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1.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(6): 677-681, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941488

RESUMO

The vaccination campaign against Sars-CoV-2 commenced in Italy at the end of December 2020. The first ones to receive the immunization against the virus were the health workers and the residents of nursing homes, following which the vaccine would be available for the entire population, beginning with the most vulnerable individuals. SARS-CoV2 vaccines have been demonstrated to be safe for the general population, although no data for patients with liver diseases or those having undergone liver transplantation are available so far. The present position statement AISF is an attempt to suggest, based on the published data on the impact of Sars-Cov-2 infection in patients with chronic liver disease, a possible priority for vaccination for this category of patients.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Hepatopatias , Risco Ajustado/métodos , /epidemiologia , /classificação , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Itália/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Transplante de Fígado , Segurança do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco , Transplantados , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
New Microbiol ; 44(2)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978193

RESUMO

Nocardia has always been considered a pathogen of the immunocompromised host, but recent evidence has also highlighted its role as a pathogen in the immunocompetent. We aim to assess the role of immunosuppression in the disease. We reviewed all the cases of infections due to Nocardia spp. in our center that occurred from 1 January 2012 to 30 September 2019. Patients were divided into three groups: typical immunocompromised (PLWHIV, solid organ or hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, individuals under immunosuppressive drugs), atypical immunocompromised (ongoing chronic diseases involving the lung, kidney, liver and diabetes) and immunocompetent. We identified 53 patients with an infection by Nocardia spp. Thirty-four (60.4%) of them were immunocompromised, 22 (64.7%) typical and 12 (35.3%) atypical immunocompromised. Nineteen (35.8%) were immunocompetent. The two conditions most frequently associated with infection were chronic lung disease (41.5%) and ongoing treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (33.9%). In our cohort a remarkable prevalence of nocardiosis in immunocompetent and atypical immunosuppressed patients was observed.

3.
Nat Med ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864052

RESUMO

Despite progress in clinical care for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1, population-wide interventions are still crucial to manage the pandemic, which has been aggravated by the emergence of new, highly transmissible variants. In this study, we combined the SIDARTHE model2, which predicts the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with a new data-based model that projects new cases onto casualties and healthcare system costs. Based on the Italian case study, we outline several scenarios: mass vaccination campaigns with different paces, different transmission rates due to new variants and different enforced countermeasures, including the alternation of opening and closure phases. Our results demonstrate that non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have a higher effect on the epidemic evolution than vaccination alone, advocating for the need to keep NPIs in place during the first phase of the vaccination campaign. Our model predicts that, from April 2021 to January 2022, in a scenario with no vaccine rollout and weak NPIs ([Formula: see text] = 1.27), as many as 298,000 deaths associated with COVID-19 could occur. However, fast vaccination rollouts could reduce mortality to as few as 51,000 deaths. Implementation of restrictive NPIs ([Formula: see text] = 0.9) could reduce COVID-19 deaths to 30,000 without vaccinating the population and to 18,000 with a fast rollout of vaccines. We also show that, if intermittent open-close strategies are adopted, implementing a closing phase first could reduce deaths (from 47,000 to 27,000 with slow vaccine rollout) and healthcare system costs, without substantive aggravation of socioeconomic losses.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response characterization represents a crucial issue for defining the role of immune protection against COVID-19. The aim of the study was to assess the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response in a cohort of COVID-19 convalescent patients and in a group of unexposed subjects. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response was quantified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 87 COVID-19 convalescent subjects (range 7-239 days after symptom onset) and 33 unexposed donors by ex vivo ELISpot assay. Follow-up of SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response was performed in ten subjects up to 12 months after symptom onset. The role of SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4 and CD8 T cells was characterized in a group of COVID-19 convalescent subjects. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies were determined in serum samples. RESULTS: In 14/33 (42.4%) unexposed donors and 85/87 (97.7%) COVID-19 convalescent subjects a positive result for at least one SARS-CoV-2 antigen was observed. A positive response was observed up to 12 months after COVID-19 infection (median 246 days after symptom onset; range 118-362 days). Of note, SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response seems to be mainly mediated by CD4 T cells. A weak positive correlation was observed between Spike-specific T-cell response and neutralizing antibody titre (p 0.0028; r2 = 0.2891) and positive SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response was observed in 8/9 (88.9%) COVID-19 convalescent subjects with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. DISCUSSION: Cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response in uninfected patients may be due to previous infections with other common coronaviruses. Our data suggest that long-term SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response might accompany a waning humoral response.

