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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87003, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surrounding green, air pollution, and noise have been associated with cardiometabolic diseases, but most studies have assessed only one of these correlated exposures. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate associations of combined exposures to green, air pollution, and road traffic noise with cardiometabolic diseases. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we studied associations between self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, hypertension, heart attack, and stroke from a Dutch national health survey of 387,195 adults and residential surrounding green, annual average air pollutant concentrations [including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), PM with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]), and oxidative potential (OP) with the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay ([Formula: see text])] and road traffic noise. Logistic regression models were used to analyze confounding and interaction of surrounding green, air pollution, and noise exposure. RESULTS: In single-exposure models, surrounding green was inversely associated with diabetes, while air pollutants ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and road traffic noise were positively associated with diabetes. In two-exposure analyses, associations with green and air pollution were attenuated but remained. The association between road traffic noise and diabetes was reduced to unity when adjusted for surrounding green or air pollution. Air pollution and surrounding green, but not road traffic noise, were associated with hypertension in single-exposure models. The weak inverse association of surrounding green with hypertension attenuated and lost significance when adjusted for air pollution. Only [Formula: see text] was associated with stroke and heart attack. CONCLUSIONS: Studies including only one of the correlated exposures surrounding green, air pollution, and road traffic noise may overestimate the association of diabetes and hypertension attributed to the studied exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3857.

2.
Environ Int ; 131: 104991, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green space has been hypothesized to improve cardiometabolic health of adolescents, whereas air pollution and traffic noise may negatively impact cardiometabolic health. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of green space, air pollution and traffic noise with cardiometabolic health in adolescents aged 12 and 16 years. METHODS: Waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured in subsets of participants of the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort, who participated in medical examinations at ages 12 (n = 1505) and/or 16 years (n = 797). We calculated a combined cardiometabolic risk score for each participant, with a higher score indicating a higher cardiometabolic risk. We estimated exposure to green space (i.e. the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and percentages of green space in circular buffers of 300 m and 3000 m), air pollution (by land-use regression models) and traffic noise (using the Standard Model Instrumentation for Noise Assessments (STAMINA) model) at the adolescents' home addresses at the time of the medical examinations. We assessed associations of these exposures with cardiometabolic health outcomes at ages 12 and 16 by multiple linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: We did not observe consistent patterns of associations of green space, air pollution and traffic noise with the cardiometabolic risk score, blood pressure, total cholesterol levels, the total/HDL cholesterol ratio and HbA1c. We found inverse associations of air pollution with waist circumference at both age 12 and 16. These associations weakened after adjustment for region, except for particulate matter with a diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5) at age 12. The association of PM2.5 with waist circumference at age 12 remained after adjustment for green space and road traffic noise (adjusted difference - 1.42 cm [95% CI -2.50, -0.35 cm] per 1.16 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5). CONCLUSION: This study does not provide evidence for beneficial effects of green space or adverse effects of air pollution and traffic noise on cardiometabolic health in adolescents.

3.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pet and dampness or mould exposure are considered risk factors for asthma and sensitization. It is unclear whether timing of exposure to these factors is differentially associated with asthma risk and sensitization in adolescence. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of timing of pet and dampness or mould exposure in asthma and sensitization in adolescence. Understanding this role is essential to build targeted prevention strategies. METHODS: We used data from 1871 participants of the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) cohort. Residential exposure to pets, dampness or mould was assessed by repeated parental questionnaires. We used asthma data from the 17-year questionnaire and sensitization data from the 16-year medical examination. We characterized timing using longitudinal exposure patterns from pregnancy till age 17 using longitudinal latent class growth modelling. We used logistic regression models to analyse associations of exposure patterns with asthma at age 17 and sensitization at age 16. RESULTS: For none of the time windows, exposure to pets and dampness or mould was associated with asthma at age 17, but a lower sensitization risk at age 16 was suggested, for example the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for sensitization was 0.63 (0.35-1.11) and 0.69 (0.44-1.08) for early life and persistently high pet exposure, respectively, compared with very low exposure. An inverse association was also suggested for sensitization and moderate early childhood dampness or mould exposure (0.71 [0.42-1.19]). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Different timing of pet and dampness or mould exposure was not associated with asthma, but lower risk of sensitization in adolescence was suggested, which could be partly attributable to reversed causation. Current findings are not sufficient to recommend pet avoidance to prevent allergic disease. More prospective studies are needed to obtain insights that can be used in clinical practice.

