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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the value of synchrotron-based phase contrast micro-CT in pulmonary vascular pathobiology. The micro-anatomy of the lung is complex with intricate branching patterns. Tissue sections are therefore difficult to interpret. Recruited intrapulmonary bronchopulmonary anastomoses (IBAs) have been described in several forms of pulmonary hypertension, including alveolar capillary dysplasia with misaligned pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV). Here, we examine paraffin-embedded tissue using this non-destructive method for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blocks of healthy and ACD/MPV lung tissue were used. Pulmonary and bronchial arteries in the ACD/MPV block had been pre-injected with dye. One section per block was stained and areas of interest were marked to allow precise beam-alignment during image acquisition at the X02DA TOMCAT beamline (Swiss Light Source). A 4x magnifying objective coupled to a 20 µm thick scintillating material and a sCMOS detector yielded the best trade-off between spatial resolution and field-of-view. A phase retrieval algorithm was applied and virtual tomographic slices and video clips of the imaged volumes were produced. Dye injections generated a distinct attenuation difference between vessels and surrounding tissue, facilitating segmentation and three-dimensional rendering. Histology and immunohistochemistry post-imaging offered complementary information. IBAs were confirmed in ACD/MPV and the MPVs were positioned like bronchial veins/venules. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the advantages of using synchrotron-based phase contrast micro-CT for three-dimensional characterization of pulmonary microvascular anatomy in paraffin-embedded tissue. Vascular dye injections add additional value. We confirm intra-pulmonary shunting in ACD/MPV and provide support for the hypothesis that MPVs are dilated bronchial veins/venules.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577861

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 45 susceptibility loci associated with lung cancer. Only less than SNPs, small insertions and deletions (INDELs) are the second most abundant genetic polymorphisms in the human genome. INDELs are highly associated with multiple human diseases, including lung cancer. However, limited studies with large-scale samples have been available to systematically evaluate the effects of INDELs on lung cancer risk. Here, we performed a large-scale meta-analysis to evaluate INDELs and their risk for lung cancer in 23,202 cases and 19,048 controls. Functional annotations were performed to further explore the potential function of lung cancer risk INDELs. Conditional analysis was used to clarify the relationship between INDELs and SNPs. Four new risk loci were identified in genome-wide INDEL analysis (1p13.2: rs5777156, Insertion, OR = 0.92, p = 9.10 × 10-8 ; 4q28.2: rs58404727, Deletion, OR = 1.19, p = 5.25 × 10-7 ; 12p13.31: rs71450133, Deletion, OR = 1.09, p = 8.83 × 10-7 ; and 14q22.3: rs34057993, Deletion, OR = 0.90, p = 7.64 × 10-8 ). The eQTL analysis and functional annotation suggested that INDELs might affect lung cancer susceptibility by regulating the expression of target genes. After conducting conditional analysis on potential causal SNPs, the INDELs in the new loci were still nominally significant. Our findings indicate that INDELs could be potentially functional genetic variants for lung cancer risk. Further functional experiments are needed to better understand INDEL mechanisms in carcinogenesis.

4.
Nat Med ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591602

RESUMO

An aim of molecular biomarkers is to stratify patients with cancer into disease subtypes predictive of outcome, improving diagnostic precision beyond clinical descriptors such as tumor stage1. Transcriptomic intratumor heterogeneity (RNA-ITH) has been shown to confound existing expression-based biomarkers across multiple cancer types2-6. Here, we analyze multi-region whole-exome and RNA sequencing data for 156 tumor regions from 48 patients enrolled in the TRACERx study to explore and control for RNA-ITH in non-small cell lung cancer. We find that chromosomal instability is a major driver of RNA-ITH, and existing prognostic gene expression signatures are vulnerable to tumor sampling bias. To address this, we identify genes expressed homogeneously within individual tumors that encode expression modules of cancer cell proliferation and are often driven by DNA copy-number gains selected early in tumor evolution. Clonal transcriptomic biomarkers overcome tumor sampling bias, associate with survival independent of clinicopathological risk factors, and may provide a general strategy to refine biomarker design across cancer types.

