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1.
J Card Fail ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541741

RESUMO

AIMS: Metabolomic profiling may have diagnostic and prognostic value in heart failure. This study investigated whether targeted blood and urine metabolomics reflects disease severity in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients and compared its incremental value on top of NT-proBNP. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 149 metabolites were measured in plasma and urine samples of 273 DCM patients with different stages of disease (DCM patients with LVRR (normal LVEF), n=70; asymptomatic DCM, n=72 and symptomatic DCM, n=131). Acylcarnitines, sialic acid, and glutamic acid are the most distinctive metabolites associated with disease severity, as repeatedly revealed by uni-biomarker linear regression, sPLSDA, Random Forest and conditional Random Forest analyses. However, the absolute difference of the metabolic profile among groups was marginal. A decision tree model based on the top metabolites did not surpass NT-proBNP in classifying stages. However, a combination of NT-proBNP and the top metabolites improved the decision tree to distinguish DCM patients with LVRR from symptomatic DCM (AUC 0.813±0.138 versus 0.739±0.114; p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Functional cardiac recovery is reflected in metabolomics. These alterations reveal potential alternative treatment targets in advanced symptomatic DCM. The metabolic profile can complement NT-proBNP in determining disease severity in non-ischemic DCM.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498527

RESUMO

Idiopathic intestinal varicosis is a developmental disorder defined by dilated and convoluted submucosal veins in the colon or small bowel. A limited number of families with idiopathic intestinal varices has been reported, but the genetic cause has not yet been identified. We performed whole-exome and targeted Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in five intestinal varicosis families. In four families, mutations in the RPSA gene were found, a gene previously linked to congenital asplenia. Individuals in these pedigrees had intestinal varicose veins and angiodysplasia, often in combination with asplenia. In a further four-generation pedigree that only showed intestinal varicosities, the RPSA gene was normal. Instead, a nonsense mutation in the homeobox gene NKX2-3 was detected which cosegregated with the disease in this large family with a LOD (logarithm of the odds) score of 3.3. NKX2-3 is a component of a molecular pathway underlying spleen and gut vasculature development in mice. Our results provide a molecular basis for familial idiopathic intestinal varices. We provide evidence for a relationship between the molecular pathways underlying the development of the spleen and intestinal mucosal vasculature that is conserved between humans and mice. We propose that clinical management of intestinal varices, should include assessment of a functional spleen.

3.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The VACTERL (Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal anomalies, Limb abnormalities) association is the non-random occurrence of at least three of these congenital anomalies: vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheo-esophageal, renal, and limb anomalies. Diagnosing VACTERL patients is difficult, as many disorders have multiple features in common with VACTERL. The aims of this study were to clearly outline component features, describe the phenotypic spectrum among the largest group of VACTERL patients thus far reported, and to identify phenotypically similar subtypes. METHODS: A case-only study was performed assessing data on 501 cases recorded with VACTERL in the JRC-EUROCAT (Joint Research Centre-European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) central database (birth years: 1980-2015). We differentiated between major and minor VACTERL features and anomalies outside the VACTERL spectrum to create a clear definition of VACTERL. RESULTS: In total, 397 cases (79%) fulfilled our VACTERL diagnostic criteria. The most commonly observed major VACTERL features were anorectal malformations and esophageal atresia/tracheo-esophageal fistula (both occurring in 62% of VACTERL cases), followed by cardiac (57%), renal (51%), vertebral (33%), and limb anomalies (25%), in every possible combination. Three VACTERL subtypes were defined: STRICT-VACTERL, VACTERL-LIKE, and VACTERL-PLUS, based on severity and presence of additional congenital anomalies. CONCLUSION: The clearly defined VACTERL component features and the VACTERL subtypes introduced will improve both clinical practice and etiologic research.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 403-412, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303265