4.
Epidemiology ; 30 Suppl 1: S82-S89, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term air pollution exposure has been associated with increased risk of mortality and stroke. Less is known about the risk at lower concentrations. The association of long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, NO2, and NOx with all-cause mortality and stroke was investigated in a cohort of men aged ≥ 65 years who lived in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. METHODS: Land use regression models were used to estimate long-term exposure to air pollutants at participant's home address (n = 11,627) over 16 years. Different metrics of exposure were assigned: baseline; year before the outcome event; and average exposure across follow-up period. The Mortality Register and Hospital Morbidity Data from the Western Australia Data Linkage System were used to ascertain mortality and stroke cases. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, smoking, education, and body mass index for all-cause mortality. For fatal and hospitalized stroke, the models included variables controlled for all-cause mortality plus hypertension. RESULTS: Fifty-four percent of all-participants died, 3% suffered a fatal stroke, and 14% were hospitalized stroke cases. PM2.5 absorbance increased the risk of all-cause mortality with adjusted HR of 1.12 (1.02-1.23) for baseline and average exposures, and 1.14 (1.02-1.24) for past-year exposure. There were no associations between PM2.5 absorbance, NO2, and NOx and stroke outcomes. However, PM2.5 was associated with reduced risks of fatal stroke. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance was associated with all-cause mortality among older men exposed to low concentrations; and exposure to PM2.5 was associated with reduced risk of fatal stroke.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

6.
Environ Int ; 129: 525-537, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is emerging that poor mental health is associated with the environmental exposures of surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise. Most studies have evaluated only associations of single exposures with poor mental health. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations of combined exposure to surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise with poor mental health. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we linked data from a Dutch national health survey among 387,195 adults including questions about psychological distress, based on the Kessler 10 scale, to an external database on registered prescriptions of anxiolytics, hypnotics & sedatives and antidepressants. We added data on residential surrounding green in a 300 m and a 1000 m buffer based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and a land-use database (TOP10NL), modeled annual average air pollutant concentrations (including particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and modeled road- and rail-traffic noise (Lden and Lnight) to the survey. We used logistic regression to analyze associations of surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise exposure with poor mental health. RESULTS: In single exposure models, surrounding green was inversely associated with poor mental health. Air pollution was positively associated with poor mental health. Road-traffic noise was only positively associated with prescription of anxiolytics, while rail-traffic noise was only positively associated with psychological distress. For prescription of anxiolytics, we found an odds ratio [OR] of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) per interquartile range [IQR] increase in NDVI within 300 m, an OR of 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.19) per IQR increase in NO2 and an OR of 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.11) per IQR increase in road-traffic noise. In multi exposure analyses, associations with surrounding green and air pollution generally remained but attenuated. Joint odds ratios [JOR], based on the Cumulative Risk Index (CRI) method, of combined exposure to air pollution, traffic noise and decreased surrounding green were higher than the ORs of single exposure models. Associations of environmental exposures with poor mental health differed somewhat by age. CONCLUSIONS: Studies including only one of these three correlated exposures may overestimate the influence of poor mental health attributed to the studied exposure, while underestimating the influence of combined environmental exposures.

