucrose synthase (SUSY) and combined the data with plastid trnL and matK sequences. SUSY has two paralogs in the Caesalpinieae grade and in the Mimosoideae, but occurs as a single copy in all other legumes tested. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses suggest the two nuclear markers are congruent with plastid DNA data. The Caesalpinieae grade is divided into four well-supported clades (Cassia, Caesalpinia, Tachigali and Peltophorum clades), a poorly supported clade of Dimorphandra Group genera, and two paraphyletic groups, one with other Dimorphandra Group genera and the other comprising genera previously recognized as the Umtiza clade. A selection analysis of the paralogs, using selection models from PAML, suggests that SUSY genes are subjected to a purifying selection. One of the SUSY paralogs, under slightly stronger positive selection, may be undergoing subfunctionalization. The low copy SUSY gene is useful for phylogeny reconstruction in the Caesalpinieae despite the presence of duplicate copies. This study confirms that the Caesalpinieae grade is an artificial group, and highlights the need for further analyses of lineages at the base of the Mimosoideae.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/classificação , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Evolução Biológica , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Fabaceae/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Ann Bot ; 105(2): 311-25, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19939978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous molecular phylogenetic studies disagree with the informal generic-level taxonomic groups based on morphology. In this study morphological characters in the caesalpinioid clade Detarieae are evaluated within a phylogenetic framework as a means of better understanding phylogenetic relationships and morphological evolution. METHODS: Morphological characters were observed and scored for representative species of Detarieae focusing on the resin-producing genera. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out with morphological characters alone and then combined with DNA sequences. KEY RESULTS: Despite a high level of homoplasy, morphological data support several clades corresponding to those recovered in molecular phylogenetic analyses. The more strongly supported clades are each defined by at least one morphological synapomorphy. Several characters (e.g. apetaly) previously used to define informal generic groups evolved several times independently, leading to the differences observed with the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Although floral evolution is complex in Detarieae some patterns are recovered. CONCLUSIONS: New informal taxonomic groupings are proposed based on the present findings. Floral evolution in the diverse Detarieae clade is characterized by a repeated tendency toward zygomorphy through the reduction of lateral petals and toward complete loss of petals.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia , Fabaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 125(3): 1416-25, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19275299

RESUMO

Gas-filled quasi-spherical resonators are excellent tools for the measurement of thermophysical properties of gas and have also been retained for the determination of the Boltzmann constant with a low uncertainty, which can be derived from measurements of both the speed of sound in a noble gas and the volume of the resonator. To achieve this, a detailed modeling of the acoustic field in quasi-spherical resonators is of importance. Several phenomena and perturbations must be taken into account, including, among inertia and compressibility, heat conduction, viscosity, the shape of the resonator, small irregularities on the wall, and so on. The aim of this paper is to provide improvements to the current models of the acoustic field in such resonator. Namely, the model given here takes into account all the different perturbing elements together in a unique formalism, including the coupling between the different perturbing elements and the resulting modal coupling in a consistent manner. The first results obtained from this analytical model on a simple configuration show that the effect of modal coupling is small but should not be neglected regarding the accuracy required here, even if several improvements could still be provided to this new unified model.

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