RESUMO

POU3F3, also referred to as Brain-1, is a well-known transcription factor involved in the development of the central nervous system, but it has not previously been associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report the identification of 19 individuals with heterozygous POU3F3 disruptions, most of which are de novo variants. All individuals had developmental delays and/or intellectual disability and impairments in speech and language skills. Thirteen individuals had characteristic low-set, prominent, and/or cupped ears. Brain abnormalities were observed in seven of eleven MRI reports. POU3F3 is an intronless gene, insensitive to nonsense-mediated decay, and 13 individuals carried protein-truncating variants. All truncating variants that we tested in cellular models led to aberrant subcellular localization of the encoded protein. Luciferase assays demonstrated negative effects of these alleles on transcriptional activation of a reporter with a FOXP2-derived binding motif. In addition to the loss-of-function variants, five individuals had missense variants that clustered at specific positions within the functional domains, and one small in-frame deletion was identified. Two missense variants showed reduced transactivation capacity in our assays, whereas one variant displayed gain-of-function effects, suggesting a distinct pathophysiological mechanism. In bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) interaction assays, all the truncated POU3F3 versions that we tested had significantly impaired dimerization capacities, whereas all missense variants showed unaffected dimerization with wild-type POU3F3. Taken together, our identification and functional cell-based analyses of pathogenic variants in POU3F3, coupled with a clinical characterization, implicate disruptions of this gene in a characteristic neurodevelopmental disorder.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the prevalence of systolic dysfunction using global longitudinal strain (GLS) and its prognostic value in relatives of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients that had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). BACKGROUND: DCM relatives are advised to undergo cardiac assessment including echocardiography, irrespective of the genetic status of the index patient. Even though LVEF is normal, the question remains whether this indicates absence of disease or simply normal cardiac volumes. GLS may provide additional information regarding (sub)clinical cardiac abnormalities and thus allow earlier disease detection. METHODS: A total of 251 DCM relatives and 251 control subjects with a normal LVEF (≥55%) were screened. Automated software measured the GLS on echocardiographic 2-, 3-, and 4-chamber views. The cutoff value for abnormal strain was >-21.5. Median follow-up was 40 months (interquartile range: 5 to 80 months). Primary outcome was the combination of death and cardiac hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 120 relatives and 83 control subjects showed abnormal GLS (48% vs. 33%, respectively; p < 0.001). Abnormal GLS was independently associated with DCM relatives and cardiovascular risk factors, rather than genetic mutations. Subjects with abnormal GLS had more frequent cardiac hospitalizations and a higher mortality as compared with subjects with normal GLS (hazard ratio: 3.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.58 to 6.87; p = 0.001). Additionally, follow-up LVEF was measured in a subset of relatives, and it decreased significantly in those with abnormal as compared with normal GLS (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Relatives of DCM patients had a significantly higher prevalence of systolic dysfunction detected by GLS despite normal LVEF compared with control subjects, independent of age, sex, comorbidities, and genotype. Abnormal GLS was associated with LVEF deterioration, cardiac hospitalization, and death.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136621

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anorectal malformations (ARM) are rare congenital malformations, resulting from disturbed hindgut development. A genetic etiology has been suggested, but evidence for the involvement of specific genes is scarce. We evaluated the contribution of rare and low-frequency coding variants in ARM etiology, assuming a multifactorial model. METHODS: We analyzed 568 Caucasian ARM patients and 1,860 population-based controls using the Illumina HumanExome Beadchip array, which contains >240,000 rare and low-frequency coding variants. GenomeStudio clustering and calling was followed by re-calling of 'no-calls' using zCall for patients and controls simultaneously. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed to identify statistically significant associations, applying Bonferroni correction. Following an extra quality control step, candidate variants were selected for validation using Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: When we applied a MAF of ≥1.0%, no variants or genes showed statistically significant associations with ARM. Using a MAF cut-off at 0.4%, 13 variants initially reached statistical significance, but had to be discarded upon further inspection: ten variants represented calling errors of the software, while the minor alleles of the remaining three variants were not confirmed by Sanger sequencing. CONCLUSION: Our results show that rare and low-frequency coding variants with large effect sizes, present on the exome chip do not contribute to ARM etiology.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 758-766, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929739

RESUMO

By using exome sequencing and a gene matching approach, we identified de novo and inherited pathogenic variants in KDM3B in 14 unrelated individuals and three affected parents with varying degrees of intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD) and short stature. The individuals share additional phenotypic features that include feeding difficulties in infancy, joint hypermobility, and characteristic facial features such as a wide mouth, a pointed chin, long ears, and a low columella. Notably, two individuals developed cancer, acute myeloid leukemia and Hodgkin lymphoma, in childhood. KDM3B encodes for a histone demethylase and is involved in H3K9 demethylation, a crucial part of chromatin modification required for transcriptional regulation. We identified missense and truncating variants, suggesting that KDM3B haploinsufficiency is the underlying mechanism for this syndrome. By using a hybrid facial-recognition model, we show that individuals with a pathogenic variant in KDM3B have a facial gestalt, and that they show significant facial similarity compared to control individuals with ID. In conclusion, pathogenic variants in KDM3B cause a syndrome characterized by ID, short stature, and facial dysmorphism.

