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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498765

RESUMO

Only a small fraction of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) cases are caused by germline variants in the high-penetrance breast cancer 1 and 2 genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2). BRCA1-associated ring domain 1 (BARD1), nuclear partner of BRCA1, has been suggested as a potential HBOC risk gene, although its prevalence and penetrance are variable according to populations and type of tumor. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of BARD1 truncating variants in a cohort of patients with clinical suspicion of HBOC. A comprehensive BARD1 screening by multigene panel analysis was performed in 4015 unrelated patients according to our regional guidelines for genetic testing in hereditary cancer. In addition, 51,202 Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) non-Finnish, non-cancer European individuals were used as a control population. In our patient cohort, we identified 19 patients with heterozygous BARD1 truncating variants (0.47%), whereas the frequency observed in the gnomAD controls was 0.12%. We found a statistically significant association of truncating BARD1 variants with overall risk (odds ratio (OR) = 3.78; CI = 2.10-6.48; p = 1.16 × 10-5). This association remained significant in the hereditary breast cancer (HBC) group (OR = 4.18; CI = 2.10-7.70; p = 5.45 × 10-5). Furthermore, deleterious BARD1 variants were enriched among triple-negative BC patients (OR = 5.40; CI = 1.77-18.15; p = 0.001) compared to other BC subtypes. Our results support the role of BARD1 as a moderate penetrance BC predisposing gene and highlight a stronger association with triple-negative tumors.

2.
Maturitas ; 144: 11-15, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358202

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is currently one of the most common gynecological cancers. Reported incidence rates vary in Spain depending on the region. We estimated what the incidence and mortality of endometrial cancers in Catalonia will be by 2030 and compared the predictions with data from 2010. Bayesian autoregressive age-period-cohort models were employed to predict incidence and mortality rates for 2015-2030. The incidence of endometrial cancer for women younger than 65 years was predicted to be lower in 2030 than in 2010, whereas it was predicted to be higher for women aged 65-74 years. Moreover, mortality rates for women aged ≥65 in 2030 are likely to exceed the rates in 2010. Five-year relative survival for all ages was slightly higher in the period 2005-2009 (79.3 %, 95 %CI: 75.8 %-82.9 %) compared with those in 1995-1999 (76.0 %, 95 %CI: 72.1 %-80.2 %). This plausible new scenario might be useful to plan new clinical and preventive strategies in the near future.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185660