5.
Intern Emerg Med ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646508

RESUMO

Bedside lung ultrasound (LUS) can play a role in the setting of the SarsCoV2 pneumonia pandemic. To evaluate the clinical and LUS features of COVID-19 in the ED and their potential prognostic role, a cohort of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients underwent LUS upon admission in the ED. LUS score was derived from 12 fields. A prevalent LUS pattern was assigned depending on the presence of interstitial syndrome only (Interstitial Pattern), or evidence of subpleural consolidations in at least two fields (Consolidation Pattern). The endpoint was 30-day mortality. The relationship between hemogasanalysis parameters and LUS score was also evaluated. Out of 312 patients, only 36 (11.5%) did not present lung involvment, as defined by LUS score < 1. The majority of patients were admitted either in a general ward (53.8%) or in intensive care unit (9.6%), whereas 106 patients (33.9%) were discharged from the ED. In-hospital mortality was 25.3%, and 30-day survival was 67.6%. A LUS score > 13 had a 77.2% sensitivity and a 71.5% specificity (AUC 0.814; p < 0.001) in predicting mortality. LUS alterations were more frequent (64%) in the posterior lower fields. LUS score was related with P/F (R2 0.68; p < 0.0001) and P/F at FiO2 = 21% (R2 0.59; p < 0.0001). The correlation between LUS score and P/F was not influenced by the prevalent ultrasound pattern. LUS represents an effective tool in both defining diagnosis and stratifying prognosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. The correlation between LUS and hemogasanalysis parameters underscores its role in evaluating lung structure and function.

6.
Infez Med ; 29(1): 138-144, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664184

RESUMO

Patients with Corynebacterium striatum endocarditis are usually managed with long-term intravenous antibiotic therapy and hospitalization. Here we describe a case of a 76-year-old woman with hepatitis C virus (HCV) related cirrhosis who developed endocarditis due to Corynebacterium striatum associated with severe aortic regurgitation. To our knowledge, this is the first case to be successfully treated with an early switch to oral linezolid after three weeks of vancomycin. We performed a literature review using the PubMed database and found 27 cases which showed the enhanced virulence of this pathogen especially for long-term hospitalized patients with a frequent need of surgical treatment (44.4%) and long course of parenteral antimicrobial therapy, with vancomycin as drug of choice. There are no studies confirming the possibility of using oral treatment in non-diphtheritic Corynebacteria infective endocarditis. This case report provides us with the evidence that once the patient is in a stable condition, the efficacy and safety of linezolid might be similar to vancomycin administration. New trials and prospective studies are needed to confirm the opportunity of an early switch to oral therapy in this specific setting.

9.
Blood Adv ; 5(3): 662-673, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560382

RESUMO

This study examined the association between dynamic angiopoietin-2 assessment and COVID-19 short- and long-term clinical course. We included consecutive hospitalized patients from 1 February to 31 May 2020 with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 2 Italian tertiary referral centers (derivation cohort, n = 187 patients; validation cohort, n = 62 patients). Serum biomarker levels were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lung tissue from 9 patients was stained for angiopoietin-2, Tie2, CD68, and CD34. Cox model was used to identify risk factors for mortality and nonresolving pulmonary condition. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to assess the accuracy of 3- and 10-day angiopoietin-2 for in-hospital mortality and nonresolving pulmonary condition, respectively. Three-day angiopoietin-2 increase of at least twofold from baseline was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality by multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 6.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.85-24.19; P = .004) with AUROC = 0.845 (95% CI, 0.725-0.940). Ten-day angiopoietin-2 of at least twofold from baseline was instead significantly associated with nonresolving pulmonary condition by multivariate analysis (HR, 5.33; 95% CI, 1.34-11.77; P ≤ .0001) with AUROC = 0.969 (95% CI, 0.919-1.000). Patients with persistent elevation of 10-day angiopoietin-2 levels showed severe reticular interstitial thickening and fibrous changes on follow-up computed tomography scans. Angiopoietin-2 and Tie2 were diffusely colocalized in small-vessel endothelia and alveolar new vessels and macrophages. Angiopoietin-2 course is strongly associated with COVID-19 in-hospital mortality and nonresolving pulmonary condition. Angiopoietin-2 may be an early and useful predictor of COVID-19 clinical course, and it could be a relevant part of disease pathogenesis. Angiopoietin-2 blockade may be a COVID-19 treatment option.