7.
Environ Int ; 130: 104934, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229871

RESUMO

Empirical spatial air pollution models have been applied extensively to assess exposure in epidemiological studies with increasingly sophisticated and complex statistical algorithms beyond ordinary linear regression. However, different algorithms have rarely been compared in terms of their predictive ability. This study compared 16 algorithms to predict annual average fine particle (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations across Europe. The evaluated algorithms included linear stepwise regression, regularization techniques and machine learning methods. Air pollution models were developed based on the 2010 routine monitoring data from the AIRBASE dataset maintained by the European Environmental Agency (543 sites for PM2.5 and 2399 sites for NO2), using satellite observations, dispersion model estimates and land use variables as predictors. We compared the models by performing five-fold cross-validation (CV) and by external validation (EV) using annual average concentrations measured at 416 (PM2.5) and 1396 sites (NO2) from the ESCAPE study. We further assessed the correlations between predictions by each pair of algorithms at the ESCAPE sites. For PM2.5, the models performed similarly across algorithms with a mean CV R2 of 0.59 and a mean EV R2 of 0.53. Generalized boosted machine, random forest and bagging performed best (CV R2~0.63; EV R2 0.58-0.61), while backward stepwise linear regression, support vector regression and artificial neural network performed less well (CV R2 0.48-0.57; EV R2 0.39-0.46). Most of the PM2.5 model predictions at ESCAPE sites were highly correlated (R2 > 0.85, with the exception of predictions from the artificial neural network). For NO2, the models performed even more similarly across different algorithms, with CV R2s ranging from 0.57 to 0.62, and EV R2s ranging from 0.49 to 0.51. The predicted concentrations from all algorithms at ESCAPE sites were highly correlated (R2 > 0.9). For both pollutants, biases were low for all models except the artificial neural network. Dispersion model estimates and satellite observations were two of the most important predictors for PM2.5 models whilst dispersion model estimates and traffic variables were most important for NO2 models in all algorithms that allow assessment of the importance of variables. Different statistical algorithms performed similarly when modelling spatial variation in annual average air pollution concentrations using a large number of training sites.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216803, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116770

RESUMO

Adolescents with high educational attainment generally have better outcomes across the lifespan than adolescents with lower educational attainment. This study investigated how three measures of socioeconomic status (SES)-maternal education, paternal education, and neighbourhood SES-combined to predict adolescent educational attainment (track level at age 17). We proposed three mechanisms for this pathway: cognitive ability (at age 11), primary school teacher assessment (stating the secondary education level suitable for a child at age 11), and educational expectations (at age 14). Using the data of 2,814 Dutch adolescents from the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study, logistic regressions tested associations between SES and educational attainment. Structural equation modelling (SEM) tested mediational pathways between SES and educational attainment. In models with three SES measures, having a medium-educated mother was associated with higher educational attainment relative to having a low-educated mother (OR; 95% CI: 1.83; 1.41-2.38), and having a high-educated mother was associated with higher educational attainment relative to having a low-educated mother (OR; 95% CI: 3.44; 2.59-4.55). The odds ratios for paternal education showed a similar pattern. We found no association between neighbourhood SES and adolescent educational attainment, so neighbourhood SES was removed from further analyses. Mediational analyses revealed that cognitive ability (30.0%), teacher assessment (28.5%), and educational expectations (1.2%) explained 59.8% of the total association between parental SES and educational attainment. The results showed that mother education and father education were both important for understanding the strong association between parental SES and adolescent educational attainment. In the Netherlands, the association between parental SES and educational attainment can be largely explained by cognitive ability and teacher assessments.