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common inherited colorectal and endometrial cancer syndrome, caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. It is also characterized by an increased risk of other tumours with lower prevalence, such as adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC), an endocrine tumour with an incidence of < two cases/million individuals/year. Most ACC developed during childhood are associated with hereditary syndromes. In adults this association is not as well established as in children. Previous studies showed a 3.2% prevalence of LS among patients with ACC. EVIDENCE ADQUISITION: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of ACC in a Spanish LS cohort and their molecular and histological characteristics. This retrospective study includes 634 patients from 220 LS families registered between 1999 and 2018. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: During the follow-up three patients were diagnosed with ACC (0.47%), all were carriers of a MSH2 germline mutation. The three ACC patients presented loss of expression of MSH2 and MSH6 proteins. One tumour analysis showed loss of heterozygosity of the MSH2 wildtype allele. Our findings support previous data which considered ACC as a LS spectrum tumour. CONCLUSION: MMR protein immunohistochemistry screening could be an efficient strategy to detect LS in patients with ACC.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopy reduces colorectal (CRC) incidence and mortality in Lynch syndrome (LS) carriers. However, a high incidence of post-colonoscopy CRC (PCCRC) has been reported. Colonoscopy is highly dependent on operator skill and subject to quality variability. We aimed to evaluate the impact of key colonoscopy quality indicators on adenoma detection and prevention of PCCRC in LS. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter study focused on LS carriers without previous colorectal cancer undergoing colonoscopy surveillance (n=893). Incident colorectal neoplasia during surveillance and quality indicators of all colonoscopies were analyzed. We performed an emulated target trial comparing the results from first and second surveillance colonoscopies to assess the effect of colonoscopy quality indicators on adenoma detection and PCCRC incidence. Risk analyses were conducted using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative incidence of adenoma and PCCRC was 60.6% (95%CI;55.5-65.2%) and 7.9% (95%CI:5.2-10.6%), respectively. Adequate bowel preparation (OR=2.07; 95%CI:1.06- 4.3) complete colonoscopies (20% vs. 0%; p=.01), and pan-chromoendoscopy use (OR=2.14; 95%CI:1.15-3.95) were associated with significant improvement in adenoma detection). PCCRC risk was significantly lower when colonoscopies were performed in a time interval of less than 3-year (OR=0.35; 95%CI: 0.14-0.97). We observed a consistent but not significant reduction in PCCRC risk for previous complete examination (OR=0.16; 95%CI: 0.03-1.28); adequate bowel preparation (OR=0.64; 95%CI:0.17-3.24) or previous use of high-definition colonoscopy (OR=0.37; 95%CI:0.02-2.33). CONCLUSIONS: Complete colonoscopies with adequate bowel preparation and chromoendoscopy use are associated with improved adenoma detection, while surveillance intervals less than 3 years are associated with reduction of PCCRC incidence. In Lynch syndrome, high-quality colonoscopy surveillance is of utmost importance for CRC prevention.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) are the most common types of cancer in Lynch syndrome (LS). Risk reducing surgeries (RRS) might impact cancer incidence and mortality. Our objectives were to evaluate cumulative incidences of CRC, gynecological cancer and all-cause mortality after RRS in LS individuals. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 976 LS carriers from a single-institution registry. Primary endpoints were cumulative incidence at 75 years of cancer (metachronous CRC in 425 individuals; EC and ovarian cancer (OC) in 531 individuals) and all-cause mortality cumulative incidence, comparing extended (ES) vs. segmental surgery (SS) in the CRC cohort and risk reducing gynecological surgery (RRGS) vs. surveillance in the gynecological cohort. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence at 75 years of metachronous CRC was 12.5% vs. 44.7% (p = 0.04) and all-cause mortality cumulative incidence was 38.6% vs. 55.3% (p = 0.31), for ES and SS, respectively. Cumulative, incidence at 75 years was 11.2% vs. 46.3% for EC (p = 0.001) and 0% vs. 12.7% for OC (p N/A) and all-cause mortality cumulative incidence was 0% vs. 52.7% (p N/A), for RRGS vs. surveillance, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: RRS in LS reduces the incidence of metachronous CRC and gynecological neoplasms, also indicating a reduction in all-cause mortality cumulative incidence in females undergoing RRGS.

6.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Germline CNVs are important contributors to hereditary cancer. In genetic diagnostics, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is commonly used to identify them. However, MLPA is time-consuming and expensive if applied to many genes, hence many routine laboratories test only a subset of genes of interest. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based CNV detection tool (DECoN) as first-tier screening to decrease costs and turnaround time and expand CNV analysis to all genes of clinical interest in our diagnostics routine. We used DECoN in a retrospective cohort of 1860 patients where a limited number of genes were previously analysed by MLPA, and in a prospective cohort of 2041 patients, without MLPA analysis. In the retrospective cohort, 6 new CNVs were identified and confirmed by MLPA. In the prospective cohort, 19 CNVs were identified and confirmed by MLPA, 8 of these would have been lost in our previous MLPA-restricted detection strategy. Also, the number of genes tested by MLPA across all samples decreased by 93.0% in the prospective cohort. CONCLUSION: Including an in silico germline NGS CNV detection tool improved our genetic diagnostics strategy in hereditary cancer, both increasing the number of CNVs detected and reducing turnaround time and costs.