Assuntos
Angiopoietina-2/sangue , /patologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , /mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Med (N Y) ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589885

RESUMO

Background: Monitoring the adaptive immune responses during the natural course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection provides useful information for the development of vaccination strategies against this virus and its emerging variants. We thus profiled the serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels and specific memory B- and T-cell responses in convalescent coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: Altogether 119 samples from 88 convalescent donors who experienced mild to critical disease were tested for the presence of elevated anti-spike and anti-receptor binding domain antibody levels over a period of eight months. In addition, level of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, specific memory B- and T-cell responses were tested in a subset of samples. Findings: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were present in 85% of the samples collected within 4 weeks after onset of symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Levels of specific IgM/IgA antibodies declined after 1 month while levels of specific IgG antibodies and plasma neutralizing activities remained relatively stable up to 6 months after diagnosis. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were still present, though at a significantly lower level, in 80% of the samples collected at 6-8 months after symptom onset. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory B- and T-cell responses developed with time and were persistent in all patients followed up till 6-8 months. Conclusions: Our data suggest that protective adaptive immunity following natural infection of SARS-CoV-2 might persist for at least 6-8 months, regardless of disease severity. Development of medium or long-term protective immunity through vaccination might thus be possible. Funding: EU-ATAC consortium, the Italian Ministry of Health and SciLife/KAW.

12.
Respir Med ; 179: 106341, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618080

RESUMO

The disease burden due to nontuberculous mycobacteria is growing worldwide, consequently to improved diagnostic abilities and an increase in the individuals at risk. Uncertainties exist about the right moment on which start treatment. We investigated the clinical features associated with starting an antimicrobial treatment in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease among Italian physicians involved in the field. We found that in real life predictors of starting antimicrobial treatment are quite adherent to international guidelines, with some uncertainties regarding the implication of immunosuppressive drugs.

13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1137, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441892

RESUMO

An accurate prediction of the clinical outcomes of European patients requiring hospitalisation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lacking. The aim of the study is to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and discharge in a cohort of Lombardy patients with COVID-19. All consecutive hospitalised patients from February 21st to March 30th, 2020, with confirmed COVID-19 from the IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Lombardy, Italy, were included. In-hospital mortality and discharge were evaluated by competing risk analysis. The Fine and Gray model was fitted in order to estimate the effect of covariates on the cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for in-hospital mortality and discharge. 426 adult patients [median age 68 (IQR 56 to 77 years)] were admitted with confirmed COVID-19 over a 5-week period; 292 (69%) were male. By 21 April 2020, 141 (33%) of these patients had died, 239 (56%) patients had been discharged and 46 (11%) were still hospitalised. Among these 46 patients, updated as of 30 May, 2020, 5 (10.9%) had died, 8 (17.4%) were still in ICU, 12 (26.1%) were transferred to lower intensity care units and 21 (45.7%) were discharged. Regression on the CIFs for in-hospital mortality showed that older age, male sex, number of comorbidities and hospital admission after March 4th were independent risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Older age, male sex and number of comorbidities definitively predicted in-hospital mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco
14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444411

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Validated tools for predicting individual in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 are lacking. We aimed to develop and to validate a simple clinical prediction rule for early identification of in-hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled 2191 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from three Italian dedicated units (derivation cohort: 1810 consecutive patients from Bergamo and Pavia units; validation cohort: 381 consecutive patients from Rome unit). The outcome was in-hospital mortality. Fine and Gray competing risks multivariate model (with discharge as a competing event) was used to develop a prediction rule for in-hospital mortality. Discrimination and calibration were assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and by Brier score in both the derivation and validation cohorts. Seven variables were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality: age (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.08, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.07-1.09), male sex (HR 1.62, 95%CI 1.30-2.00), duration of symptoms before hospital admission <10 days (HR 1.72, 95%CI 1.39-2.12), diabetes (HR 1.21, 95%CI 1.02-1.45), coronary heart disease (HR 1.40 95% CI 1.09-1.80), chronic liver disease (HR 1.78, 95%CI 1.16-2.72), and lactate dehydrogenase levels at admission (HR 1.0003, 95%CI 1.0002-1.0005). The AUC was 0.822 (95%CI 0.722-0.922) in the derivation cohort and 0.820 (95%CI 0.724-0.920) in the validation cohort with good calibration. The prediction rule is freely available as a web-app (COVID-CALC: https://sites.google.com/community.unipa.it/covid-19riskpredictions/c19-rp). CONCLUSIONS: A validated simple clinical prediction rule can promptly and accurately assess the risk for in-hospital mortality, improving triage and the management of patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , /isolamento & purificação
15.
Neuropediatrics ; 52(2): 142-145, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472248

