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1.
Front Oncol ; 12: 838114, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574369

RESUMO

Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is one of the most frequent subtypes of soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs). Metastatic spread to the heart in cancer patients carries a poor prognosis and there is no known effective treatment. Cardiac metastases of STSs are very rare. Here we present the case of a 55-year-old patient who underwent surgical resection of a retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma and then developed widespread metastatic disease, treated with a combination of local treatment and systemic therapy. Three years after surgical resection she presented with a cardiac intraventricular mass, which was treated with radiation therapy, while receiving systemic therapy with trabectedin. Such combination therapy was well-tolerated and effective, allowing a substantial dimensional reduction which is perduring to date, 18 months after diagnosis of cardiac metastasis. Available literature and data point to the feasibility and good tolerability of radiation therapy and trabectedin in metastatic sarcoma, yet this is the first report on the effectiveness of the combination for the treatment of cardiac disease. The extended survival since a metastatic relapse (more than 3 years) is likely the result of integrated systemic and loco-regional treatment, which should be always discussed within the framework of a multiprofessional and multidisciplinary setting.

2.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 16: 353-362, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35173420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The SARS-CoV-2 spread has impacted Healthcare systems. COVID-19 pandemic has had consequences for patients with cancer, being associated with delays in diagnosis, in treatment And follow-up care, increase in overall infection rates and higher mortality. A survey on COVID-19 and a vaccination-questionnaire were developed at different times of the outbreak, to evaluate cancer patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) on the policies implemented to reduce the infection from SARS-CoV-2 and on the timing and methods of COVID-19 vaccination. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The survey was distributed to all patients accessing the Institute during the "first-wave" Of the pandemic, evaluating patients' concerns about the pandemic, the pandemics' consequences on their cancer care, and their perception Of the measures adopted to limit the infection spread. The vaccination-questionnaire was proposed to 10% of the first 5297 cancer patients vaccinated with two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTechCOVID-19 vaccine. This questionnaire aimed at assessing the degree Of satisfaction with the Institutional vaccination campaign and vaccination-related adverse events. RESULTS: From May 18th 2020 to June 15th 2020 the survey was completed by 3238 patients. Most of the responders expressed concern on the pandemic yet acknowledging their oncological disease as a priority. Measures implemented were appreciated by patients. Telemedicine was positively evaluated and the absence of the caregiver during the visit did not determine discomfort for two thirds of patients. From March 6th 2021 to May 8th 2021 the vaccination-questionnaire was completed by 357 patients. The 98.8% were satisfied with the vaccination campaign. No serious vaccination-correlated adverse events were reported. No patient had to delay/discontinue chemotherapy due to vaccination. CONCLUSION: PREMs during COVID-19 pandemic and related vaccination can provide important information to help reorganization of the health care systems for cancer care. Patients' feedback on the organizational changes implemented in the emergency period are essential for healthcare improvement and to help informed choices that are consistent with patients' needs.