9.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 39, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spirometric lung function measurements have been proven to be excellent objective markers of respiratory morbidity. The use of different types of spirometers in epidemiological and clinical studies may present systematically different results affecting interpretation and implication of results. We aimed to explore considerations in the use of different spirometers in epidemiological studies by comparing forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) measurements between the Masterscreen pneumotachograph and EasyOne spirometers. We also provide a correction equation for correcting systematic differences using regression calibration. METHODS: Forty-nine volunteers had lung function measured on two different spirometers in random order with at least three attempts on each spirometer. Data were analysed using correlation plots, Bland and Altman plots and formal paired t-tests. We used regression calibration to provide a correction equation. RESULTS: The mean (SD) FEV1 and FVC was 3.78 (0.63) L and 4.78 (0.63) L for the Masterscreen pneumotachograph and 3.54 (0.60) L and 4.41 (0.83) L for the EasyOne spirometer. The mean FEV1 difference of 0.24 L and mean FVC difference of 0.37 L between the spirometers (corresponding to 6.3 and 8.4% difference, respectively) were statistically significant and consistent between younger (< 30 years) and older volunteers (> 30 years) and between males and females. Regression calibration indicated that an increase of 1 L in the EasyOne measurements corresponded to an average increase of 1.032 L in FEV1 and 1.005 L in FVC in the Masterscreen measurements. CONCLUSION: Use of different types of spirometers may result in significant systematic differences in lung function values. Epidemiological researchers need to be aware of these potential systematic differences and correct for them in analyses using methods such as regression calibration.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5735, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952902

RESUMO

Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and morbidity. Little is known about associations between air pollution caused by firework events and daily mortality. We investigated whether particulate matter from fireworks during New Year's celebrations was associated with daily mortality. We analyzed the celebrations of the years 1995-2012. PM10 concentrations increased dramatically during the firework events. Countrywide, the daily average PM10 concentrations from 27-30 December was 29 µg/m3 and increased during the first hour of the New Year by 277 µg/m3. In the more densely populated areas of the Netherlands the increase was even steeper, 598 µg/m3 in the first hour of the New Year. No consistent associations were found using linear regression models between PM10 concentrations during the first six hours of 1 January and daily mortality in the general population. Yet, using a case-crossover analysis firework-days and PM10 concentrations were associated with daily mortality. Therefore, in light of the contradictory results obtained with the different statistical analyses, we recommend further epidemiological research on the health effects of exposure to firework emissions.

11.
Environ Int ; 128: 63-69, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that adults who use cleaning agents in their homes have a higher risk of asthma and allergic symptoms. The associations of asthma and allergic symptoms with household use of cleaning agents in adolescents have not been investigated yet. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of household cleaning agents use with the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, we included participants of the PIAMA birth cohort study with data on household use of 10 types of cleaning agents and information on asthma, rhinitis and/or eczema from parent-completed questionnaires at age 14 (N = 2333). For the cleaning agents, we developed a composite score ranging from 0 (no exposure) to 30 points (household use on 4-7 days per week for all 10 types of cleaning agents). Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between household cleaning agents use (composite score and specific cleaning agents) and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Seven, 13 and 11% of the participants had asthma, rhinitis and eczema, respectively, at age 14. The composite score for household use of cleaning agents was not associated with asthma, rhinitis and eczema. For instance, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema comparing those with the highest use of cleaning agents (≥10 points) to those with never/seldom use (0-4 points) were 0.95 (0.56, 1.63), 1.23 (0.82, 1.82) and 0.95 (0.56, 1.63), respectively. For individual cleaning agents, we only found the use of ammonia to be significantly associated with a lower risk of rhinitis [0.60, (0.44, 0.82)]. CONCLUSIONS: There was no indication of an increased prevalence of asthma, rhinitis or eczema among adolescents living in households within the highest category of cleaning agents use.

12.
Sci Data ; 6: 190035, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860500

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to air pollution is considered a major public health concern and has been related to overall mortality and various diseases such as respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Due to the spatial variability of air pollution concentrations, assessment of individual exposure to air pollution requires spatial datasets at high resolution. Combining detailed air pollution maps with personal mobility and activity patterns allows for an improved exposure assessment. We present high-resolution datasets for the Netherlands providing average ambient air pollution concentration values for the year 2009 for NO2, NOx, PM2.5, PM2.5absorbance and PM10. The raster datasets on 5×5 m grid cover the entire Netherlands and were calculated using the land use regression models originating from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) project. Additional datasets with nationwide and regional measurements were used to evaluate the generated concentration maps. The presented datasets allow for spatial aggregations on different scales, nationwide individual exposure assessment, and the integration of activity patterns in the exposure estimation of individuals.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mapeamento Geográfico , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Países Baixos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
13.
Br J Nutr ; 121(8): 905-913, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728088