6.
Acta Oncol ; 58(8): 1079-1086, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230502

RESUMO

Background: Lung cancer patients have a risk of recurrence even after curatively intended surgery. Cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumor marker measurements are easily accessible through peripheral blood and could potentially identify patients with worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to examine ctDNA in pre-operative plasma and the role of tumor markers in pre-operative serum for their predictive potential on risk of tumor recurrence. Methods: Mutation analysis by 26-gene targeted sequencing was performed on 157 lung adenocarcinomas (ACs) from patients surgically treated at the Lund University Hospital 2005-2014. Of these, 58 tumors from patients in stages I-IIIA (34 stage I, 14 stage II and 10 stage III) with mutation(s) in EGFR, BRAF or KRAS were included. ctDNA from corresponding plasma (median 1.5 ml, range 1-1.6) was analyzed for one tumor-specific mutation in either of these three oncogenes using ultrasensitive IBSAFE droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). The tumor markers cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) were analyzed in corresponding serum with electrochemiluminiscence immunoassay. Results: 6/7 patients with ctDNA and 19/51 without detected ctDNA were diagnosed with recurrence (log-rank test p = .001). 8/10 patients with positive serum tumor markers and 17/47 without tumor markers were diagnosed with recurrence (log-rank test, p = .0002). Fifteen patients had positive ctDNA and/or tumor markers, 12 of these had recurrence (log-rank test, p < .0001). Conclusion: A combination of tumor markers and ctDNA single mutation detection in low-volume pre-operative blood samples is a promising prognostic test. Prediction of recurrent disease in surgically treated early stage lung cancer can likely be further improved by using larger volumes of blood.

7.
Lung Cancer ; 130: 50-58, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease with unique combinations of somatic molecular alterations in individual patients, as well as significant differences in populations across the world with regard to mutation spectra and mutation frequencies. Here we aim to describe mutational patterns and linked clinical parameters in a population-based NSCLC cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using targeted resequencing the mutational status of 82 genes was evaluated in a consecutive Swedish surgical NSCLC cohort, consisting of 352 patient samples from either fresh frozen or formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues. The panel covers all exons of the 82 genes and utilizes reduced target fragment length and two-strand capture making it compatible with degraded FFPE samples. RESULTS: We obtained a uniform sequencing coverage and mutation load across the fresh frozen and FFPE samples by adaption of sequencing depth and bioinformatic pipeline, thereby avoiding a technical bias between these two sample types. At large, the mutation frequencies resembled the frequencies seen in other western populations, except for a high frequency of KRAS hotspot mutations (43%) in adenocarcinoma patients. Worse overall survival was observed for adenocarcinoma patients with a mutation in either TP53, STK11 or SMARCA4. In the adenocarcinoma KRAS-mutated group poor survival appeared to be linked to concomitant TP53 or STK11 mutations, and not to KRAS mutation as a single aberration. Similar results were seen in the analysis of publicly available data from the cBioPortal. In squamous cell carcinoma a worse prognosis could be observed for patients with MLL2 mutations, while CSMD3 mutations were linked to a better prognosis. CONCLUSION: Here we have evaluated the mutational status of a NSCLC cohort. We could not confirm any survival impact of isolated driver mutations. Instead, concurrent mutations in TP53 and STK11 were shown to confer poor survival in the KRAS-positive adenocarcinoma subgroup.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5207, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914778