3.
Cancer ; 128(1): 85-93, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is not completely understood. This study investigated the benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to prognostic stratification based on the Sarculator nomogram for STS. METHODS: This study analyzed data from ISG-STS 1001, a randomized study that tested 3 cycles of neoadjuvant anthracycline plus ifosfamide (AI) or histology-tailored (HT) chemotherapy in adult patients with STS. The 10-year predicted overall survival (pr-OS) was estimated with the Sarculator and was stratified into higher (10-year pr-OS < 60%) and lower risk subgroups (10-year pr-OS ≥ 60%). RESULTS: The median pr-OS was 0.63 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.51-0.72) for the entire study population, 0.62 (IQR, 0.51-0.70) for the AI arm, and 0.64 (IQR, 0.51-0.73) for the HT arm. Three- and 5-year overall survival (OS) were 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.93) and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.71-0.86) in lower risk patients and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.70-0.85) and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.51-0.72) in the higher risk patients (log-rank test, P = .004). In higher risk patients, the 3- and 5-year Sarculator-predicted and study-observed OS rates were 0.68 and 0.58, respectively, and 0.85 and 0.66, respectively, in the AI arm (P = .04); the corresponding figures in the HT arm were 0.69 and 0.60, respectively, and 0.69 and 0.55, respectively (P > .99). In lower risk patients, the 3- and 5-year Sarculator-predicted and study-observed OS rates were 0.85 and 0.80, respectively, and 0.89 and 0.82, respectively, in the AI arm (P = .507); the corresponding figures in the HT arm were 0.87 and 0.81, respectively, and 0.86 and 0.74, respectively (P = .105). CONCLUSIONS: High-risk patients treated with AI performed better than predicted, and this adds to the evidence for the efficacy of neoadjuvant AI in STS. LAY SUMMARY: People affected by soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities and trunk wall are at some risk of developing metastasis after surgery. Preoperative or postoperative chemotherapy has been tested in clinical trials to reduce the chances of distant metastasis. However, study findings have not been conclusive. This study stratified the risk of metastasis for people affected by sarcomas who were included in a clinical trial testing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Exploiting the prognostic nomogram Sarculator, it found a benefit for chemotherapy when the predicted risk, based on patient and tumor characteristics, was high.


Assuntos
Sarcoma , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Humanos , Ifosfamida , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Medição de Risco , Sarcoma/patologia
4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 28(8): 1672-1679, 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615721

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effect of high-dose imatinib (800 mg/day) on survival in the adjuvant treatment of patients with resected KIT exon 9-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is not established. Here, the association of dose and other clinicopathologic variables with survival was evaluated in a large multi-institutional European cohort. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Data from 185 patients were retrospectively collected in 23 European GIST reference centers. Propensity score matching (PSM) and inverse-probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) were used to account for confounders. Univariate and multivariate unweighted and weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were estimated for relapse-free survival (RFS), modified-RFS (mRFS) and imatinib failure-free survival (IFFS). Univariate Cox models were estimated for overall survival. RESULTS: Of the 185 patients, 131 (70.8%) received a starting dose of 400 mg/d and the remaining 54 (29.2%) a dose of 800 mg/d. Baseline characteristics were partially unbalanced, suggesting a potential selection bias. PSM and IPTW analyses showed no advantage of imatinib 800 mg/d. In the weighted multivariate Cox models, high-dose imatinib was not associated with the survival outcomes [RFS: hazard ratio (HR), 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-1.94; mRFS: HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 0.92-3.10; IFFS: HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.79-2.28]. The variables consistently associated with worse survival outcomes were high mitotic index and nongastric tumor location. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective series of patients with KIT exon 9-mutated GIST treated with adjuvant imatinib, a daily dose of 800 mg versus 400 mg did not show better results in terms of survival outcomes. Prospective evaluation of the more appropriate adjuvant treatment in this setting is warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Éxons/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Front Surg ; 8: 773313, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859042

RESUMO

A 54-year-old lady was referred to our institute because of a massive thoracic neoplasm arising from the thoracic wall which infiltrated and dislocated the left breast. Twenty years before, the patient had undergone a quadrantectomy with axillary dissection for an infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the left breast, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A true-cut biopsy of the mass showed a low differentiated malignant neoplasm with spindle-shaped cells. The patient underwent a total-body CT scan which showed a 16 × 15 × 10 cm largely necrotic mass with irregular and undefined margins, with little homolateral round-shaped cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes but no distant metastases. After a multidisciplinary discussion, we proposed surgery as the first therapeutic option. The planned treatment was a wide excision of the mass with the underlying ribs (II-VI) followed by the reconstruction of the thoracic wall using titanium bars covered by the acellular porcine dermis, latissimus dorsi flap, and finally, skin grafts from the thighs.