RESUMO

Observational studies suggest that breast-feeding is associated with a more favourable BMI and cardio-metabolic markers, but potential underlying mechanisms are unclear. As serum adiponectin has an important function in adults for glucose and lipid metabolism, we assessed 251 participants of the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort whether breast milk adiponectin is associated with childhood BMI and cardio-metabolic markers. We measured adiponectin levels in breast milk collected around 3 months after birth of the child and subsequently obtained weight and height repeatedly up to the age of 17 years. A medical examination (including blood pressure, glycated Hb and cholesterol) was performed at the age of 8, 12 and 16 years. We used multivariable mixed models to assess the association between breast milk adiponectin and BMI and cardio-metabolic markers at these ages. In models adjusted for exact age of breast milk collection, maternal age, presence of siblings, maternal BMI, pregnancy weight gain and child's birth weight, each unit increase in log breast milk adiponectin (in ng/ml) was associated with a 0·28 lower BMI z score (95 % CI -0·56, 0·00) at 3 months. After the age of 1 year, there was a tendency towards a higher BMI z score with increased breast milk adiponectin at some ages, but this pattern was not consistent throughout childhood. There were no associations between breast milk adiponectin and any of the cardio-metabolic markers in childhood. We conclude that in our study with follow-up until 17 years of age, breast milk adiponectin has no long-term effect on BMI and cardio-metabolic health during childhood.

14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(3): 1413-1421, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609353

RESUMO

Land use regression (LUR) models for air pollutants are often developed using multiple linear regression techniques. However, in the past decade linear (stepwise) regression methods have been criticized for their lack of flexibility, their ignorance of potential interaction between predictors, and their limited ability to incorporate highly correlated predictors. We used two training sets of ultrafine particles (UFP) data (mobile measurements (8200 segments, 25 s monitoring per segment), and short-term stationary measurements (368 sites, 3 × 30 min per site)) to evaluate different modeling approaches to estimate long-term UFP concentrations by estimating precision and bias based on an independent external data set (42 sites, average of three 24-h measurements). Higher training data R2 did not equate to higher test R2 for the external long-term average exposure estimates, making the argument that external validation data are critical to compare model performance. Machine learning algorithms trained on mobile measurements explained only 38-47% of external UFP concentrations, whereas multivariable methods like stepwise regression and elastic net explained 56-62%. Some machine learning algorithms (bagging, random forest) trained on short-term measurements explained modestly more variability of external UFP concentrations compared to multiple linear regression and regularized regression techniques. In conclusion, differences in predictive ability of algorithms depend on the type of training data and are generally modest.

15.
Environ Res ; 169: 348-356, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution, traffic noise and absence of green space may contribute to the development of overweight in children. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the combined associations of air pollution, traffic noise and green space with overweight throughout childhood. METHODS: We used data for 3680 participants of the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort. We estimated exposure to air pollution, traffic noise and green space (i.e. the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and percentages of green space in circular buffers of 300 m and 3000 m) at the children's home addresses at the time of parental reported weight and height measurements. Associations of these exposures with overweight from age 3 to 17 years were analyzed by generalized linear mixed models, adjusting for potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR's) are presented for an interquartile range increase in exposure. RESULTS: odds of being overweight increased with increasing exposure to NO2 (adjusted OR 1.40 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.74] per 8.90 µg/m3) and tended to decrease with increasing exposure to green space in a 3000 m buffer (adjusted OR 0.86 [95% CI 0.71-1.04] per 0.13 increase in the NDVI; adjusted OR 0.86 [95% CI 0.71-1.03] per 29.5% increase in the total percentage of green space). After adjustment for NO2, the associations with green space in a 3000 m buffer weakened. No associations of traffic noise with overweight throughout childhood were found. In children living in an urban area, living further away from a park was associated with a lower odds of being overweight (adjusted OR 0.67 [95% CI 0.52-0.85] per 359.6 m). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to traffic-related air pollution, but not traffic noise or green space, may contribute to childhood overweight. Future studies examining the associations of green space with childhood overweight should account for air pollution exposure.