RESUMO

Accurate histological classification and identification of fusion genes represent two cornerstones of clinical diagnostics in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we present a NanoString gene expression platform and a novel platform-independent, single sample predictor (SSP) of NSCLC histology for combined, simultaneous, histological classification and fusion gene detection in minimal formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue. The SSP was developed in 68 NSCLC tumors of adenocarcinoma (AC), squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) histology, based on NanoString expression of 11 (CHGA, SYP, CD56, SFTPG, NAPSA, TTF-1, TP73L, KRT6A, KRT5, KRT40, KRT16) relevant genes for IHC-based NSCLC histology classification. The SSP was combined with a gene fusion detection module (analyzing ALK, RET, ROS1, MET, NRG1, and NTRK1) into a multicomponent NanoString assay. The histological SSP was validated in six cohorts varying in size (n = 11-199), tissue origin (early or advanced disease), histological composition (including undifferentiated cancer), and gene expression platform. Fusion gene detection revealed five EML4-ALK fusions, four KIF5B-RET fusions, two CD74-NRG1 fusion and three MET exon 14 skipping events among 131 tested cases. The histological SSP was successfully trained and tested in the development cohort (mean AUC = 0.96 in iterated test sets). The SSP proved successful in predicting histology of NSCLC tumors of well-defined subgroups and difficult undifferentiated morphology irrespective of gene expression data platform. Discrepancies between gene expression prediction and histologic diagnosis included cases with mixed histologies, true large cell carcinomas, or poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas with mucin expression. In summary, we present a proof-of-concept multicomponent assay for parallel histological classification and multiplexed fusion gene detection in archival tissue, including a novel platform-independent histological SSP classifier. The assay and SSP could serve as a promising complement in the routine evaluation of diagnostic lung cancer biopsies.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1319, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718697

RESUMO

Accurate diagnosis of histological type is important for therapy selection in lung cancer. Immunohistochemical (IHC) and histochemical stains are often used to complement morphology for definite diagnosis and are incorporated in the WHO classification. Our main aim was to compare different mucin stains and assess their value in relation to common IHC analyses in lung cancer diagnostics. Using tissue microarrays from 657 surgically treated primary lung cancers, we evaluated the mucin stains periodic acid-Schiff with diastase (PASD), alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff (ABPAS) and mucicarmine, and compared with the IHC markers p40, p63, cytokeratin 5, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), napsin A and cytokeratin 7. Ten or more cytoplasmic mucin inclusions in a tissue microarray core were seen in 51%, 48% and 31% of the 416 adenocarcinomas and 3%, 4% and 0.5% of the 194 squamous cell carcinomas with PASD, ABPAS and mucicarmine, respectively. Diagnostic pitfalls, such as entrapped benign epithelium, apoptotic/necrotic cells and glycogen, partly differed for the mucin stains. TTF-1 and napsin A IHC stainings had similar specificity but better sensitivity for adenocarcinoma than the mucin stains, but addition of PASD or ABPAS identified more tumors as adenocarcinomas (n = 8 and n = 10, respectively) than napsin A (n = 1) in cases with solid growth that were negative for TTF-1 and p40. We conclude that PASD and ABPAS have similar diagnostic performance and that these markers are of value in poorly differentiated cases. However, morphology and TTF-1 and p40 IHC staining is sufficient for correct diagnosis in most non-small cell lung cancers.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 935-942, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets are a critical element in coagulation and inflammation, and activated platelets are linked to cancer risk through diverse mechanisms. However, a causal relationship between platelets and risk of lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: We performed single and combined multiple instrumental variable Mendelian randomization analysis by an inverse-weighted method, in addition to a series of sensitivity analyses. Summary data for associations between SNPs and platelet count are from a recent publication that included 48,666 Caucasian Europeans, and the International Lung Cancer Consortium and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung data consisting of 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls to analyze associations between candidate SNPs and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Multiple instrumental variable analysis incorporating six SNPs showed a 62% increased risk of overall non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC; OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.27; P = 0.005] and a 200% increased risk for small-cell lung cancer (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.27-7.06; P = 0.01). Results showed only a trending association with NSCLC histologic subtypes, which may be due to insufficient sample size and/or weak effect size. A series of sensitivity analysis retained these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated platelet count and increased risk of lung cancer and provide evidence of possible antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention. IMPACT: These findings provide a better understanding of lung cancer etiology and potential evidence for antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention.