7.
Eur J Cancer ; 141: 1-8, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is an inherited disorder with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancers (OC). Mutations in BRCA1-BRCA2 explains less than a half of cases. In the last decade several genes with different penetrance have been associated with an increased risk of BC or OC. A recurrent heterozygous ERCC3 truncating mutation increases the risk for breast cancer in patients with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. Our study aimed to investigate the role of ERCC3 truncating variants in a cohort of patients with suspicion of HBOC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ERCC3 screening by multigene-panel analysis in 1311 unrelated patients after our regional consensus for genetic testing in hereditary cancer was done. In addition, 453 Spanish cancer-free individuals and 51,343 GnomAD non-Finnish, non-cancer European individuals were used as control populations. RESULTS: We identified 13 patients with heterozygous ERCC3 truncating variants (0.99%). Five of them also carried a mutation in a high- /moderate-penetrance HBOC gene (BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53) being Multilocus Inherited Neoplasia Alleles syndrome (MINAS) patients. The frequency in 453 Spanish controls was of 0.22%; similar to that observed in 51,343 non-Finnish European GnomAD population (0.24%). We found an almost statistically significant association of truncating ERCC3 variants with BC (odds ratio [OR] = 2.25, confidence interval [CI] = 0.6-5.93, P = 0.11), and we observed for the first time a significant association with OC (OR = 4.74, CI = 1-14.34, P = 0.028), that holds even after removing MINAS cases. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest HBOC series comprehensively analysed for ERCC3 mutations, and the first study identifying ERCC3 as a cancer risk for OC.

8.
Gut ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Germline TP53 pathogenic (P) variants cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), an aggressive multitumor-predisposing condition. Due to the implementation of multigene panel testing, TP53 variants have been detected in individuals without LFS suspicion, for example, patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to decipher whether these findings are the result of detecting the background population prevalence or the aetiological basis of CRC. DESIGN: We analysed TP53 in 473 familial/early-onset CRC cases and evaluated the results together with five additional studies performed in patients with CRC (total n=6200). Control population and LFS data were obtained from Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD V.2.1.1) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) TP53 database, respectively. All variants were reclassified according to the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP), following the ClinGen TP53 Expert Panel specifications. RESULTS: P or likely pathogenic (LP) variants were identified in 0.05% of controls (n=27/59 095) and 0.26% of patients with CRC (n=16/6200) (p<0.0001) (OR=5.7, 95% CI 2.8 to 10.9), none of whom fulfilled the clinical criteria established for TP53 testing. This association was still detected when patients with CRC diagnosed at more advanced ages (>50 and>60 years) were excluded from the analysis to minimise the inclusion of variants caused by clonal haematopoiesis. Loss-of-function and missense variants were strongly associated with CRC as compared with controls (OR=25.44, 95% CI 6.10 to 149.03, for loss of function and splice-site alleles, and OR=3.58, 95% CI 1.46 to 7.98, for missense P or LP variants). CONCLUSION: TP53 P variants should not be unequivocally associated with LFS. Prospective follow-up of carriers of germline TP53 P variants in the absence of LFS phenotypes will define how surveillance and clinical management of these individuals should be performed.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003511

RESUMO

The use of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) immunohistochemistry (IHC) is not included in the colorectal cancer (CRC) screening algorithm to detect Lynch syndrome (LS) patients. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that EPCAM IHC is a useful tool to guide the LS germ-line analysis when a loss of MSH2 expression was present. We retrospectively studied MSH2 and EPCAM IHC in a large series of 190 lesions composed of malignant neoplasms (102), precursor lesions of gastrointestinal (71) and extra-gastrointestinal origin (9), and benign neoplasms (8) from different organs of 71 patients suspicious of being LS due to MSH2 alterations. LS was confirmed in 68 patients, 53 with MSH2 mutations and 15 with EPCAM 3'-end deletions. Tissue microarrays were constructed with human normal tissues and their malignant counterparts to assist in the evaluation of EPCAM staining. Among 154 MSH2-negative lesions, 17 were EPCAM-negative, including 10 CRC and 7 colorectal polyps, and 5 of them showed only isolated negative glands. All lesions showing a lack of EPCAM expression belonged to patients with EPCAM 3'-end deletions. EPCAM IHC is a useful screening tool, with 100% specificity to identify LS patients due to EPCAM 3'-end deletions in MSH2-negative CRC and MSH2-negative colorectal polyps.