16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(12): 127007, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; particles smaller than [Formula: see text]) may play an underexplored role in the etiology of several illnesses, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: We aimed o investigate the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient UFP and incident cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVA). As a secondary objective, we sought to compare effect estimates for UFP with those derived for other air pollutants, including estimates from two-pollutant models. METHODS: Using a prospective cohort of 33,831 Dutch residents, we studied the association between long-term exposure to UFP (predicted via land use regression) and incident disease using Cox proportional hazard models. Hazard ratios (HR) for UFP were compared to HRs for more routinely monitored air pollutants, including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), PM with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), and [Formula: see text]. RESULTS: Long-term UFP exposure was associated with an increased risk for all incident CVD [[Formula: see text] per [Formula: see text]; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.34], myocardial infarction (MI) ([Formula: see text]; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.79), and heart failure ([Formula: see text]; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.66). Positive associations were also estimated for [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.48 per [Formula: see text]) and coarse PM ([Formula: see text]; HR for all [Formula: see text]; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.45 per [Formula: see text]). CVD was not positively associated with [Formula: see text] (HR for all [Formula: see text]; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.28 per [Formula: see text]). HRs for UFP and CVAs were positive, but not significant. In two-pollutant models ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]), positive associations tended to remain for UFP, while HRs for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] generally attenuated towards the null. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strengthen the evidence that UFP exposure plays an important role in cardiovascular health and that risks of ambient air pollution may have been underestimated based on conventional air pollution metrics. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3047.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(38): 9592-9597, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181279

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major global health concern. Quantitative estimates of attributable mortality are based on disease-specific hazard ratio models that incorporate risk information from multiple PM2.5 sources (outdoor and indoor air pollution from use of solid fuels and secondhand and active smoking), requiring assumptions about equivalent exposure and toxicity. We relax these contentious assumptions by constructing a PM2.5-mortality hazard ratio function based only on cohort studies of outdoor air pollution that covers the global exposure range. We modeled the shape of the association between PM2.5 and nonaccidental mortality using data from 41 cohorts from 16 countries-the Global Exposure Mortality Model (GEMM). We then constructed GEMMs for five specific causes of death examined by the global burden of disease (GBD). The GEMM predicts 8.9 million [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.5-10.3] deaths in 2015, a figure 30% larger than that predicted by the sum of deaths among the five specific causes (6.9; 95% CI: 4.9-8.5) and 120% larger than the risk function used in the GBD (4.0; 95% CI: 3.3-4.8). Differences between the GEMM and GBD risk functions are larger for a 20% reduction in concentrations, with the GEMM predicting 220% higher excess deaths. These results suggest that PM2.5 exposure may be related to additional causes of death than the five considered by the GBD and that incorporation of risk information from other, nonoutdoor, particle sources leads to underestimation of disease burden, especially at higher concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Environ Res ; 167: 632-638, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse cardiovascular effects associated with air pollution exposure have been widely demonstrated. However, inconsistent cardiovascular responses were observed from reducing indoor air pollution exposure. We aimed to assess whether short-term air filtration intervention could benefit cardiovascular health in elderly living in high pollution area. METHODS: A randomized crossover intervention study of short-term indoor air filtration intervention on cardiovascular health was conducted among 35 non-smoking elderly participants living in Beijing in the winter of 2013, as part of Beijing Indoor Air Purifier StudY (BIAPSY). Portable air filtration units were randomly allocated to active filtration for 2 weeks and sham filtration for 2 weeks in the households. Twelve-hour daytime ambulatory heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure (ABP) were measured during active and sham filtration. Concurrently, real-time indoor and outdoor particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and indoor black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured. We applied generalized additive mixed models to evaluate the associations of 1- to 10-h moving average (MA) exposures of indoor PM2.5 and BC with HRV and ABP indices, and to explore whether these associations could be modified by air filtration. RESULTS: We observed decreases of 34.8% in indoor PM2.5 and 35.3% in indoor BC concentrations during active filtration. Indoor PM2.5 and BC exposures were significantly associated with reduced HRV and increased ABP indices, and greater changes were observed during sham filtration. In specific, each 10 µg/m3 increase in indoor PM2.5 at MA8-h was associated with a significant reduction of 1.34% (95% CI: -2.42, -0.26) in SDNN during sham filtration, compared with a non-significant reduction of 0.81% (95% CI: -6.00, 4.68) during active filtration (Pinter< 0.001). Each 1 µg/m3 increase in indoor BC at MA8-h was associated with a significant increase of 2.41% (95% CI: 0.38, 4.47) in SBP during sham filtration, compared with a non-significant increase of -1.09% (95% CI: -4.06, 1.96) during active filtration (Pinter = 0.135). Nonlinear inverse exposure-response relationships of indoor air pollution exposures with predicted HRV and ABP indices also confirmed some cardiovascular benefits of short-term air filtration intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that short-term indoor air filtration intervention can be of some cardiovascular benefits in elderly living with high pollution episodes.