11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(4): 628-640, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639618

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Infiltration of T and B/plasma cells has been linked to NSCLC prognosis, but this has not been thoroughly investigated in relation to the expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Here, we determine the association of lymphocytes and PD-L1 with overall survival (OS) in two retrospective cohorts of operated NSCLC patients who were not treated with checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed death 1/PD-L1 axis. Moreover, we evaluate how PD-L1 positivity and clinicopathologic factors affect the prognostic association of lymphocytes. METHODS: Cluster of differentiation (CD) 3 (CD3)-, CD8-, CD4-, forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)-, CD20-, CD79A-, and immunoglobulin kappa constant (IGKC)-positive immune cells, and tumor PD-L1 positivity, were determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays (n = 705). Affymetrix data was analyzed for a patient subset, and supplemented with publicly available transcriptomics data (N = 1724). Associations with OS were assessed by Kaplan-Meier plots and uni- and multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: Higher levels of T and B plasma cells were associated with longer OS (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001, for CD8 and IGKC, respectively). Highly proliferative tumors with few lymphocytes had the worst outcome. No association of PD-L1 positivity with OS was observed in a nonstratified patient population; however, a significant association with shorter OS was observed in never-smokers (p = 0.009 and p = 0.002, 5% and 50% cutoff). Lymphocyte infiltration was not associated with OS in PD-L1-positive tumors (50% cutoff). The prognostic association of lymphocyte infiltration also depended on the patients' smoking history and histologic subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Proliferation, PD-L1 status, smoking history, and histology should be considered if lymphocyte infiltration is to be used as a prognostic biomarker.

12.
BMJ ; 364: k4981, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of prospectively measured circulating high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration and risk of lung cancer overall, by smoking status (never, former, and current smokers), and histological sub-type. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: 20 population based cohort studies in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 5299 patients with incident lung cancer, with individually incidence density matched controls. EXPOSURE: Circulating hsCRP concentrations in prediagnostic serum or plasma samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident lung cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: A positive association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer for current (odds ratio associated with a doubling in hsCRP concentration 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.13) and former smokers (1.09, 1.04 to 1.14) was observed, but not for never smokers (P<0.01 for interaction). This association was strong and consistent across all histological subtypes, except for adenocarcinoma, which was not strongly associated with hsCRP concentration regardless of smoking status (odds ratio for adenocarcinoma overall 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.01). The association between circulating hsCRP concentration and the risk of lung cancer was strongest in the first two years of follow-up for former and current smokers. Including hsCRP concentration in a risk model, in addition to smoking based variables, did not improve risk discrimination overall, but slightly improved discrimination for cancers diagnosed in the first two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smokers with higher circulating hsCRP concentrations had a higher risk of lung cancer overall. Circulating hsCRP concentration was not associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma. Circulating hsCRP concentration could be a prediagnostic marker of lung cancer rather than a causal risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
14.
Hum Pathol ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389437

RESUMO

Correct diagnosis of pulmonary tumors is essential for treatment decision and often rely on immunohistochemical markers. We stained tissue microarrays from resected primary lung cancer (n=665) and pulmonary metastases (n=425) for CK7, CK20, CDX2, CK5, p40, p63, TTF-1, napsin A, GATA3 and PAX8 to systematically assess the diagnostic value of these markers. Primary lung adenocarcinomas expressed TTF-1 in 90% and napsin A in 84% of the cases, while 10% were positive for p63, 7% for CDX2, 2% for CK20 and 2% for GATA3. Only 68% of the lung adenocarcinomas were positive for CK7, TTF-1 and napsin A and negative for all other markers. Primary lung squamous cell carcinomas expressed CK5, p40 and p63 in 94-97% of cases, while 44% were positive for CK7, 20% for GATA3, 7% for CDX2 and 3% for TTF-1. Rare cases expressed PAX8, CK20 or napsin A. Pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer were positive for CK20 in 83% and CDX2 in 99% of the cases. Rare cases expressed CK7, p63 or PAX8, while 4% expressed TTF-1. Pulmonary metastases of renal cell carcinomas were positive for PAX8 in 74%, napsin A in 7% and CK7 in 7% of the cases. Pulmonary metastases of breast cancer were positive for GATA3 in 93% and CK7 in 78% of the cases, while 15% expressed CK5. Information on expression and patterns of immunohistochemical markers facilitates histopathological diagnostics. Evidently, unusual immune profiles occur and may lead to incorrect diagnosis.