10.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(12): 1453-1468, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011440

RESUMO

RNA analyses are a potent tool to identify spliceogenic effects of DNA variants, although they are time-consuming and cannot always be performed. We present splicing assays of 20 variants that represent a variety of mutation types in 10 hereditary cancer genes and attempt to incorporate these results into American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) classification guidelines. Sixteen single-nucleotide variants, 3 exon duplications, and 1 single-exon deletion were selected and prioritized by in silico algorithms. RNA was extracted from short-term lymphocyte cultures to perform RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing, and allele-specific expression was assessed whenever possible. Aberrant transcripts were detected in 14 variants (70%). Variant interpretation was difficult, especially comparing old classification standards to generic ACMG guidelines and a proposal was devised to weigh functional analyses at RNA level. According to the ACMG guidelines, only 12 variants were reclassified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic because the other two variants did not gather enough evidence. This study highlights the importance of RNA studies to improve variant classification. However, it also indicates the challenge of incorporating these results into generic ACMG guidelines and the need to refine these criteria gene specifically. Nevertheless, 60% of variants were reclassified, thus improving genetic counseling and surveillance for carriers of these variants.

11.
Hum Mutat ; 41(12): 2128-2142, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906215

RESUMO

CHEK2 variants are associated with intermediate breast cancer risk, among other cancers. We aimed to comprehensively describe CHEK2 variants in a Spanish hereditary cancer (HC) cohort and adjust the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines for their classification. First, three CHEK2 frequent variants were screened in a retrospective Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer cohort of 516 patients. After, the whole CHEK2 coding region was analyzed by next-generation sequencing in 1848 prospective patients with HC suspicion. We refined ACMG-AMP criteria and applied different combined rules to classify CHEK2 variants and define risk alleles. We identified 10 CHEK2 null variants, 6 missense variants with discordant interpretation in ClinVar database, and 35 additional variants of unknown significance. Twelve variants were classified as (likely)-pathogenic; two can also be considered "established risk-alleles" and one as "likely risk-allele." The prevalence of (likely)-pathogenic variants in the HC cohort was 0.8% (1.3% in breast cancer patients and 1.0% in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients). Here, we provide ACMG adjustment guidelines to classify CHEK2 variants. We hope that this study would be useful for variant classification of other genes with low effect variants.

12.
Cancer Discov ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737082

RESUMO

The SARS-Cov-2 pandemic significantly impacted on oncology practice across the globe. There is uncertainty as to the contribution of patients' demographics and oncological features on severity and mortality from Covid-19 and little guidance as to the role of anti-cancer and anti-Covid-19 therapy in this population. In a multi-center study of 890 cancer patients with confirmed Covid-19 we demonstrated a worsening gradient of mortality from breast cancer to haematological malignancies and showed that male gender, older age, and number of co-morbidities identifies a subset of patients with significantly worse mortality rates from Covid-19. Provision of chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy did not worsen mortality. Exposure to antimalarials was associated with improved mortality rates independent of baseline prognostic factors. This study highlights the clinical utility of demographic factors for individualized risk-stratification of patients and support further research into emerging anti-Covid-19 therapeutics in SARS-Cov-2 infected cancer patients.