6.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 20(12): 2539-2552, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552008

RESUMO

MRP-1 is implicated in multidrug resistance and was described as prognostic in high-risk patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) in a previous study. The current research aimed to validate MRP-1 prognostic/predictive value in localized sarcomas treated with anthracyclines plus ifosfamide within the ISG-1001 phase III study. In addition, the inhibitory activity on MRP-1 was investigated in preclinical studies to identify new combinations able to increase the efficacy of standard chemotherapy in STS. MRP-1 expression was assessed by IHC in tissue microarrays from patients with STS and tested for correlation with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In vitro studies tested the efficacy of MRP-1 inhibitors (nilotinib, ripretinib, selumetinib, and avapritinib) in sarcoma cell lines. The effect of combinations of the most active MRP-1 inhibitors and chemotherapy was measured on the basis of apoptosis. MRP-1 was evaluable in 231 of 264 cases who entered the study. MRP-1 expression (strong intensity) was independently associated with worse DFS [HR, 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.83; P = 0.016], in the multivariate analysis, with a trend for a worse OS (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 0.97-3.25; P = 0.062). In vitro studies showed that the addition of MRP-1 inhibitors (nilotinib or avapritinib) to doxorubicin plus palifosfamide, significantly increased cell death in SK-UT-1 and CP0024 cell lines. MRP-1 is an adverse predictive factor in localized high-risk patients with STS treated with neoadjuvant anthracyclines plus ifosfamide followed by surgery. In vitro findings support the clinical assessment of the combination of chemotherapy and MRP-1 inhibitors as a promising strategy to overcome the drug ceiling effect for chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/uso terapêutico , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , /métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/farmacologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
7.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 471-477, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: In oncology, the dosage of anti-neoplastic drugs is generally adapted to the patient's body surface area (BSA). We investigated the potential differences between BSA and body weight (BW) in estimating the variability in body composition among individuals, especially older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included 322 community-dwelling individuals with different age and sex: 45 adult men (AM, age 18-65 years), 86 older men (OM, age >65 years), 54 adult women (AW, age 18-65 years), and 137 older women (OW, age >65 years). For each participant, we estimated the body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and we calculated the BSA using the DuBois and DuBois formula. The strength of relationships between fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) with BSA, BW, and BMI were expressed as correlation (r) and determination coefficients (R2). RESULTS: Most of the included sample was normal weight (45.7%) or overweight (41.9%). FFM demonstrated a stronger association with BSA than with BW or BMI in all age/sex groups, with r ranging from 0.831 to 0.924 (p < 0.001 for all) and R2 from 0.691 to 0.853. Conversely, BW and BMI were more strongly related to FM than BSA, especially in women. For such relationship, BW, in particular, showed r ranging from 0.793 to 0.924 (p < 0.001 for all). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that BSA may be more appropriately used to estimate FFM, compared with BW. Instead, alternative parameters should be considered to estimate FM in patients at risk for adverse effects of lipophilic drugs, especially in older age.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Superfície Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801399

RESUMO

The Italian Sarcoma Group performed this retrospective analysis of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma, pretreated with ≥1 anthracycline-based treatment, and treated with trabectedin every three weeks. Primary endpoint was to describe real-life use of trabectedin across Italy. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) and safety. Overall, 512 patients from 20 Italian centers were evaluated. Leiomyosarcoma (37.7%)/liposarcoma (30.3%) were the most prevalent histological types (abbreviated as L-sarcoma). Patients received a median of four trabectedin cycles (range: 1-40), mostly as a second-line treatment (~60% of patients). The ORR was 13.7% superior (p < 0.0001) in patients with L-sarcoma compared with patients with non-L-sarcoma (16.6% vs. 9.0%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.1 months, whereas median overall survival (OS) was 21.6 months. Significantly better PFS and OS were observed in patients with L-sarcoma, those with objective responses and/or disease stabilization, treated in an early line and treated with reduced dose. Bone marrow toxicity (61.4%) and transaminase increases (21.9%) were the most common grade 3/4 adverse events. The results of this real-life study suggest that trabectedin is an active treatment, which is mostly given as a second-line treatment to patients with a good performance status and high-grade, metastatic L-sarcoma (clinical trial information: NCT02793050).