15.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2018 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30337714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that haem iron, which is found predominantly in red meat and increases endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, may be positively associated with lung cancer. The objective was to examine the relationship between haem iron intake and lung cancer risk using detailed smoking history data and serum cotinine to control for potential confounding. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 416,746 individuals from 10 countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident lung cancer (n = 3731) risk relative to haem iron, non-haem iron, and total dietary iron intake. A corresponding analysis was conducted among a nested subset of 800 lung cancer cases and 1489 matched controls for whom serum cotinine was available. RESULTS: Haem iron was associated with lung cancer risk, including after adjustment for details of smoking history (time since quitting, number of cigarettes per day): as a continuous variable (HR per 0.3 mg/1000 kcal 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.07), and in the highest versus lowest quintile (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.32; trend across quintiles: P = 0.035). In contrast, non-haem iron intake was related inversely with lung cancer risk; however, this association attenuated after adjustment for smoking history. Additional adjustment for serum cotinine did not considerably alter the associations detected in the nested case-control subset. CONCLUSIONS: Greater haem iron intake may be modestly associated with lung cancer risk.

16.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 150(6): 533-544, 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169783

RESUMO

Objectives: Immunohistochemical staining against thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is often used to distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma and pulmonary metastasis. Methods: TTF-1 expression was examined using the antibody clones 8G7G3/1, SPT24, and SP141 on tissue microarrays from 665 cases of resected lung cancers and 428 pulmonary metastases. Results: Most lung adenocarcinomas, 89%, 93%, and 93%, were positive with TTF-1 clones 8G7G3/1, SPT24, and SP141, respectively. The corresponding figures for lung squamous cell carcinomas were 0%, 6%, and 8%. In total, five (2%), 19 (7%), and 21 (8%) of the pulmonary metastases from colorectal adenocarcinomas were positive with clones 8G7G3/1, SPT24, and SP141, respectively. Other TTF-1-positive pulmonary metastases (n = 8) were thyroid, urothelial, pancreatic, small bowel, and cervix carcinomas. Conclusions: TTF-1 expression in lung cancer and pulmonary metastases differs between clones, with 8G7G3/1 being more specific but less sensitive compared with SPT24 and SP141.

17.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(11): 1676-1691, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A subgroup of lung adenocarcinoma shows neuroendocrine differentiation and expression of achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 1 (ASCL1), common to high-grade neuroendocrine tumors, small-cell lung cancer and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. METHODS: The aim of this study was to characterize clinical and molecular features of ASCL1-positive lung adenocarcinoma by using recent transcriptome profiling in multiple patient cohorts and genome-wide epigenetic profiling including data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. RESULTS: The ASCL1-positive subtype of lung adenocarcinoma developed preferentially in current or former smokers and usually did not harbor EGFR mutations. In transcriptome profiling, this subtype overlapped with the recently proposed proximal-proliferative molecular subtype. Gene expression profiling of ASCL1-positive cases suggested generally poor immune cell infiltration and none of the tumors were positive for programmed cell death ligand 1 protein expression. Genome-wide methylation analysis showed global DNA hypomethylation in ASCL1-positive cases. ASCL1 was associated with super-enhancers in ASCL1-positive lung adenocarcinoma cells, and ASCL1 silencing suppressed other super-enhancer-associated genes, suggesting that ASCL1 acts as a master transcriptional regulator. This was further reinforced by the essential roles of ASCL1 in cell proliferation, survival, and cell cycle control. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ASCL1 defines a subgroup of lung adenocarcinoma with distinct molecular features by driving super-enhancer-mediated transcriptional programs.