RESUMO

Toxocarosis is the consequence of human infection by Toxocara spp. larvae and is one of the most common ascarioses, not only in developing countries, but also in the European region, where its prevalence reaches 14%. Due to their particular behavior, children are at higher risk of this parasitic infection, whose clinical features depend on the localization of the Toxocara larvae. Neurotoxocariasis is very uncommon in children and may take different forms depending on the underlying physiopathologic process: immune reaction against the parasite antigens, vasculitis, treatment complications, or, very rarely, brain localization of Toxocara spp. larvae. The association between neurotoxocariasis and the onset of childhood epilepsy has been postulated but is still debated. Moreover, a Toxocara spp. abscess causing epileptic seizures in children has been rarely described, especially in western countries. Hereby we present a 9-year-old patient with a new diagnosis of epilepsy definitely secondary to brain abscess due to the localization of Toxocara canis larvae. Diagnosis was confirmed by neuroimaging and serological test. The successful treatment with albendazole and steroids was documented with a close and long-term clinical and neuroradiological follow-up. Our experience confirms that every case of cryptogenetic epilepsy in children deserves a neuroimaging study and, in case of cystic images, Toxocara serology is mandatory to avoid further unnecessary invasive diagnostic investigations and to set the specific drug therapy.

18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 315-319, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The immunologic profile and opportunistic viral DNA increase were monitored in Italian patients with COVID-19 in order to identify markers of disease severity. METHODS: A total of 104 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 were evaluated in the study. Of them, 42/104 (40.4%) were hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU) and 62/104(59.6%) in a sub-intensive care unit (SICU). Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Parvovirus B19 and Human Herpesvirus 6 virus reactivations were determined by real-time PCR, and lymphocyte subpopulation counts were determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Among opportunistic viruses, only EBV was consistently detected. EBV DNA was observed in 40/42 (95.2%) of the ICU patients and in 51/61 (83.6%) of the SICU patients. Comparing the two groups of patients, the EBV DNA median level among ICU patients was significantly higher than that observed in SICU patients. In parallel, a significant reduction of CD8 T cell and NK count in ICU patients as compared with SICU patients was observed (p<0.05). In contrast, B cell count was significantly increased in ICU patients (p=0.0172). CONCLUSIONS: A correlation between reduced CD8+ T cells and NK counts, EBV DNA levels and COVID-19 severity was observed. Other opportunistic viral infections were not observed. The relationship between EBV load and COVID-19 severity should be further evaluated in longitudinal studies.


Assuntos
/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Células Matadoras Naturais/virologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Oportunistas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
19.
J Viral Hepat ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306247

RESUMO

In routine clinical practice, HCV-infected patients can prematurely discontinue the prescribed regimen for several reasons. The aim of our study was to investigate sustained virological response (SVR12) rates in patients who prematurely discontinued directly acting antiviral (DAA) regimens and to assess the shortest effective duration of DAA able to lead to SVR12. We retrospectively collected the SVR rates of patients, registered in the NAVIGATORE-Lombardia Network database from January 2015, who discontinued DAAs before the pre-defined end of treatment. Overall, we included 365 patients, males were the majority (213, 58.4%), mean age was 60.5 years and 53 (14.5%) patients were HIV-coinfected. Liver cirrhosis was observed in 251 (68.8%) subjects and the most represented genotypes were 1b (n=168, 46%) and 3 (n=59, 16.2%). DAA were discontinued a median of 1 (IQR 1-4) weeks before the pre-defined EOT, with 164 (44.9%) patients stopping DAAs at least two weeks before the planned schedule. In patients with F0-F3 liver fibrosis, lower rates of SVR12 were observed in patients treated for <4 weeks: 50% (n=2/4) vs 99.1% (n=109/110) for ≥4 weeks, p=0.003. In patients with liver cirrhosis, lower rates of SVR12 were observed in patients treated <8 weeks: 83.3%(n=25/30) vs 94.6%(n=209/221) for ≥8 weeks, p=0.038. Despite premature discontinuation of DAA, high SVR12 rates were observed in a real-life setting for treatment lasting at least 4 weeks in patients with liver fibrosis F0-F3 and 8 weeks in those with liver cirrhosis. On this basis, feasibility of reducing DAA treatment duration should be explored in randomized clinical trials.

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