9.
Cancer Med ; 10(8): 2645-2659, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This observational, retrospective effort across Europe, US, Australia, and Asia aimed to assess the activity of systemic therapies in EHE, an ultra-rare sarcoma, marked by WWTR1-CAMTA1 or YAP1-TFE3 fusions. METHODS: Twenty sarcoma reference centres contributed data. Patients with advanced EHE diagnosed from 2000 onwards and treated with systemic therapies, were selected. Local pathologic review and molecular confirmation were required. Radiological response was retrospectively assessed by local investigators according to RECIST. Progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Overall, 73 patients were included; 21 had more than one treatment. Thirty-three patients received anthracyclines regimens, achieving 1 (3%) partial response (PR), 25 (76%) stable disease (SD), 7 (21%) progressive disease (PD). The median (m-) PFS and m-OS were 5.5 and 14.3 months respectively. Eleven patients received paclitaxel, achieving 1 (9%) PR, 6 (55%) SD, 4 (36%) PD. The m-PFS and m-OS were 2.9 and 18.6 months, respectively. Twelve patients received pazopanib, achieving 3 (25%) SD, 9 (75%) PD. The m-PFS and m-OS were.2.9 and 8.5 months, respectively. Fifteen patients received INF-α 2b, achieving 1 (7%) PR, 11 (73%) SD, 3 (20%) PD. The m-PFS and m-OS were 8.9 months and 64.3, respectively. Among 27 patients treated with other regimens, 1 PR (ifosfamide) and 9 SD (5 gemcitabine +docetaxel, 2 oral cyclophosphamide, 2 others) were reported. CONCLUSION: Systemic therapies available for advanced sarcomas have limited activity in EHE. The identification of new active compounds, especially for rapidly progressive cases, is acutely needed.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Hemangioendotelioma Epitelioide/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemangioendotelioma Epitelioide/patologia , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoma/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 12(2): 290-297, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is poor data on the prognostic role of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) in older patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with first line Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of mRCC patients older than 70 years treated at our Institute with first-line Sunitinib or Pazopanib for at least 6 months. Every patient received a CGA at baseline and was identified as fit, vulnerable or frail according to Balducci's Criteria. We then assessed the impact of CGA category on survival, disease control and tolerability of TKIs. RESULTS: We identified 86 eligible patients. Median age: 74.5 years, 56% males; 45.4% were fit, 37.2% vulnerable and 17.4% frail at CGA. There were no significant differences in the rate of Grade (G)1-2 and G3-4 toxicities, dose reduction rates, PFS and OS between Sunitinib and Pazopanib. Fit, vulnerable and frail patients achieved significantly different median PFS (18.9 vs 11.2 vs 5.1 months; p < 0.001) and OS (35.5 vs 14.6 vs 10.9 months; p < 0.001). Patients categorized as fit had higher chance of receiving a second-line treatment (66.6% vs 28.9% in vulnerable/frail; p = 0.002). The incidence of G3/4 events was significantly lower in the fit subgroup (19% vs 45% in vulnerable/frail; p = 0.0025). CONCLUSIONS: In our retrospective single-center experience, CGA could accurately discriminate patients with higher risk of experiencing G3/4 toxicities, shorter PFS, and lower chance of receiving a second line treatment. CGA strongly impacted on OS, independently from International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) classification.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Indazóis , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Prognóstico , Pirimidinas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cancer ; 127(4): 569-576, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to report on a retrospective series of patients with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) who received treatment with sirolimus within the Italian Rare Cancer Network. METHODS: From January 2005, 38 adult patients with advanced EHE received continuous-dosing sirolimus, 5 mg daily, until they developed either toxicity or disease progression. Disease progression in the 6 months before the start of treatment was required. Each pathologic diagnosis was reviewed. The daily dose of sirolimus was adjusted based on plasma levels. Response was retrospectively assessed by local investigators using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1 (RECIST). Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: All 38 patients (WW Domain Containing Transcription Regulator 1 [WWTR1]-positive, n = 37; transcription factor E3 [TFE3]-positive, n = 1) had disease progression before starting sirolimus (at baseline, 13 of 38 patients had the presence of serosal effusions and systemic symptoms). Thirty-seven patients were evaluable for response (there was 1 early interruption). The best RECIST responses were a partial response in 4 patients (10.8%), stable disease in 28 patients (75.7%), and disease progression in 5 patients (13.5%). At a 41.5-month median follow-up (interquartile range [IQR], 23.9-56.8 months), the median PFS was 13 months (95% CI, 3.7 months to not estimated [NE]), and the median OS was 18.8 months (95% CI, 10.6 months to NE). In patients who had serosal effusions at baseline, the median PFS was 4.8 months (IQR, 3.5-11.7 months), and the median OS was 10.6 months (IQR, 5.1-13.0 months), compared with 47.8 months (IQR, 11.4 months to NE) and 47.8 months (IQR, 15.7 months to NE), respectively, in patients without serosal effusions. Overall, sirolimus was fairly well tolerated, with 10 patients reporting irregular menstruation/ovary disfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The current results confirm that sirolimus is active in EHE, leading to prolonged stabilization in most patients who present without serosal effusions. Serosal effusions are confirmed as an unfavorable prognostic sign associated with short survival, and sirolimus displays limited activity in this subgroup.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Hemangioendotelioma Epitelioide/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hemangioendotelioma Epitelioide/epidemiologia , Hemangioendotelioma Epitelioide/genética , Hemangioendotelioma Epitelioide/patologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Sirolimo/efeitos adversos
12.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 21(5): e489-e496, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342749