9.
Curr Biol ; 29(1): 120-127.e5, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554901

RESUMO

One of the features that distinguishes modern humans from our extinct relatives and ancestors is a globular shape of the braincase [1-4]. As the endocranium closely mirrors the outer shape of the brain, these differences might reflect altered neural architecture [4, 5]. However, in the absence of fossil brain tissue, the underlying neuroanatomical changes as well as their genetic bases remain elusive. To better understand the biological foundations of modern human endocranial shape, we turn to our closest extinct relatives: the Neandertals. Interbreeding between modern humans and Neandertals has resulted in introgressed fragments of Neandertal DNA in the genomes of present-day non-Africans [6, 7]. Based on shape analyses of fossil skull endocasts, we derive a measure of endocranial globularity from structural MRI scans of thousands of modern humans and study the effects of introgressed fragments of Neandertal DNA on this phenotype. We find that Neandertal alleles on chromosomes 1 and 18 are associated with reduced endocranial globularity. These alleles influence expression of two nearby genes, UBR4 and PHLPP1, which are involved in neurogenesis and myelination, respectively. Our findings show how integration of fossil skull data with archaic genomics and neuroimaging can suggest developmental mechanisms that may contribute to the unique modern human endocranial shape.

10.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1719-1725, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568311

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The interpretation of genetic variants after genome-wide analysis is complex in heterogeneous disorders such as intellectual disability (ID). We investigate whether algorithms can be used to detect if a facial gestalt is present for three novel ID syndromes and if these techniques can help interpret variants of uncertain significance. METHODS: Facial features were extracted from photos of ID patients harboring a pathogenic variant in three novel ID genes (PACS1, PPM1D, and PHIP) using algorithms that model human facial dysmorphism, and facial recognition. The resulting features were combined into a hybrid model to compare the three cohorts against a background ID population. RESULTS: We validated our model using images from 71 individuals with Koolen-de Vries syndrome, and then show that facial gestalts are present for individuals with a pathogenic variant in PACS1 (p = 8 × 10-4), PPM1D (p = 4.65 × 10-2), and PHIP (p = 6.3 × 10-3). Moreover, two individuals with a de novo missense variant of uncertain significance in PHIP have significant similarity to the expected facial phenotype of PHIP patients (p < 1.52 × 10-2). CONCLUSION: Our results show that analysis of facial photos can be used to detect previously unknown facial gestalts for novel ID syndromes, which will facilitate both clinical and molecular diagnosis of rare and novel syndromes.

11.
Epilepsia ; 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is highly prevalent among patients with intellectual disability (ID), and seizure control is often difficult. Identification of the underlying etiology in this patient group is important for daily clinical care. We assessed the diagnostic yield of whole exome sequencing (WES). In addition, we evaluated which clinical characteristics influence the likelihood of identifying a genetic cause and we assessed the potential impact of the genetic diagnosis on (antiepileptic) treatment strategy. METHODS: One hundred patients with both unexplained epilepsy and (borderline) ID (intelligence quotient ≤ 85) were included. All patients were evaluated by a clinical geneticist, a (pediatric) neurologist, and/or a specialist ID physician. WES analysis was performed in two steps. In step 1, analysis was restricted to the latest versions of ID and/or epilepsy gene panels. In step 2, exome analysis was extended to all genes (so-called full exome analysis). The results were classified according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. RESULTS: In 58 patients, the diagnostic WES analysis reported one or more variant(s). In 25 of the 100 patients, these were classified as (likely) pathogenic, in 24 patients as variants of uncertain significance, and in the remaining patients the variant was most likely not related to the phenotype. In 10 of 25 patients (40%) with a (likely) pathogenic variant, the genetic diagnosis might have an impact on the treatment strategy in the future. SIGNIFICANCE: This study illustrates the clinical diagnostic relevance of WES for patients with both epilepsy and ID. It also demonstrates that implementing WES diagnostics might have impact on the (antiepileptic) treatment strategy in this population. Confirmation of variants of uncertain significance in (candidate) genes may further increase the yield.