18.
J Pathol ; 246(2): 154-165, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876935

RESUMO

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a neuroendocrine tumour that exhibits rapid growth and metastatic spread. Although SCLC represents a prototypically undifferentiated cancer type, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, gene symbol NKX2-1), a master regulator for pulmonary epithelial cell differentiation and lung morphogenesis, is strongly upregulated in this aggressive cancer type. The aim of this study was to evaluate a functional role for TTF-1 in SCLC. We demonstrated that achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (ASCL1), an essential transcription factor for neuroendocrine differentiation, positively regulated TTF-1 in SCLC cell lines. Subsequently, we described genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) that were possibly controlled by TTF-1 and identified nuclear factor IB (NFIB), a recently characterised driver of SCLC progression, as a transcriptional target of TTF-1. Our findings shine light on a regulatory axis in SCLC consisting of ASCL1/TTF-1/NFIB that potentially contributes to the tumourigenesis of SCLC. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667169

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are attractive targets for immunotherapy. Recently, studies in animal models showed that treatment with an anti-TAM antibody directed against the scavenger receptor MARCO resulted in suppression of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Here we investigated the expression of MARCO in relation to other macrophage markers and immune pathways in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cohort (n = 352). MARCO, CD68, CD163, MSR1 and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, and associations to other immune cells and regulatory pathways were studied in a subset of cases (n = 199) with available RNA-seq data. We observed a large variation in macrophage density between cases and a strong correlation between CD68 and CD163, suggesting that the majority of TAMs present in NSCLC exhibit a protumor phenotype. Correlation to clinical data only showed a weak trend toward worse survival for patients with high macrophage infiltration. Interestingly, MARCO was expressed on a distinct subpopulation of TAMs, which tended to aggregate in close proximity to tumor cell nests. On the transcriptomic level, we found a positive association between MARCO gene expression and general immune response pathways including strong links to immunosuppressive TAMs, T-cell infiltration and immune checkpoint molecules. Indeed, a higher macrophage infiltration was seen in tumors expressing PD-L1, and macrophages residing within tumor cell nests co-expressed MARCO and PD-L1. Thus, MARCO is a potential new immune target for anti-TAM treatment in a subset of NSCLC patients, possibly in combination with available immune checkpoint inhibitors.

20.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(3): 336-346, 2018 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059373

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to lung carcinogenesis. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking status (never- versus ever-smokers) in a European-descent population. We adopted a two-step analysis strategy in the discovery stage: we first conducted a case-only interaction analysis to assess the relationship between SNPs and smoking behavior using 13336 non-small cell lung cancer cases. Candidate SNPs with P-value <0.001 were further analyzed using a standard case-control interaction analysis including 13970 controls. The significant SNPs with P-value <3.5 × 10-5 (correcting for multiple tests) from the case-control analysis in the discovery stage were further validated using an independent replication dataset comprising 5377 controls and 3054 non-small cell lung cancer cases. We further stratified the analysis by histological subtypes. Two novel SNPs, rs6441286 and rs17723637, were identified for overall lung cancer risk. The interaction odds ratio and meta-analysis P-value for these two SNPs were 1.24 with 6.96 × 10-7 and 1.37 with 3.49 × 10-7, respectively. In addition, interaction of smoking with rs4751674 was identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma with an odds ratio of 0.58 and P-value of 8.12 × 10-7. This study is by far the largest genome-wide SNP-smoking interaction analysis reported for lung cancer. The three identified novel SNPs provide potential candidate biomarkers for lung cancer risk screening and intervention. The results from our study reinforce that gene-smoking interactions play important roles in the etiology of lung cancer and account for part of the missing heritability of this disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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