13.
Genet Med ; 22(12): 2089-2100, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline pathogenic variants in the exonuclease domain (ED) of polymerases POLE and POLD1 predispose to adenomatous polyps, colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial tumors, and other malignancies, and exhibit increased mutation rate and highly specific associated mutational signatures. The tumor spectrum and prevalence of POLE and POLD1 variants in hereditary cancer are evaluated in this study. METHODS: POLE and POLD1 were sequenced in 2813 unrelated probands referred for genetic counseling (2309 hereditary cancer patients subjected to a multigene panel, and 504 patients selected based on phenotypic characteristics). Cosegregation and case-control studies, yeast-based functional assays, and tumor mutational analyses were performed for variant interpretation. RESULTS: Twelve ED missense variants, 6 loss-of-function, and 23 outside-ED predicted-deleterious missense variants, all with population allele frequencies <1%, were identified. One ED variant (POLE p.Met294Arg) was classified as likely pathogenic, four as likely benign, and seven as variants of unknown significance. The most commonly associated tumor types were colorectal, endometrial and ovarian cancers. Loss-of-function and outside-ED variants are likely not pathogenic for this syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Polymerase proofreading-associated syndrome constitutes 0.1-0.4% of familial cancer cases, reaching 0.3-0.7% when only CRC and polyposis are considered. ED variant interpretation is challenging and should include multiple pieces of evidence.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650523

RESUMO

We describe the outcomes in cancer patients during the initial outbreak of the COVID-19 in Europe from the retrospective, multi-center observational OnCovid study. We identified 204 cancer patients from eight centers in the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain aged > 18 (mean = 69) and diagnosed with COVID-19 between February 26th and April 1st, 2020. A total of 127 (62%) were male, 184 (91%) had a diagnosis of solid malignancy, and 103 (51%) had non-metastatic disease. A total of 161 (79%) had > 1 co-morbidity. A total of 141 (69%) patients had > 1 COVID-19 complication. A total of 36 (19%) were escalated to high-dependency or intensive care. A total of 59 (29%) died, 53 (26%) were discharged, and 92 (45%) were in-hospital survivors. Mortality was higher in patients aged > 65 (36% versus 16%), in those with > 2 co-morbidities (40% versus 18%) and developing > 1 complication from COVID-19 (38% versus 4%, p = 0.004). Multi-variable analyses confirmed age > 65 and > 2 co-morbidities to predict for patient mortality independent of tumor stage, active malignancy, or anticancer therapy. During the early outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Europe co-morbid burden and advancing age predicted for adverse disease course in cancer patients. The ongoing OnCovid study will allow us to compare risks and outcomes in cancer patients between the initial and later stages of the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1653-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635641

RESUMO

The causal mechanism for cancer predisposition in Lynch-like syndrome (LLS) remains unknown. Our aim was to elucidate the constitutional basis of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in LLS patients throughout a comprehensive (epi)genetic analysis. One hundred and fifteen LLS patients harboring MMR-deficient tumors and no germline MMR mutations were included. Mutational analysis of 26 colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated genes was performed. Pathogenicity of MMR variants was assessed by splicing and multifactorial likelihood analyses. Genome-wide methylome analysis was performed by the Infinium Human Methylation 450K Bead Chip. The multigene panel analysis revealed the presence of two MMR gene truncating mutations not previously found. Of a total of 15 additional MMR variants identified, five -present in 6 unrelated individuals- were reclassified as pathogenic. In addition, 13 predicted deleterious variants in other CRC-predisposing genes were found in 12 probands. Methylome analysis detected one constitutional MLH1 epimutation, but no additional differentially methylated regions were identified in LLS compared to LS patients or cancer-free individuals. In conclusion, the use of an ad-hoc designed gene panel combined with pathogenicity assessment of variants allowed the identification of deleterious MMR mutations as well as new LLS candidate causal genes. Constitutional epimutations in non-LS-associated genes are not responsible for LLS.

17.
iScience ; 23(7): 101296, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622267

RESUMO

Proper immune system function hinders cancer development, but little is known about whether genetic variants linked to cancer risk alter immune cells. Here, we report 57 cancer risk loci associated with differences in immune and/or stromal cell contents in the corresponding tissue. Predicted target genes show expression and regulatory associations with immune features. Polygenic risk scores also reveal associations with immune and/or stromal cell contents, and breast cancer scores show consistent results in normal and tumor tissue. SH2B3 links peripheral alterations of several immune cell types to the risk of this malignancy. Pleiotropic SH2B3 variants are associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. A retrospective case-cohort study indicates a positive association between blood counts of basophils, leukocytes, and monocytes and age at breast cancer diagnosis. These findings broaden our knowledge of the role of the immune system in cancer and highlight promising prevention strategies for individuals at high risk.