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is a life-threatening disease, and although some data suggest a trend in survival improvement, it has not yet been unequivocally demonstrated. This study aimed to evaluate the overall survival (OS) of MBC patients, assessing its correlation with prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: COSMO (Checking Overall Survival in a MBC Observational study) is an Italian longitudinal retrospective multicenter study that enrolled patients with MBC diagnosed between 2000 and 2008. The primary objective was to detect a temporal difference in OS; the secondary objective was to identify prognostic factors as causal factors of the temporal variation in OS. RESULTS: A total of 3721 of 3930 patients from 31 centers were distributed in 3 periods: 886 (23.8%), 1302 (35.0%), and 1533 (41.2%) in 2000-2002, 2003-2005, and 2006-2008, respectively. With a median follow-up of 9.3 years, median OS was 2.8 years (95% confidence interval, 2.6-2.9). No difference in OS was found in the 3 cohorts (P for trend = .563). The worst prognosis was observed for patients with triple-negative MBC (OS, 1.5 years) and for those with central nervous system metastases (1.7 years); the best prognosis was observed in those with bone metastases or nonvisceral disease (3.4 and 3.2 years, respectively) and in patients with a disease-free interval, defined as the time between resection of the primary malignancy and diagnosis of MBC, of > 2 years (3 years). CONCLUSIONS: The COSMO study found improvement in OS between 2000 and 2008. Molecular subtype remained the strongest prognostic factor, and the role of other prognostic factors was confirmed, in particular disease-free interval, site of metastasis, and age.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/mortalidade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Front Oncol ; 11: 778461, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SDH-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) account for 20-40% of all KIT/PDGFRA-negative GIST and are due to mutations in one of the four SDH-complex subunits, with SDHA mutations as the most frequent. Here we sought to evaluate the presence and prevalence of SDHA variants in the germline lineage in a population of SDHA-deficient GIST. METHODS: Germline SDHA status was assessed by Sanger sequencing on a series of 14 patients with gastric SDHA-deficient GIST. RESULTS: All patients carried a germline SDHA pathogenic variant, ranging from truncating, missense, or splicing variants. The second hit was the loss of the wild-type allele or an additional somatic mutation. One-third of the patients were over 50 years old. GIST was the only disease presentation in all cases except one, with no personal or familial cancer history. Seven metastatic cases received a multimodal treatment integrating surgery, loco-regional and medical therapy. The mean follow-up time was of 10 years, confirming the indolent clinical course of the disease. CONCLUSION: SDHA germline variants are highly frequent in SDHA-deficient GIST, and the disease may occur also in older adulthood. Genetic testing and surveillance of SDHA-mutation carriers and relatives should be performed.