12.
Circ Heart Fail ; 11(11): e005220, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improvement of left ventricular function (also called left ventricular reverse remodeling [LVRR]) is an important treatment goal in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypokinetic non-DCM (HNDC) and is prognostically favorable. We tested whether genetic DCM mutations impact LVRR independent from clinical parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with DCM and hypokinetic non-DCM (n=346; mean left ventricular ejection fraction, 30%) underwent genotyping for 47 DCM-associated genes in addition to extensive phenotyping. LVRR was defined as improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction >50% or ≥10% absolute increase, with cardiac dimensions (left ventricular end diastolic diameter) ≤33 mm/m2 or ≥10% relative decrease. LVRR occurred in 180 (52%) patients after a median follow-up of 12-month optimal medical treatment. Low baseline left ventricular ejection fraction, a hypokinetic non-DCM phenotype, high systolic blood pressure, absence of a family history of DCM, female sex, absence of atrioventricular block, and treatment with ß-blockers were all independent positive clinical predictors of LVRR. With the exception of TTN, genetic mutations were strongly associated with a lower rate of LVRR (odds ratio, 0.19 [0.09-0.42]; P<0.0001). TTN and LMNA were independently associated with LVRR (odds ratio, 2.49 [1.09-6.20]; P=0.038 and 0.11 [0.01-0.99]; P=0.049, respectively). Adding mutation status significantly improved discrimination (C statistics) and reclassification (integrated discrimination improvement/net reclassification index) of the clinical model predicting LVRR. Furthermore, the risk for heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular death is lower in the LVRR patients on the long term (hazard ratio, 0.47 [0.24-0.91]; P=0.009 and 0.18 [0.04-0.82]; P=0.007, respectively), and LVRR is an independent predictor for event-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic substrate is associated with the clinical course and long-term prognosis of patients with DCM/hypokinetic non-DCM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Feminino , Genótipo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Volume Sistólico/genética , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Remodelação Ventricular/genética , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420677

RESUMO

The phenotypic heterogeneity of Lamin A/C (LMNA) variants renders it difficult to classify them. As a consequence, many LMNA variants are classified as variant of unknown significance (VUS). A number of studies reported different types of visible nuclear abnormalities in LMNA-variant carriers, such as herniations, honeycomb-like structures and irregular Lamin staining. In this study, we used lamin A/C immunostaining and nuclear DAPI staining to assess the number and type of nuclear abnormalities in primary dermal fibroblast cultures of laminopathy patients and healthy controls. The total number of abnormal nuclei, which includes herniations, honeycomb-structures, and donut-like nuclei, was found to be the most discriminating parameter between laminopathy and control cell cultures. The percentage abnormal nuclei was subsequently scored in fibroblasts of 28 LMNA variant carriers, ranging from (likely) benign to (likely) pathogenic variant. Using this method, 27 out of 28 fibroblast cell cultures could be classified as either normal (n = 14) or laminopathy (n = 13) and no false positive results were obtained. The obtained specificity was 100% (CI 40-100%) and sensitivity 77% (46-95%). We conclude that assessing the percentage of abnormal nuclei is a quick and reliable method, which aids classification or confirms pathogenicity of identified LMNA variants causing formation of aberrant lamin A/C protein.

15.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.

16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291343

RESUMO

Clinical genomic sequencing can identify pathogenic variants unrelated to the initial clinical question, but of medical relevance to the patients and their families. With ongoing discussions on the utility of disclosing or searching for such variants, it is of crucial importance to obtain unbiased insight in the prevalence of these incidental or secondary findings, in order to better weigh potential risks and benefits. Previous studies have reported a broad range of secondary findings ranging from 1 to 9%, merely attributable to differences in study design, cohorts tested, sequence technology used and genes analyzed. Here, we analyzed WES data of 1640 anonymized healthy Dutch individuals to establish the frequency of medically actionable disease alleles in an outbred population of European descent. Our study shows that 1 in 38 healthy individuals (2.7%) has a (likely) pathogenic variant in one of 59 medically actionable dominant disease genes for which the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommends disclosure. Additionally, we identified 36 individuals (2.2%) to be a carrier of a recessive pathogenic disease allele. Whereas these frequencies of secondary findings are in line with what has been reported in the East-Asian population, the pathogenic variants are differently distributed across the 59 ACMG genes. Our results contribute to the debate on genetic risk factor screening in healthy individuals and the discussion whether the potential benefits of this knowledge and related preventive options, outweigh the risk of the emotional impact of the test result and possible stigmatization.