18.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517353

RESUMO

COVID-19, the illness caused by infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is a rapidly spreading global pandemic in urgent need of effective treatments. Here we present a comprehensive examination of the host- and virus-targeted functions of the flavonolignan silibinin, a potential drug candidate against COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2. As a direct inhibitor of STAT3-a master checkpoint regulator of inflammatory cytokine signaling and immune response-silibinin might be expected to phenotypically integrate the mechanisms of action of IL-6-targeted monoclonal antibodies and pan-JAK1/2 inhibitors to limit the cytokine storm and T-cell lymphopenia in the clinical setting of severe COVID-19. As a computationally predicted, remdesivir-like inhibitor of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)-the central component of the replication/transcription machinery of SARS-CoV-2-silibinin is expected to reduce viral load and impede delayed interferon responses. The dual ability of silibinin to target both the host cytokine storm and the virus replication machinery provides a strong rationale for the clinical testing of silibinin against the COVID-19 global public health emergency. A randomized, open-label, phase II multicentric clinical trial (SIL-COVID19) will evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin in the prevention of acute respiratory distress syndrome in moderate-to-severe COVID-19-positive onco-hematological patients at the Catalan Institute of Oncology in Catalonia, Spain.

19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(12): 1645-1655, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561899

RESUMO

Although germline copy-number variants (CNVs) are the genetic cause of multiple hereditary diseases, detecting them from targeted next-generation sequencing data (NGS) remains a challenge. Existing tools perform well for large CNVs but struggle with single and multi-exon alterations. The aim of this work is to evaluate CNV calling tools working on gene panel NGS data and their suitability as a screening step before orthogonal confirmation in genetic diagnostics strategies. Five tools (DECoN, CoNVaDING, panelcn.MOPS, ExomeDepth, and CODEX2) were tested against four genetic diagnostics datasets (two in-house and two external) for a total of 495 samples with 231 single and multi-exon validated CNVs. The evaluation was performed using the default and sensitivity-optimized parameters. Results showed that most tools were highly sensitive and specific, but the performance was dataset dependant. When evaluating them in our diagnostics scenario, DECoN and panelcn.MOPS detected all CNVs with the exception of one mosaic CNV missed by DECoN. However, DECoN outperformed panelcn.MOPS specificity achieving values greater than 0.90 when using the optimized parameters. In our in-house datasets, DECoN and panelcn.MOPS showed the highest performance for CNV screening before orthogonal confirmation. Benchmarking and optimization code is freely available at https://github.com/TranslationalBioinformaticsIGTP/CNVbenchmarkeR .

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7741, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385335

RESUMO

This study evaluates the impact of breast cancer (BC) in health related quality of life (HRQL) and in psychological distress (PD) during the initial phases of the disease and looks for contributing factors. A multicentric case-control study, EpiGEICAM, was carried out. Incident BC cases and age- and residence- matched controls were included. Clinical, epidemiological, HRQL (SF-36) and PD information (GHQ-28) was collected. We used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate OR of low HRQL and of PD in cases compared to controls, and to identify factors associated with low HRQL and with PD. Among 896 BC cases and 890 control women, cases had poorer scores than both, the reference population and the control group, in all SF-36 scales. BC women with lower education, younger, active workers, never smokers, those with comorbidities, in stage IV and with surgical treatment had lower physical HRQL; factors associated with low mental HRQL were dissatisfaction with social support, being current smoker and having children. Cases had a fivefold increased odds of PD compared to controls. Managing comorbidities and trying to promote social support, especially in younger and less educated women, could improve well-being of BC patients.

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