19.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 435-442, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that children who are exposed to agricultural pesticides have an increased risk of asthma, but evidence for associations betweeen residential pesticide exposure and childhood asthma is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations of residential pesticide exposure with the prevalence of asthma and related symptoms within a Dutch birth cohort study. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, we included participants of the PIAMA birth cohort study with data on residential pesticide exposure and asthma from parent-completed questionnaires at age 14, collected in 2012 (N = 1473). We used spatial data on the presence of individual crops (cereals, open field vegetables, commercial crops, open field floriculture/bulbs, corn and potatoes) and pesticide application on these crops to estimate residential exposure to pesticides with known irritant properties for the respiratory system within distances of 100, 500, and 1000 m of the participants' homes. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between exposure and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: No associations were found between living within 100, 500 and 1000 m of agricultural fields likely treated with pesticides and symptoms of asthma. For instance, for participants living within 100 m of fields with any crops likely treated with pesticides, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the prevalence of asthma, shortness of breath and dry night cough at age 14 were 0.31 (0.07, 1.32), 0.61 (0.23, 1.57) and 1.26 (0.56, 2.80), respectively. No associations were found between estimated exposure to pesticides with known irritant properties for the respiratory system and asthma or related symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between living near agricultural fields likely treated with pesticides and asthma and related respiratory symptoms, among our study participants.

20.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139777

RESUMO

Evidence for the effects of air pollution exposure on lung function growth into adolescence is scarce. We investigated associations of air pollution exposure with lung function and lung function growth until age 16.We conducted both longitudinal (n=915) and cross-sectional (n=721) analyses of associations of air pollution exposure with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) growth from ages eight to 16 and FEV1 and FVC at age 16. We estimated residential concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), "soot" and particulate matter (PMx, where x is the 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter in µm) with diameters of <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10) and 2.5-10 µm (PMcoarse) during the preschool, primary school and secondary school time windows by land use regression models. Associations with (growth in) FEV1 and FVC were analysed by linear (mixed effects) regression.Higher air pollution exposure was associated with reduced FEV1 growth (e.g. adjusted difference -0.26% (95% CI -0.49 to -0.03%) per interquartile range increase in secondary school PM2.5) and lower FEV1 (adjusted difference -2.36% (95% CI -3.76 to -0.94%)), but was not adversely associated with FVC. Associations with FEV1 were stronger in boys than girls and were not modified by asthma status.Higher air pollution exposure may lead to increased airway obstruction, but not reduced lung volume in adolescence.

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