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Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e24524, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530280


ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of co-infection with different types of pathogens in patients with hypoxemic pneumonia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Reunion Island.This observational study using a prospectively collected database of hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 cases was conducted at Félix Guyon University Hospital in Reunion Island, France.Between 18 March 2020 and 15 April 2020, 156 patients were admitted to our hospital for COVID-19. A total of 36 patients had hypoxemic pneumonia (23.1%) due to COVID-19. Thirty of these cases (83.3%) were imported by travelers returning mainly from metropolitan France and Spain. Patients were screened for co-infection with other pathogens at admission: 31 (86.1%) by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 16 (44.4%) by cytobacteriological examination of sputum culture. Five patients (13.9%) were found to have co-infection: 1 with influenza virus A H1N1 (pdm09) associated with Branhamella catarrhalis, 1 with Streptococcus pneumoniae associated with Haemophilus influenzae, 1 with Human Coronavirus 229E, 1 with Rhinovirus, and 1 with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Patients with co-infection had higher D-dimer levels than those without co-infection (1.36 [1.34-2.36] µg/mL vs 0.63 [0.51-1.12] µg/mL, P = .05).The incidence of co-infection in our cohort was higher than expected (13.9%). Three co-infections (with influenza virus A(H1N1) pdm09, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus) required specific treatment. Patients with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 should be screened for co-infection using respiratory cultures or multiplex PCR. Whilst our study has a number of limitations, the results from our study suggest that in the absence of screening, patients should be commenced on treatment for co-infection in the presence of an elevated D-dimer.

/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Adulto , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740538


OBJECTIVES: Crohn disease (CD) can affect patient's quality of life (QOL) with physical, social, and psychological impacts. This study aimed to investigate the QOL of children with CD and its relationship with patient and disease characteristics. METHODS: Children ages from 10 to 17 years with diagnosed CD for more than 6 months were eligible to this cross-sectional study conducted in 35 French pediatric centers. QOL was assessed by the IMPACT-III questionnaire. Patient and disease characteristics were collected. RESULTS: A total of 218 children (42% of girls) were included at a median age of 14 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 13--16). Median duration of CD was 3.2 years (IQR: 1.7-5.1) and 63% of children were in clinical remission assessed by wPCDAI. Total IMPACT-III score was 62.8 (±11.0). The lowest score was in "emotional functioning" subdomain (mean: 42.8 ±â€Š11.2). Clinical remission was the main independent factor associated with QOL of children with CD (5.74 points higher compared with those "with active disease", 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.77--8.70, P < 0.001). Age of patient at the evaluation was found negatively correlated with QOL (-0.76 per year, 95% CI: -1.47 to -0.06, P = 0.009). Presence of psychological disorders was associated with a lower QOL (-9.6 points lower to those without, 95% CI: -13.34 to -5.86, P < 0.0001). Total IMPACT-III and its subdomains scores were not related to sex, disease duration, or treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These results not only confirm that clinical remission is a major issue for the QOL of patients, but also highlights the importance of psychological care.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 23: 1-3, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828896


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the prognosis of COVID-19 patients in Reunion Island, with a particular focus on the management of patients with hypoxemic pneumonia. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted from 11 March to 17 April 2020 at the only hospital authorized to manage patients with COVID-19 in Reunion Island. RESULTS: Over the study period, 164 out of 398 patients (41.2%) infected with COVID-19 were admitted to Félix Guyon University Hospital. Of these, 36 (22%) developed hypoxemic pneumonia. Patients with hypoxemic pneumonia were aged 66 [56-77] years, 69% were male and 33% had hypertension. Ten patients (27.8%) were hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU). Hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin treatment was associated with a lower ICU admission rate (P=0.008). None of the 6 patients treated with corticosteroids were hospitalized in ICU (P=0.16). There were no deaths at follow up (minimum 80 days). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the risk profile of COVID-19 patients with severe hypoxemic pneumonia, the mortality rate of the disease in Reunion Island was 0%. This may be due to the care bundle used in our hospital (early hospitalisation, treatment with hydroxychloroquine/azithromycin and/or corticosteroids, non-invasive respiratory support, etc).

Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 844-846, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618261


The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary embolism in returning travelers with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19. All returning travelers to Reunion Island with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and were included in the cohort. Thirty-five patients were returning travelers with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 and had recently returned from one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 outbreak (mainly from France and Comoros archipelago). Five patients (14.3%) were found to have pulmonary embolism and two (5.9%) were incidentally found to have deep vein thrombosis on CTPA. Patients with pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis had higher D-dimer levels than those without pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis (P = 0.04). Returning travelers with hypoxemic pneumonia due to COVID-19 should be systematically screened for pulmonary embolism.

Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiografia , Betacoronavirus , Comores , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , França , Humanos , Hipóxia/virologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Reunião , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Viagem , Trombose Venosa/virologia
BMJ Open ; 8(3): e018180, 2018 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602837


OBJECTIVE: Unlike several other national health agencies, French health authorities recommended that the newer direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) agents only be prescribed as second choice for the treatment of newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) remaining the first choice. We investigated the patterns of use of DOACs versus VKA in the treatment of NVAF in France over the first 5 years of DOAC availability. We also identified the changes in patient characteristics of those who initiated DOAC treatment over this time period. METHODS: Based on the French National Health Administrative Database, we constituted a population-based cohort of all patients who were newly treated for NVAF between January 2011 and December 2015. Trends in drug use were described as the percentage of patients initiating each drug at the time of treatment initiation. A multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was performed to identify independent sociodemographic and clinical predictors of initial anticoagulant choice. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 814 446 patients who had received a new anticoagulant treatment for NVAF. The proportion of patients using DOACs as initial anticoagulant therapy reached 54% 3 months after the Health Ministry approved the reimbursement of dabigatran for NVAF, and 61% by the end of 2015, versus VKA use. In the multivariate analysis, we found that DOAC initiators were younger and healthier overall than VKA initiators, and this tendency was reinforced over the 2011-2014 period. DOACs were more frequently prescribed by cardiologists in 2012 and after (adjusted OR in 2012: 2.47; 95% CI 2.40 to 2.54). CONCLUSION: Despite recommendations from health authorities, DOACs have been rapidly and massively adopted as initial therapy for NVAF in France. Observational studies should account for the fact that patients selected to initiate DOAC treatment are healthier overall, as failure to do so may bias the risk-benefit assessment of DOACs.

Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial , Seguro Saúde , Padrões de Prática Médica , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral
Int J STD AIDS ; 28(4): 397-403, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27178069


The consensus definition of late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus patient based on a CD4 threshold of 350 cells/mm3 has limitations concerning risk factors identification since there is growing biomedical justification for earlier initiation of treatment. The objective was to overcome this problem by simultaneously determining factors associated with different levels of CD4 counts at the time of diagnosis. Between January 2000 and July 2014, 1179 patients with a first human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis and entering care in a French human immunodeficiency virus reference center were enrolled. Factors associated with each 5 percentile from 5th to 95th quantile of CD4 counts at diagnosis were simultaneously studied in a multivariable quantile regression model. At each of the quantiles, the factors identified as negatively associated with CD4 count at diagnosis were older age, male sex , foreign patients, hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus co-infection, employment status, non-MSM transmission, heterosexual transmission, suburban and rural's place of residence and earlier period of diagnosis. Association with CD4 count was not uniformly significant, most factors being significant for some quantiles. The only significant determinant for all quantiles was being born in a foreign country. These results are particularly helpful in the context of human immunodeficiency virus clinical care, management and prevention.

Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco