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1.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579352

RESUMO

Depending on the synthesis route, the oxygen ion electrolyte Sr2ScGaO5 shows two polymorphs, a brownmillerite and a cubic perovskite framework. In order to better explore oxygen diffusion pathways and mechanisms, we report here on a multitechnical approach to characterize local structural changes for Sr2ScGaO5 polymorphs as a function of temperature, using a neutron pair distribution function (PDF) analysis together with an extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. While for the brownmillerite type structure PDF and Rietveld refinements yield identical structural descriptions, considerable differences are found for the cubic oxygen-deficient polymorph. On a local scale a brownmillerite type vacancy structure could be evidenced for the cubic phase, suggesting a complex short-range ordering and respective microstructure. Both PDF and EXAFS data confirm an octahedral and tetrahedral coordination for Sc and Ga, respectively, at a local scale for both polymorphs. Related changes in the bond distances and oxygen vacancy ordering are discussed.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 57(2): 879-891, 2018 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280608

RESUMO

The structure evolution in the CeO2-Sm2O3 system is revisited by combining high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction with pair distribution function (PDF) to inquire about local, mesoscopic, and average structure. The CeO2 fluorite structure undergoes two phase transformations by Sm doping, first to a cubic (C-type) and then to a monoclinic (B-type) phase. Whereas the C to B-phase separation occurs completely and on a long-range scale, no miscibility gap is detected between fluorite and C-type phases. The transformation rather occurs by growth of C-type nanodomains embedded in the fluorite matrix, without any long-range phase separation. A side effect of this mechanism is the ordering of the oxygen vacancies, which is detrimental for the application of doped ceria as an electrolyte in fuel cells. The results are discussed in the framework of other Y and Gd dopants, and the relationship between nanostructuring and the above equilibria is also investigated.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 116(19): 197204, 2016 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27232042

RESUMO

We present a temperature-dependent atomic and magnetic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering measurements of antiferromagnetic MnO, an archetypal strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. The known antiferromagnetic ground-state structure fits the low-temperature data closely with refined parameters that agree with conventional techniques, confirming the reliability of the newly developed magnetic PDF method. The measurements performed in the paramagnetic phase reveal significant short-range magnetic correlations on a ∼1 nm length scale that differ substantially from the low-temperature long-range spin arrangement. Ab initio calculations using a self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation of density functional theory predict magnetic interactions dominated by Anderson superexchange and reproduce the measured short-range magnetic correlations to a high degree of accuracy. Further calculations simulating an additional contribution from a direct exchange interaction show much worse agreement with the data. The Anderson superexchange model for MnO is thus verified by experimentation and confirmed by ab initio theory.

4.
IUCrJ ; 2(Pt 5): 490-7, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26306191

RESUMO

The crystal structures of eight mono-methyl alkanes have been determined from single-crystal or high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. Mono-methyl alkanes can be found on the cuticles of insects and are believed to act as recognition pheromones in some social species, e.g. ants, wasps etc. The molecules were synthesized as pure S enantiomers and are (S)-9-methylpentacosane, C26H54; (S)-9-methylheptacosane and (S)-11-methylheptacosane, C28H58; (S)-7-methylnonacosane, (S)-9-methylnonacosane, (S)-11-methylnonacosane and (S)-13-methylnonacosane, C30H62; and (S)-9-methylhentriacontane, C32H66. All crystallize in space group P21. Depending on the position of the methyl group on the carbon chain, two packing schemes are observed, in which the molecules pack together hexagonally as linear rods with terminal and side methyl groups clustering to form distinct motifs. Carbon-chain torsion angles deviate by less than 10° from the fully extended conformation, but with one packing form showing greater curvature than the other near the position of the methyl side group. The crystal structures are optimized by dispersion-corrected DFT calculations, because of the difficulties in refining accurate structural parameters from powder diffraction data from relatively poorly crystalline materials.

5.
IUCrJ ; 2(Pt 5): 511-22, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26306193

RESUMO

A new hierarchical approach is presented for elucidating the structural disorder in Ce1-x Gd x O2-x/2 solid solutions on different scale lengths. The primary goal of this investigation is to shed light on the relations between the short-range and the average structure of these materials via an analysis of disorder on the mesocopic scale. Real-space (pair distribution function) and reciprocal-space (Rietveld refinement and microstructure probing) analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data and electron spin resonance (ESR) investigations were carried out following this approach. On the local scale, Gd- and Ce-rich droplets (i.e. small regions a few ångströms wide) form, exhibiting either a distorted fluorite (CeO2) or a C-type (Gd2O3) structure in the whole compositional range. These droplets can then form C-type nanodomains which, for Gd concentrations x Gd ≤ 0.25, are embedded in the fluorite matrix. At the site percolation threshold p C for a cubic lattice (x Gd = p C ≃ 0.311), C-type nanodomains percolate inside each crystallite and a structural phase transformation is observed. When this occurs, the peak-to-peak ESR line width ΔH pp shows a step-like behaviour, which can be associated with the increase in Gd-Gd dipolar interactions. A general crystallographic rationale is presented to explain the fluorite-to-C-type phase transformation. The approach shown here could be adopted more generally in the analysis of disorder in other highly doped materials.

6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(29): 12139-46, 2013 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23674125

RESUMO

LiH is a highly stable light metal hydride with a hydrogen capacity of 12.5 wt%. However, having a dehydrogenation enthalpy, ΔH(dehy), of 181.2 kJ mol(-1)(H2) and a resultant T(1 bar) of 944 °C, it is not a practical hydride for most hydrogen storage applications. In the work presented here, germanium has been found to dramatically reduce the dehydrogenation temperature for LiH down to just 270 °C. The enthalpy of dehydrogenation was reduced through the formation of lithium germanides. The reaction pathway was identified in this study using in situ powder neutron diffraction, showing the successive formation of more Li-rich germanides, following the series: LiGe, Li4Ge2H, Li9Ge4, and Li7Ge2. The enthalpy of formation for these germanides provides the thermodynamic tuning to reduce the ΔH(dehy) for the system. The 3LiH-Ge system investigated is found to be reversible with a maximum capacity of 3.0 ± 0.1 wt%.

7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(22): 8495-505, 2013 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23403753

RESUMO

Doped ceria materials are widely studied for their application in solid oxide fuel cell devices. In this work we report on the average and local structure evolution of La-doped ceria (Ce(1-x)La(x)O(2-x/2), x = 0.25) under fuel cells' operating conditions. The effect of doping on the average structure is investigated using conventional Rietveld analysis of neutron powder diffraction data. The extent of disorder as well as the local structure evolution at high temperature are investigated by employing very hard X-rays under both air and reducing atmosphere.

9.
Langmuir ; 28(22): 8511-7, 2012 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22568745

RESUMO

The inclusion properties of a calixarene-based porous material have been studied to investigate the adsorption and the desorption of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and water in the zeolite-like structure. Uptake and release processes have been studied both by time-resolved powder X-ray diffraction and by thermogravimetric analysis to obtain structural and kinetic information. The selected guests are able to enter the structure with an increase in the host cell volume and with time-dependent diffusivity coefficients. Chloroform molecules act as a permanent porosity switch promoting a phase transition to non-porous triclinic form.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(1): 311-7, 2012 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22083106

RESUMO

The adsorption properties of a new nanoporous organic zeolite with respect to acetylene and Ar were studied by volumetric adsorption analysis, microcalorimetric experiments, and synchrotron high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction. This allowed us to locate the guest molecules inside the host channels and characterize the host-guest interactions.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 50(3): 1116-22, 2011 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21190329

RESUMO

Magnesium imide (MgNH) was produced by monitoring the decomposition process of magnesium amide with in situ neutron diffraction. Significant changes in the structure of magnesium amide are detected during heat treatment and eventually result in the formation of crystalline MgNH. A model for the crystal structure of magnesium imide (MgNH) is presented for the first time. Remarkably, magnesium imide offers unique structural features similar to the cyclosilicate class and can be described as a porous solid formed by a sequence of linked chains of face sharing Mg(6)N(6) hexagonal prism clusters.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 132(6): 2064-8, 2010 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20102192

RESUMO

We report here on the preparation and characterization of a fullerenium salt in the solid state, where the fullerene is in the 2+ oxidized state. To succeed in this long-standing challenge, we exploit the oxidizing power of one of the strongest Lewis acids, AsF(5). The weak nucleophilic character of its conjugate base is essential in stabilizing the fullerene dication in a crystal lattice. High-resolution structural analysis of this compound, with the formula C(60)(AsF(6))(2), indicates that the highly reactive C(60)(2+) units are arranged according to a novel 1D "zigzag" polymer structure. The molecules are connected by an alternating sequence of four-membered carbon rings ([2 + 2] cycloaddition) and single C-C bonds. The long awaited high-T(c) superconductivity and magnetism, expected in a hole-doped C(60) compound, are replaced instead by a semiconducting behavior, quite probably originating from the reduced crystal and molecular symmetry upon polymerization. The small value of the energy gap (approximately 70 meV) suggests, nevertheless, the proximity of a metallic phase.

15.
Acta Crystallogr B ; 65(Pt 6): 724-30, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19923701

RESUMO

The (S)-4-alkoxo-2-azetidinecarboxylic acids are optically active beta-lactam derivatives of aspartic acid, which are used as precursors of carbapenem-type antibiotics and poly-beta-aspartates. The crystal structures of three (S)-4-alkoxo-2-azetidinecarboxylic acids with alkyl chains with 10, 12 and 16 C atoms were solved using parallel tempering and refined against the X-ray powder diffraction data using the Rietveld method. The azetidinone rings in the three compounds display a pattern of asymmetrical bond distances and an almost planar conformation; these characteristics are compared with periodic solid-state, gas-phase density-functional theory (DFT) calculations and MOGUL average bond distances and angles from the CSD. The compounds pack along [001] as corrugated sheets separated by approximately 4.40 A and connected by hydrogen bonds of the type N-H...O.

16.
Acta Crystallogr B ; 65(Pt 5): 639-46, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19767686

RESUMO

The molecular and crystalline structure of ethyl 1',2',3',4',4a',5',6',7'-octahydrodispiro[cyclohexane-1,2'-quinazoline-4',1''-cyclohexane]-8'-carbodithioate (I) was solved and refined from powder synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. The initial model for the structural solution in direct space using the simulated annealing algorithm implemented in DASH [David et al. (2006). J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 910-915] was obtained performing a conformational study on the fused six-membered rings of the octahydroquinazoline system and the two spiran cyclohexane rings of (I). The best model was chosen using experimental evidence from 1H and 13C NMR [Contreras et al. (2001). J. Heterocycl. Chem. 38, 1223-1225] in combination with semi-empirical AM1 calculations. In the refined structure the two spiran rings have the chair conformation, while both of the fused rings in the octahydroquinazoline system have half-chair conformations compared with in-vacuum density-functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/6-311G*, DFTB (density-functional tight-binding) theoretical calculations in the solid state and other related structures from X-ray diffraction data. Compound (I) presents weak intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the type N-H...S and C-H...S, which produce delocalization of the electron density in the generated rings described by graph symbols S(6) and S(5). Packing of the molecules is dominated by van der Waals interactions.


Assuntos
Cicloexanos/química , Quinazolinas/química , Compostos de Espiro/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Eletroquímica , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Ligantes , Conformação Molecular , Difração de Pó , Síncrotrons
17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 131(37): 13230-1, 2009 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19722490

RESUMO

The structure of Se particles in the approximately 13 A diameter alpha-cages of zeolite NdY has been determined by Rietveld refinement and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of X-ray data. With the diffuse scattering subtracted an average structure comprised of an undistorted framework containing nanoclusters of 20 Se atoms is observed. The intracluster correlations and the cluster-framework correlations which give rise to diffuse scattering were modeled by using PDF analysis.

18.
Acta Crystallogr C ; 65(Pt 6): o278-80, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19498236

RESUMO

The title compound, C(10)H(18), a decalin stereoisomer, crystallizes with Z' = 0.5 in the space group P2(1)/n. The trans-decalin molecule is located on an inversion centre with both rings in a chair conformation, making for a quasi-flat overall shape. Despite the absence of hydrogen bonds, it crystallizes easily. In this work the unknown crystal structure of trans-decalin has been solved and refined using X-ray powder diffraction data.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 131(11): 3884-93, 2009 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19253941

RESUMO

We have applied a combination of spectroscopic and diffraction methods to study the adduct formed between squaric acid and bypridine, which has been postulated to exhibit proton transfer associated with a single-crystal to single-crystal phase transition at ca. 450 K. A combination of X-ray single-crystal and very-high flux powder neutron diffraction data confirmed that a proton does transfer from the acid to the base in the high-temperature form. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrated that the transition was reversible but that a significant kinetic energy barrier must be overcome to revert to the original structure. Computational modeling is consistent with these results. Modeling also revealed that, while the proton transfer event would be strongly discouraged in the gas phase, it occurs in the solid state due to the increase in charge state of the molecular ions and their arrangement inside the lattice. The color change is attributed to a narrowing of the squaric acid to bipyridine charge-transfer energy gap. Finally, evidence for the possible existence of two further phases at high pressure is also presented.


Assuntos
Ciclobutanos/química , Piridinas/química , Pressão , Prótons , Temperatura
20.
Acta Crystallogr B ; 65(Pt 2): 189-99, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19299875

RESUMO

The crystal structure of the nanocrystalline alpha phase of Pigment Yellow 213 (P.Y. 213) was solved by a combination of single-crystal electron diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction, despite the poor crystallinity of the material. The molecules form an efficient dense packing, which explains the observed insolubility and weather fastness of the pigment. The pair-distribution function (PDF) of the alpha phase is consistent with the determined crystal structure. The beta phase of P.Y. 213 shows even lower crystal quality, so extracting any structural information directly from the diffraction data is not possible. PDF analysis indicates the beta phase to have a columnar structure with a similar local structure as the alpha phase and a domain size in column direction of approximately 4 nm.


Assuntos
Compostos Aza/química , Corantes/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/química , Compostos Aza/síntese química , Corantes/síntese química , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/síntese química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Difração de Pó
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