17.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1442-1451, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224647

RESUMO

The etiological spectrum of ultra-rare developmental disorders remains to be fully defined. Chromatin regulatory mechanisms maintain cellular identity and function, where misregulation may lead to developmental defects. Here, we report pathogenic variations in MSL3, which encodes a member of the chromatin-associated male-specific lethal (MSL) complex responsible for bulk histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation (H4K16ac) in flies and mammals. These variants cause an X-linked syndrome affecting both sexes. Clinical features of the syndrome include global developmental delay, progressive gait disturbance, and recognizable facial dysmorphism. MSL3 mutations affect MSL complex assembly and activity, accompanied by a pronounced loss of H4K16ac levels in vivo. Patient-derived cells display global transcriptome alterations of pathways involved in morphogenesis and cell migration. Finally, we use histone deacetylase inhibitors to rebalance acetylation levels, alleviating some of the molecular and cellular phenotypes of patient cells. Taken together, we characterize a syndrome that allowed us to decipher the developmental importance of MSL3 in humans.

18.
Hum Genet ; 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740699

RESUMO

Many genetic causes of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD/ID) are extremely rare, and robust discovery of these requires both large-scale DNA sequencing and data sharing. Here we describe a GeneMatcher collaboration which led to a cohort of 13 affected individuals harboring protein-altering variants, 11 of which are de novo, in MED13; the only inherited variant was transmitted to an affected child from an affected mother. All patients had intellectual disability and/or developmental delays, including speech delays or disorders. Other features that were reported in two or more patients include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, optic nerve abnormalities, Duane anomaly, hypotonia, mild congenital heart abnormalities, and dysmorphisms. Six affected individuals had mutations that are predicted to truncate the MED13 protein, six had missense mutations, and one had an in-frame-deletion of one amino acid. Out of the seven non-truncating mutations, six clustered in two specific locations of the MED13 protein: an N-terminal and C-terminal region. The four N-terminal clustering mutations affect two adjacent amino acids that are known to be involved in MED13 ubiquitination and degradation, p.Thr326 and p.Pro327. MED13 is a component of the CDK8-kinase module that can reversibly bind Mediator, a multi-protein complex that is required for Polymerase II transcription initiation. Mutations in several other genes encoding subunits of Mediator have been previously shown to associate with DD/ID, including MED13L, a paralog of MED13. Thus, our findings add MED13 to the group of CDK8-kinase module-associated disease genes.

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2064, 2018 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802345

RESUMO

Certain human traits such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) and congenital anomalies (CAs) are believed to be primarily genetic in origin. However, even after whole-genome sequencing (WGS), a substantial fraction of such disorders remain unexplained. We hypothesize that some cases of ND-CA are caused by aberrant DNA methylation leading to dysregulated genome function. Comparing DNA methylation profiles from 489 individuals with ND-CAs against 1534 controls, we identify epivariations as a frequent occurrence in the human genome. De novo epivariations are significantly enriched in cases, while RNAseq analysis shows that epivariations often have an impact on gene expression comparable to loss-of-function mutations. Additionally, we detect and replicate an enrichment of rare sequence mutations overlapping CTCF binding sites close to epivariations, providing a rationale for interpreting non-coding variation. We propose that epivariations contribute to the pathogenesis of some patients with unexplained ND-CAs, and as such likely have diagnostic relevance.

20.
Hum Mutat ; 39(7): 1014-1023, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688601

RESUMO

The role of disturbed chromatin remodeling in the pathogenesis of intellectual disability (ID) is well established and illustrated by de novo mutations found in a plethora of genes encoding for proteins of the epigenetic regulatory machinery. We describe mutations in the "SET nuclear proto-oncogene" (SET), encoding a component of the "inhibitor of histone acetyltransferases" (INHAT) complex, involved in transcriptional silencing. Using whole exome sequencing, four patients were identified with de novo mutations in the SET gene. Additionally, an affected mother and child were detected who carried a frameshift variant in SET. Four patients were found in literature. The de novo mutations in patients affected all four known SET mRNA transcripts. LoF mutations in SET are exceedingly rare in the normal population and, if present, affect only one transcript. The pivotal role of SET in neurogenesis is evident from in vitro and animal models. SET interacts with numerous proteins involved in histone modification, including proteins encoded by known autosomal dominant ID genes, that is, EP300, CREBBP, SETBP1, KMT2A, RAC1, and CTCF. Our study identifies SET as a new component of epigenetic regulatory modules underlying human cognitive disorders, and as a first member of the Nucleosome Assembly Protein (NAP) family implicated in ID.

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