14.
Cancer Med ; 9(24): 9193-9204, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219746

RESUMO

Since the COVID-19 outbreak started, it has been affecting mainly older individuals. Among the most vulnerable older individuals are those with cancer. Many published guidelines and consensus papers deal with prioritizing cancer care. Given the lack of high-quality evidence for management of cancer in older patients also in normal times, it is even more stringent to provide some resources on how to avoid both undertreatment and overtreatment in this population, who as of now is twice challenged to death, due to both a greater risk of getting infected with COVID-19 as well as from cancer not adequately addressed and treated. We hereby discuss some general recommendations (implement triage procedures; perform geriatric assessment; carefully assess comorbidity; promote early integration of palliative care in oncology; acknowledge the role of caregivers; maintain active take in charge to avoid feeling of abandonment; mandate seasonal flu vaccination) and discuss practical suggestions for specific disease settings (early-stage and advanced-stage disease for solid tumors, and hematological malignancies). The manuscript provides resources on how to avoid both undertreatment and overtreatment in older patients with cancer, who as of now is twice challenged to death, due to both a greater risk of getting infected with COVID-19 as well as from cancer not adequately addressed and treated.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Oncologia/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Cuidadores/normas , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Surtos de Doenças , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Oncologia/normas , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 83, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available regarding the use of nab-paclitaxel in older patients with breast cancer. A weekly schedule is recommended, but there is a paucity of evidence regarding the optimal dose. We evaluated the efficacy of two different doses of weekly nab-paclitaxel, with a specific focus on their corresponding impact on patient function, in order to address the lack of data specifically relating to the older population. METHODS: EFFECT is an open-label, phase II trial wherein 160 women with advanced breast cancer aged ≥ 65 years were enrolled from 15 institutions within Italy. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m2 (arm A) or 125 mg/m2 (arm B) on days 1, 8, and 15 on a 28-day cycle, as first-line treatment for advanced disease. The primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS), wherein an event was defined as disease progression (PD), functional decline (FD), or death. In each arm, the null hypothesis that the median EFS would be ≤ 7 months was tested against a one-sided alternative according to the Brookmeyer Crowley test. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 32.6 months, 140 events were observed in 158 evaluable patients. Median EFS was 8.2 months (90% CI, 5.9-8.9; p = 0.188) in arm A vs 8.3 months (90% CI, 6.2-9.7, p = 0.078) in arm B. Progression-free survival, overall survival, and response rates were similar in both groups. A higher percentage of dose reductions and discontinuations due to adverse events (AEs) was noted in arm B. The most frequently reported non-haematological AEs were fatigue (grade [G] 2-3 toxicity occurrence in arm A vs B, 43% and 51%, respectively) and peripheral neuropathy (G2-3 arm A vs B, 19% and 38%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Pre-specified outcomes were similar in both treatment arms. However, 100 mg/m2 was significantly better tolerated with fewer neurotoxicity-related events, representing a more feasible dose to be recommended for older patients with advanced disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT, 2012-002707-18 . Registered on June 4, 2012. NIH ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02783222 . Retrospectively registered on May 26, 2016.


Assuntos
Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminas/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 8(5): e00646, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813313

RESUMO

In previous studies, steady-state Z-endoxifen plasma concentrations (ENDOss) correlated with relapse-free survival in women on tamoxifen (TAM) treatment for breast cancer. ENDOss also correlated significantly with CYP2D6 genotype (activity score) and CYP2D6 phenotype (dextromethorphan test). Our aim was to ascertain which method for assessing CYP2D6 activity is more reliable in predicting ENDOss. The study concerned 203 Caucasian women on tamoxifen-adjuvant therapy (20 mg q.d.). Before starting treatment, CYP2D6 was genotyped (and activity scores computed), and the urinary log(dextromethorphan/dextrorphan) ratio [log(DM/DX)] was calculated after 15 mg of oral dextromethorphan. Plasma concentrations of TAM, N-desmethyl-tamoxifen (ND-TAM), Z-4OH-tamoxifen (4OH-TAM) and ENDO were assayed 1, 4, and 8 months after first administering TAM. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify the clinical and laboratory variables predicting log-transformed ENDOss (log-ENDOss). Genotype-derived CYP2D6 phenotypes (PM, IM, NM, EM) and log(DM/DX) correlated independently with log-ENDOss. Genotype-phenotype concordance was almost complete only for poor metabolizers, whereas it emerged that 34% of intermediate, normal, and ultrarapid metabolizers were classified differently based on log(DM/DX). Multivariable regression analysis selected log(DM/DX) as the best predictor, with patients' age, weak inhibitor use, and CYP2D6 phenotype decreasingly important: log-ENDOss = 0.162 - log(DM/DX) × 0.170 + age × 0.0063 - weak inhibitor use × 0.250 + IM × 0.105 + (NM + UM) × 0.210; (R2  = 0.51). In conclusion, log(DM/DX) seems superior to genotype-derived CYP2D6 phenotype in predicting ENDOss.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/metabolismo , Dextrometorfano/administração & dosagem , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/urina , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Dextrometorfano/sangue , Dextrometorfano/urina , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamoxifeno/análogos & derivados , Tamoxifeno/sangue , Tamoxifeno/farmacocinética , Tamoxifeno/urina
17.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 13: 1756284820927305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647535

RESUMO

Up to 13% of KIT and PDGFRA wild-type (WT) gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) harbour a BRAF mutation, mostly involving the exon 15 V600E hot spot. Even if BRAF mutation is recognized as druggable target in other solid tumours, currently advanced BRAF-mutant GIST share the same therapeutical algorithm of KIT/PDGFRA mutants. We report a complete radiological response in a 51-year-old woman with V600E BRAF-mutated metastatic GIST who was treated with regorafenib (REG) as first-line therapy. REG represents the standard third-line therapy for advanced GIST patients progressing on or failing to respond to imatinib and sunitinib. However, according to its wide spectrum of action, with MAPK signalling pathway blockade at different levels, metastatic KIT/PDGFRA WT, including BRAF mutants, may benefit from REG upfront in first line.

18.
Front Oncol ; 10: 828, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612944

RESUMO

Background: Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare subtype of STS, which usually arises in extremities. It carries reciprocal translocations involving the NR4A3 gene. It displays an indolent behavior, but studies with long follow-up showed a high proportion of local and distant recurrences. For patients with progressing metastatic disease anthracycline-based chemotherapy is the standard front-line regimen, though has limited activity. There is some evidence on possible activity of antiangiogenetics. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at Istituto Oncologico Veneto and at Institut Gustave Roussy. All patients with a confirmed diagnosis of EMC from January 1980 to December 2018 were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. Results: 59 patients were identified, 37 male (62.7%) and 22 female (37.3%) with a M/F ratio of 1.7/1. We performed molecular analysis in 23 cases, all carried a EWSR1-NR4A3. Out of 49 patients treated with curative intent, 28.6% developed local recurrence and 40.8% patients developed metastases. In patients who had been radically resected (R0) local recurrence occurred in 7.6% of cases and metastases occurred in 15.4% of cases; in patients treated with R1 surgery, rates of relapse were higher. Twenty patients received chemotherapy for metastatic disease; best response was partial response with clinical benefit in 50% of patients. Fourteen patients received a second line of chemotherapy, with 46.1% disease control rate. A drug holiday was proposed to 8 patients with a mean duration of 22.8 months. Median overall survival was 180 months for the study population and 76 months for metastatic patients. No significant prognostic role was found for all studied variables, yet a trend of better survival for complete surgery, location in extremities of primary tumor and solitary lung metastases was observed. Chemotherapy for metastatic disease was negatively associated with survival. Conclusion: In this large retrospective cohort of patients with ECM, location of primary tumor and solitary lung metastases seem to be associated with better survival. Chemotherapy did not impact survival in unselected patients. Further research is necessary in order to identify more active regimens and to provide clinical and molecular factors to select patients that could delay systemic treatment for metastatic disease.

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